Battle of Zama

The Battle of Zama—fought in 202 BC near Zama —marked the end of the Second Punic War. A Roman army led by Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, with crucial support from Numidian leader Masinissa, defeated the Carthaginian army led by Hannibal Barca. After defeating Carthaginian and Numidian armies at the battles of Utica and the Great Plains, Scipio imposed peace terms on the Carthaginians, who had no choice but to accept them. At the same time they recalled their general Hannibal's army from Italy. Confident in Hannibal's forces, the Carthaginians broke the armistice with Rome. Scipio and Hannibal confronted each other near Zama Regia. Hannibal had 36,000 infantry to Scipio's 29,000. One-third of Hannibal's army were citizen levies and the Romans had 6,100 cavalry to Carthage's 4,000, as most of the Numidian cavalry that Hannibal had employed with great success in Italy had defected to the Romans. Hannibal employed 80 war elephants; the elephants opened the battle by charging the main Roman army.

Scipio's soldiers drove them off with missiles. The Roman and Numidian cavalry subsequently defeated the Carthaginian cavalry and chased them from the battlefield. Hannibal's first line of mercenaries were defeated; the second line of citizen levies and the mercenaries' remnants assaulted and inflicted heavy losses on the Roman first line. The Roman second line pushed back the Carthaginian assault. Hannibal's third line of veterans, reinforced by the citizen levies and mercenaries, faced off against the Roman army, redeployed into a single line; the combat was fierce and evenly matched. Scipio's cavalry returned to the battle and attacked Hannibal's army in the rear and destroying it; the Carthaginians lost 8,500 -- 20,000 captured. Scipio lost 4,000 -- 1,500 -- 2,500 Romans and 2,500 Numidians, killed. Defeated on their home ground, the Carthaginian ruling elite sued for peace and accepted humiliating terms, ending the 17-year war. Crossing the Alps, Hannibal reached the Italian peninsula in 218 BC and won several major victories against the Roman armies.

The Romans failed to defeat him in the field and he remained in Italy, but following Scipio's decisive victory at the Battle of Ilipa in Spain in 206 BC, Iberia had been secured by the Romans. In 205 BC Scipio returned to Rome. Scipio, now powerful enough, proposed to end the war by directly invading the Carthaginian homeland; the Senate opposed this ambitious design of Scipio, persuaded by Quintus Fabius Maximus that the enterprise was far too hazardous. Scipio and his supporters convinced the Senate to ratify the plan, Scipio was given the requisite authority to attempt the invasion. Scipio received no levy troops, he sailed to Sicily with a group of 7,000 heterogeneous volunteers, he was authorized to employ the regular forces stationed in Sicily, which consisted of the remnants of the 5th and 6th Legion, exiled to the island as a punishment for the humiliation they suffered at the Battle of Cannae. Scipio continued to reinforce his troops with local defectors, he landed at Utica and defeated the Carthaginian army at the Battle of the Great Plains in 203 BC.

The panicked Carthaginians felt that they had no alternative but to offer peace to Scipio and him, having the authority to do so, granted peace on generous terms. Under the treaty, Carthage could keep its African territory but would lose its overseas empire, by that time a fait-accompli. Masinissa was to be allowed to expand Numidia into parts of Africa. Carthage was to reduce its fleet and pay a war indemnity; the Roman Senate ratified the treaty. The Carthaginian senate recalled Hannibal, still in Italy when Scipio landed in Africa, in 203 BC. Meanwhile, the Carthaginians breached the armistice agreement by capturing a stranded Roman fleet in the Gulf of Tunis and stripping it of supplies; the Carthaginians no longer believed a treaty advantageous, rebuffed it under much Roman protest. Hannibal led an army composed of Spanish mercenaries, Gallic allies, local citizens and veterans and Numidian cavalry from his Italian campaigns. Scipio led a pre-Marian Roman army quincunx, along with a body of Numidian cavalry.

The battle took place near Siliana 130 km southwest of Tunis. Hannibal was first to march and reach the plains of Zama Regia, which were suitable for cavalry maneuvering; this gave an edge in turn to Scipio, who relied on his Roman heavy cavalry and Numidian light cavalry. Hannibal deployed his troops facing northwest, while Scipio deployed his troops in front of the Carthaginian army facing southeast. Hannibal's army consisted of 36,000 infantry, 4,000 cavalry and 80 war elephants, while Scipio had a total of 29,000 infantry and 6,100 cavalry. Putting his cavalry on the flanks, with the inexperienced Carthaginian cavalry on the right and the Numidians on the left, Hannibal aligned the rest of his troops in three straight lines behind his elephants; the first line consisted of mixed infantry of mercenaries from Gaul and the Balearic Islands. In his second line he placed the Carthaginian and Libyan citizen levies, while his veterans from Italy, including mercenaries from Gaul and Hispania, were placed in the third line.

