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Battle of Wagram

The Battle of Wagram was a military engagement of the Napoleonic Wars that ended in a costly but decisive victory for Emperor Napoleon I's French and allied army against the Austrian army under the command of Archduke Charles of Austria-Teschen. The battle led to the breakup of the Fifth Coalition, the Austrian and British-led alliance against France. In 1809, the French military presence in Germany was diminished as Napoleon transferred a number of soldiers to fight in the Peninsular War; as a result, the Austrian Empire saw its chance to recover some of its former sphere of influence and invaded the Kingdom of Bavaria, a French ally. Recovering from his initial surprise, Napoleon beat the Austrian forces and occupied Vienna at the beginning of May 1809. Despite the string of sharp defeats and the loss of the empire's capital, Archduke Charles salvaged an army, with which he retreated north of the Danube; this allowed the Austrians to continue the war. Towards the end of May, Napoleon resumed the offensive, suffering a surprise defeat at the Battle of Aspern-Essling.

It took Napoleon six weeks to prepare his next offensive, for which he amassed a 172,000-man French and Italian army in the vicinity of Vienna. The Battle of Wagram began after Napoleon crossed the Danube with the bulk of these forces during the night of 4 July and attacked the 136,000-man strong Austrian army. Having crossed the river, Napoleon attempted an early breakthrough and launched a series of evening attacks against the Austrian army; the Austrians were thinly spread in a wide semicircle, but held a strong position. After the attackers enjoyed some initial success, the defenders regained the upper hand and the attacks failed. Bolstered by his success, the next day at dawn Archduke Charles launched a series of attacks along the entire battle line, seeking to take the opposing army in a double envelopment; the offensive nearly broke Napoleon's left. However, the Emperor countered by launching a cavalry charge, which temporarily halted the Austrian advance, he redeployed IV Corps to stabilise his left, while setting up a grand battery, which pounded the Austrian right and centre.

The tide of battle turned and the Emperor launched an offensive along the entire line, while Maréchal Louis-Nicolas Davout drove an offensive, which turned the Austrian left, rendered Charles's position untenable. Towards mid-afternoon on 6 July, Charles admitted defeat and led a retreat, frustrating enemy attempts to pursue. After the battle, Charles decided to retreat to Bohemia. However, the Grande Armée caught up with him and scored a victory at the Battle of Znaim. With the battle still raging, Charles decided to ask for an armistice ending the war. With 80,000 casualties, the two-day battle of Wagram was bloody due to the use of 1,000 artillery pieces and the expenditure of over 180,000 rounds of artillery ammunition on a flat battlefield packed with some 300,000 men. Although Napoleon was the uncontested winner, he failed to secure an overwhelming victory and the Austrian casualties were only greater than those of the French and allies. Nonetheless, the defeat was serious enough to shatter the morale of the Austrians, who could no longer find the will to continue the struggle.

The resulting Treaty of Schönbrunn meant the loss of one sixth of the Austrian Empire's subjects, along with some territories, rendering it landlocked until the German Campaign of 1813. After the battle, Emperor Napoleon bestowed to Louis-Alexandre Berthier, his Marshal, Chief of Staff and Vice-Constable of the Empire, the victory title of 1st Prince of Wagram, making him an official member of the French nobility. Berthier had been granted the title of Sovereign Prince of Neuchâtel and the Prince of Valangin in 1806; this allowed his descendants to carry the titles of Princess of Wagram. In 1809, the First French Empire held a dominant position on the European continent. Resounding victories during the 1805 to 1807 wars against the Third and Fourth coalitions had ensured undisputed continental hegemony, to such an extent that no other European power could challenge the might of Napoleon's empire. However, despite having defeated Austria, forced Russia into an uneasy alliance and reduced Prussia to the rank of a second-rate power, Napoleon did not manage to force the United Kingdom to make peace.

With the British in complete control of the seas, Napoleon thus opted for an economic war, imposing the Continental System against the British Isles, in a bid to dry up vital British commercial relations with the continent. To ensure the effectiveness of the Continental System, he sought to force Portugal, a traditional British trading partner, to observe it. In a move that would prove to be both uninspired and ill-handled, Napoleon opted to change the ruling dynasty of Spain, replacing King Charles IV with his own brother, who became King José I of Spain; the new king was, not well received by the population and much of the country's ruling elite, which triggered a bloody guerrilla war throughout the country. The French position in the peninsula was rendered untenable after the Battle of Bailen, a rare and resounding defeat for the French forces and an event that encouraged the Austrian war party. With Napoleon forced to intervene and commit significant forces to the Spanish, the French military position in central Europe was weakened.

