Moravia is a historical region in the Czech Republic and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The medieval and early modern Margraviate of Moravia was a crown land of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, an imperial state of the Holy Roman Empire a crown land of the Austrian Empire and also one of 17 former crown lands of the Cisleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1867 to 1918. During the early 20th century, Moravia was one of the five lands of Czechoslovakia from 1918 to 1928. Moravia has an area of over 22,000 km2 and about 3 million inhabitants, 2/7 or 30% of the whole Czech Republic; the statistics from 1921 states, that the whole area of Moravia including the enclaves in Silesia covers 22,623.41 km2. The people are named Moravians, a subgroup of Czechs; the land takes its name from the Morava river, which rises in the northern tip of the region and flows southward to the opposite end, being its major stream. Moravia's largest city and historical capital is Brno.
Before being sacked by the Swedish army during the Thirty Years' War, Olomouc was another capital. Though abolished by an administrative reform in 1949, Moravia is still acknowledged as a specific land in the Czech Republic. Moravian people are aware of their Moravian identity and there is some rivalry between them and the Czechs from Bohemia; the region and former margraviate of Moravia, Morava in Czech, is named after its principal river Morava. It is theorized that the river's name is derived from Proto-Indo-European *mori: "waters", or indeed any word denoting water or a marsh; the German name for Moravia is Mähren, again from the river's German name March. Interestingly, this might hint at a different etymology, as march is a term used in the Medieval times for an outlying territory, a border or a frontier. Moravia occupies most of the eastern part of the Czech Republic. Moravian territory is strongly determined, in fact, as the Morava river basin, with strong effect of mountains in the west and in the east, where all the rivers rise.
Moravia occupies an exceptional position in Central Europe. All the highlands in the west and east of this part of Europe run west-east, therefore form a kind of filter, making north-south or south north movement more difficult. Only Moravia with the depression of the westernmost Outer Subcarpathia, 14–40 kilometers wide, between the Bohemian Massif and the Outer Western Carpathians, provides a comfortable connection between the Danubian and Polish regions, this area is thus of great importance in terms of the possible migration routes of large mammals – both as regards periodically recurring seasonal migrations triggered by climatic oscillations in the prehistory, when permanent settlement started. Moravia borders Bohemia in the west, Lower Austria in the south, Slovakia in the southeast, Poland shortly in the north, Czech Silesia in the northeast, its natural boundary is formed by the Sudetes mountains in the north, the Carpathians in the east and the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands in the west.
The Thaya river meanders along the border with Austria and the tripoint of Moravia and Slovakia is at the confluence of the Thaya and Morava rivers. The northeast border with Silesia runs along the Moravice and Ostravice rivers. Between 1782–1850, Moravia included a small portion of the former province of Silesia – the Austrian Silesia. Today Moravia including the South Moravian Region, the Zlín Region, vast majority of the Olomouc Region, southeastern half of the Vysočina Region and parts of the Moravian-Silesian and South Bohemian regions. Geologically, Moravia covers a transitive area between the Bohemian Massif and the Carpathians, between the Danube basin and the North European Plain, its core geomorphological features are three wide valleys, namely the Dyje-Svratka Valley, the Upper Morava Valley and the Lower Morava Valley. The first two form the westernmost part of the Outer Subcarpathia, the last is the northernmost part of the Vienna Basin; the valleys surround the low range of Central Moravian Carpathians.
The highest mountains of Moravia are situated on its northern border in Hrubý Jeseník, the highest peak is Praděd. Second highest is the massive of Králický Sněžník the third are the Moravian-Silesian Beskids at the east, with Smrk, south from here Javorníky; the White Carpathians along the southeastern border rise up to 970 m at Velká Javořina. The spacious, but moderate Bohemian-Moravian Highlands on the west reach 837 m at Javořice; the fluvial system of Moravia is cohesive, as the region border is similar to the watershed of the Morava river, thus the entire area is drained by a single stream. Morava's far biggest tributaries are Thaya from Bečva. Morav
Frederick the Great
Frederick II ruled the Kingdom of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king. His most significant accomplishments during his reign included his military victories, his reorganization of Prussian armies, his patronage of the arts and the Enlightenment and his final success against great odds in the Seven Years' War. Frederick was the last Hohenzollern monarch titled King in Prussia and declared himself King of Prussia after achieving sovereignty over most Prussian lands in 1772. Prussia had increased its territories and became a leading military power in Europe under his rule, he became known as Frederick the Great and was nicknamed Der Alte Fritz by the Prussian people and the rest of Germany. In his youth, Frederick was more interested in philosophy than the art of war. Nonetheless, upon ascending to the Prussian throne he attacked Austria and claimed Silesia during the Silesian Wars, winning military acclaim for himself and Prussia. Toward the end of his reign, Frederick physically connected most of his realm by acquiring Polish territories in the First Partition of Poland.