Hannibal intentionally held back his third infantry line, in order to thwart Scipio's tendency to pin the Carthaginian center and envelop his opponent's lines, as he had done at the Battle of Ilipa. Livy states, their presence is discounted as Roman propaganda, although T. Dorey suggests that there may be a grain of truth h

Jack Santino

Jack Santino, Ph. D. is an academic folklorist. He is a Professor of Popular Culture at Bowling Green State University and is Director of the Bowling Green Center for Culture Studies, his work has focused on ritual and holidays as well as occupational culture and popular music. He has been a featured expert on a television special produced by The History Channel, about Hallowe'en. Along with Paul Wagoner, Santino produced Miles of Smiles, Years of Struggle a film, winner of four regional Emmy Awards on African American Pulman car unionisation. From 1996 to 2000 Santino was the editor of the Journal of American Folklore. During 2002-3 Santino was the President of the American Folklore Society, he was born in Boston, Massachusetts on August 1, 1947. He received a bachelor's degree in English at Boston College, he studied Folklore at the University of Pennsylvania, where he earned his Ph. D. in 1978. His thesis was entitled "The outlaw emotions: workers' narratives from three contemporary occupations".

He has nine published books listed in WorldCat. He has three children: Ian and Hannah. 2005: Spontaneous Shrines and Public Memorializations of Death, New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 2003: Holidays, Festival and Public Display, Biblioteca de Estudios Norteamericanos, 7. Alcalá de Henares: Universidad de Alcalá. 2001: Signs of War and Peace: Social Conflict and the Use of Public Symbols in Northern Ireland, New York: Palgrave. 1998: The Hallowed Eve: Dimensions of Culture in a Calendar Festival in Northern Ireland. Irish literature and culture, Lexington, Ky: University Press of Kentucky. 1998: Miles of Smiles, Years of Struggle: Stories of Black Pullman Porters. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. 1996: New Old-Fashioned Ways: Holidays and Popular Culture, Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. 1994: Halloween and Other Festivals of Death and Life, Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. 1994: All Around the Year: Holidays and Celebrations in American Life, Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

1985: Healing and Religion, Los Angeles, Calif: California Folklore Society. Bowling Green State University Department of Popular Culture

Of Feline Bondage

Of Feline Bondage is a Tom and Jerry cartoon released in 1965, directed and produced by Chuck Jones, with animation by Ben Washam, Ken Harris, Don Towsley, Tom Ray and Dick Thompson. In some ways, the cartoon revisits elements of the 1947 short The Invisible Mouse and the 1950 short Cue Ball Cat, both of which were directed by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera; the title of the cartoon alludes to the novel Of Human Bondage by Somerset Maugham, the better-known 1964 film of the same name. This is the only Tom and Jerry cartoon written by Don Towsley, the only one he wrote with Chuck Jones. Story: Don Towsley & Chuck Jones Animation: Ben Washam, Ken Harris, Don Towsley, Tom Ray & Dick Thompson Backgrounds: Robert Gribbroek Vocal Effects: June Foray, Mel Blanc & William Hanna In Charge of Production: Les Goldman Co-Director & Layouts: Maurice Noble Music: Eugene Poddany Produced & Directed by Chuck Jones Jerry runs in the house's pool room and into a can that Tom is holding. Tom starts shaking the can tips poor Jerry out against the wall, turning the mouse into a cube.

Jerry pops back to normal and runs along near the pool table, inadvertently running up a cue stick placed by Tom, onto a cue ball on one of the tables. Tom shoots and breaks the cue ball into the rack until Jerry gets bopped on the head by the cue ball; the 8-ball lands right next to Jerry, following him around the table and into his hole, where it squashes Jerry flat. Jerry shrugs in misery until his fairy godmother heals him of his injury. Jerry acts out the situation in front of her, they exchange evil grins, as Jerry thanks her she disappears. He pokes his head out of his hole, where he sees cheese attached to a fishing rod held by Tom. Jerry drinks the potion, which renders him invisible, leaves his hole unseen, he unties the line and takes the cheese while Tom looks on in wonder, dropping the rod. As the cat lies down with his face near the mouse hole, Jerry grabs the line at the end of the rod and, lassoing Tom's nose, loops the line over his neck, pulling his nose up. Tom looks in astonishment before the mouse ties Tom's tail in a knot and comes around the corner carrying a pair of scissors.

Seeing the blades snipping in his direction, Tom screams, escapes the fishing line and rockets up to the attic, while the scissors cut off his tail hairs. Tom hides behind a trunk in the attic. Hearing a sound, he pokes his head out and has enough time to look in horror before the scissors cut off half of his whiskers. Jerry scissors Tom's scalp bald. Tom rockets down the hides in a vase, with only his tail sticking out. Clipping sounds are heard, Tom brings his tail down to see that the end has been cut into a fir tree-like pattern; the invisible mouse dives into the vase with the scissors, the vase bounces around the floor cracking while hairs shoot out. The vase comes to a stop and breaks to reveal Tom, with his remaining whiskers cut short, his arms and legs shaved, his chest and pelvis shaved to resemble gray shorts and a white tank top. With a sour look, he adjusts his left "shoulder strap". Invisible Jerry laughs at his handiwork, holding the scissors, but the potion wears off, rendering him visible again.

Tom grins wickedly before he holds out a mirror at Jerry. Jerry slows laughing as he realizes. Tom grabs Jerry and the scissors and cuts off most of Jerry's fur, leaving him looking like he's got pigtails and wearing a bikini; as Tom laughs at his handiwork, Jerry joins in upon seeing his reflection. After a few seconds of mutual laughter, Jerry poses seductively; this is too much for Tom. Both he and Jerry roll on the floor in hysterics, they stop and look at each other, continue to roll on the floor laughing as the cartoon closes. Of Feline Bondage at The Big Cartoon DataBase Of Feline Bondage on IMDb