In addition, Franco-Russian relations had deteriorated and, althoug

Teramo Cathedral

Teramo Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Teramo, central Italy, dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary and to Saint Berardo, patron saint of the city. It is the seat of the Bishop of Teramo-Atri. Built in Romanesque-Gothic style, it was consecrated in 1176; the church was begun in 1158, by order of bishop Guido II of Teramo, in order to house the relics of Saint Berardo after the destruction of the former cathedral of Teramo, Santa Maria Aprutensis, by Robert of Loritello in 1155. The edifice was finished in Romanesque style and consecrated in 1176, it had two aisles and a raised presbytery. Most it had an external narthex. Part of the stone was taken from amphitheatre. In 1331-1335 bishop Niccolò degli Arcioni had the building extensively modified; the northern part was extended, starting from the three apses. The new section was misaligned; the addition was in Gothic style with slender ogival arcades, is located at the same level as the old presbytery. It has a separate façade with a blind door.

A new portal was added, decorated with Cosmatesque mosaics, dated 1332 and signed by the Roman master Deodato. The portal is flanked by two columns supported by lions. In the middle of the architrave is Niccolò degli Arcioni's coat of arms, between those of Atri and Teramo; the current shape of the new façade, the Ghibelline merlons, are most later additions. In the late 15th century a triangular Gothic tympanum was placed over the portal, housing niches with statues. On the right is the large bell tower; this was built in the 14th and 15th centuries. In the 18th century the church was modified to adapt it to Baroque style; the columns and the six Romanesque spans were replaced by two cupolas supported by piers. The original medieval appearance of the church was restored in the 1930s. Artworks in the church include the silver antependium of the high altar, a masterwork by Nicola da Guardagriele, who worked on it with his workshop from 1433 to 1448; this antependium replaced a previous one of precious quality, stolen in 1416 during the troubles following the death of King Ladislaus of Naples.

It is formed by 35 silver sheets in repoussé, placed in four horizontal rows on a wooden base, which are connected at the corners by 22 colorful enamelled tesserae, all within a silver frame added in 1734. The central sheet depicts the Redeemer. Notable is the large polyptych executed in the late 15th century by Jacobello del Fiore, it shows, in the center, Christ crowned by the Virgin. Other artworks include a 14th-century wooden crucifix and the Madonna of the Master of Santa Caterina Gualino. Johnson, M. J.. "The cathedral of Teramo and its expressions of secular episcopal powers." Studi Medievali. 3° série. 31, pp. 193–206. Savini, Francesco. Il duomo di Teramo: storia e descrizione corredate di documenti e di XIX tavole fototipiche. Roma: Forzani e C. Tipografi del Senato. Il Duomo di Teramo e i suoi tesori d'arte. Pescara: Carsa. 1993. Teramo Cathedral in the Diocese of Teramo-Atri website

Wojciech Murdzek

Wojciech Piotr Murdzek – is a Polish politician, from 2002 to 2014 president of Świdnica and member of the Sejm. In 1976 he finished his education at the II Liceum in Świdnica, in 1981 he finished his studies at the economic department of the Wrocław Polytechnic, where he completed post-diploma studies in microprocessor technics. Next, he worked as a constructor at ZEM Elmot, was a director at Procter & Gamble. From 1990-1998 he was a vice president of the Świdnica town council, he served as starost of the Świdnica powiat. In 2002 he won the elections for president of Świdnica in the second round. In the next elections on the 12 of November 2006 he started with the support of the „Świdnicka Wspólnota Samorządowa”, capturing 56,97% of the vote. In 2010 he won reelection. In 2014 he lost in the second round to Beata Moskal-Słaniewska. Nonetheless he was elected to the council of the Świdnica Powiat. In the 2015 elections he ran for the Sejm from the Law and Justice list as an independent representative of Poland Together.

He won a seat in the sejm with 5758 votes. In November 2017 he joined Agreement -a party formed from the transformation of Poland Together, becoming the leader in his Wałbrzych district. In May 2018 he was nominated as a candidate for the Law and Justice list for president of Świdnica in the local elections that year, yet Jacek Drobny became the party's nominee. In July 20, 2018 he became a member of a commission in charge of VAT extortion. In 2019 he won reelection. Since December 5th 2019 Vice Minister of Development, he is married and has 2 children - Natalia and Wiktora