He was an influential military theorist whose analysis emerged from his extensive personal battlefield experience and covered issues of strategy, tactics and logistics. Considering himself "the first servant of the state", Frederick was a proponent of enlightened absolutism, he modernized the Prussian bureaucracy and civil service and pursued religious policies throughout his realm that ranged from tolerance to segregation. He reformed the judicial system and made it possible for men not of noble status to become judges and senior bureaucrats. Frederick encouraged immigrants of various nationalities and faiths to come to Prussia, although he enacted oppressive measures against Polish Catholic subjects in West Prussia. Frederick supported arts and philosophers he favored as well as allowing complete freedom of the press and literature. Frederick is buried at Sanssouci in Potsdam; because he died childless, Frederick was succeeded by his nephew, Frederick William II, son of his brother, Augustus William.
Nearly all 19th-century German historians made Frederick into a romantic model of a glorified warrior, praising his leadership, administrative efficiency, devotion to duty and success in building up Prussia to a great power in Europe. Historian Leopold von Ranke was unstinting in his praise of Frederick's "heroic life, inspired by great ideas, filled with feats of arms... immortalized by the raising of the Prussian state to the rank of a power". Johann Gustav Droysen was more extolling. Frederick remained an admired historical figure through the German Empire's defeat in World War I; the Nazis glorified him as a great German leader pre-figuring Adolf Hitler, who idolized him. Associations with him became far less favorable after the fall of the Nazis due to his status as one of their symbols. However, by the 21st century a re-evaluation of his legacy as a great general and enlightened monarch returned opinion of him to favour. Frederick, the son of Frederick William I and his wife, Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, was born in Berlin on 24 January 1712.
He was baptised with only one name and was not given any other names. The birth of Frederick was welcomed by his grandfather, Frederick I, with more than usual pleasure, as his two previous grandsons had both died in infancy. With the death of his father in 1713, Frederick William became King in Prussia, thus making young Frederick the crown prince; the new king wished for his daughters to be educated not as royalty, but as simple folk. He had been educated by a Frenchwoman, Madame de Montbail, who became Madame de Rocoulle, he wished that she educate his children. Frederick William I, popularly dubbed as the Soldier-King, had created a large and powerful army led by his famous "Potsdam Giants" managed his treasury finances and developed a strong, centralized government. However, he possessed a violent temper and ruled Brandenburg-Prussia with absolute authority; as Frederick grew, his preference for music and French culture clashed with his father's militarism, resulting in Frederick William beating and humiliating him.
In contrast, Frederick's mother Sophia was polite and learned. Her father, George Louis of Brunswick-Lüneburg, succeeded to the British throne as King George I in 1714. Frederick was brought up by Huguenot governesses and tutors and learned French and German simultaneously. In spite of his father's desire that his education be religious and pragmatic, the young Frederick, with the help of his tutor Jacques Duhan, procured for himself a three thousand volume secret library of poetry and Roman classics, French philosophy to supplement his official lessons. Although Frederick William I was raised a Calvinist, he feared. To avoid the possibility of Frederick being motivated by the same concerns, the king ordered that his heir not be taught about predestination. Although Frederick was irreligious, he to some extent appeared to adopt this tenet of Calvinism; some scholars have speculated. In the mid-1720s, a double marriage was proposed. Queen Sophia Dorothea attempted to arrange Frederick and his sister Wilhelmine with Amelia and Frederick, the children of her brother, King George II of Great Britain.
Fearing an alliance between Prussia and Great Britain, Field Marshal von Seckendorff, the Austrian ambassador in Berlin, bribed the Prussian Minister of War, Field Marshal von Grumbkow, the Prussian ambassador in Lon
Battle of Leuthen
The Battle of Leuthen was fought on 5 December 1757, at which Frederick the Great's Prussian army used maneuver and terrain to decisively defeat a much larger Austrian force commanded by Prince Charles of Lorraine and Count Leopold Joseph von Daun. The victory ensured Prussia control of Silesia during the Third Silesian War; the battle was fought at the Silesian town of Leuthen, 10 kilometers northwest of Breslau. By exploiting the training of his troops and his superior knowledge of the terrain, Frederick created a diversion at one end of the battlefield, moved most of his small army behind a series of low hillocks; the surprise attack in oblique order on the unsuspecting Austrian flank baffled Prince Charles. Within seven hours, the Prussians destroyed the Austrian force, erasing any advantage the Austrians had gained throughout the campaigning in the preceding summer and autumn. Within 48 hours, Frederick had laid siege to Breslau, which resulted in that city's surrender on 19–20 December.
Leuthen was the last battle at which Prince Charles commanded the Austrian Army, before his sister-in-law, Empress Maria Theresa, appointed him as governor of the Habsburg Netherlands and placed Leopold Joseph von Daun in command of the army. The battle established beyond doubt Frederick's military reputation in European circles. After Rossbach, the French had refused to participate further in Austria's war with Prussia. Although the Seven Years' War was a global conflict, it acquired a specific intensity in the European theater as a result of the competition between Frederick II of Prussia, known as Frederick the Great, Maria Theresa of Austria, their rivalry dated from 1740, upon her ascension, Frederick had attacked and annexed the prosperous province of Silesia. The 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which concluded War of the Austrian Succession between Prussia and Maria Theresa's allies, awarded Silesia to Prussia. Empress Maria Theresa had signed the treaty to gain time to rebuild her military forces and forge new alliances.
She intended to reacquire Silesia. France sought to break the British dominance of Atlantic trade. In 1754, escalating tensions between Britain and France in North America offered the Empress the opportunity to regain her lost territories and to limit Prussia's growing power. France and Austria put aside their old rivalry to form a coalition of their own; that drove Britain to align herself with the King of Prussia. This series of political manoeuvrers became known as the Diplomatic Revolution; when war broke out in 1756, Frederick overran Saxony campaigned in Bohemia. There he defeated the Austrians on 6 May 1757 at the Battle of Prague. Learning that French forces had invaded his ally's territory of Hanover, Frederick moved west. On 5 November 1757, an infantry regiment of about 1,000 men and 1,500 of his cavalry defeated the combined French and Austrian force of 30,000 at the Battle of Rossbach in a 90-minute battle. In his absence, the Austrians had managed to retake Silesia: the Empress's brother-in-law, Prince Charles, took the city of Schweidnitz and moved on Breslau in lower Silesia.
While heading back to Silesia, Frederick learned of the fall of Breslau in late November. He and his 22,000 men covered 274 km in 12 days and, at Liegnitz, joined up with the Prussian troops who had survived the fighting at Breslau; the augmented army of about 33,000 troops arrived near Leuthen, 27 km west of Breslau, to find 66,000 Austrians in possession. Most of Lower Silesia is a rolling plain of fertile land, it includes alluvial soils near Breslau and in river valleys, mixed with more sandy soils. Located between the Oder river and the foot of the Sudeten Mountains, its mild climate, fertile soils and extensive water network made it a coveted agricultural resource. In the area northwest of Breslau, the absence of steep hills made observation of an approaching enemy easy, the relative flatness limited hiding maneuvers; the presence of alluvial soils guaranteed soft ground – not as soft as Frederick would face at Kunersdorf in 1758, but soft enough to provide the occasional natural bogs to bar the passage of troops in some locations, or to muffle the sound of marching and horses' hooves.
The area around Leuthen included several hamlets and villages: principally, about 5.6 km north. A roadway connected the villages of Borna and Lissa with Breslau, across the Oder river and its tributaries. Aware of Frederick's approach and his second in command, Count Leopold Joseph von Daun, positioned the army facing west on a 8 km front in country of undulating plains; the Prince deployed his troops in two lines, the right wing at his northernmost point, anchored at Nippern. Leuthen served as the Austrian center. Charles established his command post there, using a church tower as his ob
Battle of Domstadtl
The Battle of Domstadtl spelled Domstadt, Czech Domašov, was a battle between Habsburg Monarchy and Kingdom of Prussia at a Moravian village Domašov nad Bystřicí during the Third Silesian War on 30 June 1758, preceded by a minor clash at Guntramovice on 28 June. Austrians under the command of Major General Ernst Gideon von Laudon and Major General Joseph von Siskovits attacked and destroyed a supply convoy bound for the Prussian army besieging Olomouc; the Austrian victory saved the city and the Prussian King Frederick the Great was forced to leave Moravia. Frederick the Great invaded Moravia in the beginning of May 1758 and besieged the fortified city of Olomouc, he hoped that the Austrian army would come to help the fortress and the Prussians would defeat them in a big battle at the place of their choice. If the Austrian army did not come, he could conquer the fortress in a short time and use it as a base for defending Silesia and increasing pressure on Vienna. Austrian Field Marshal Leopold Joseph von Daun knew the strength of the Prussian army and therefore avoided a decisive clash.
Instead the Austrians concentrated on attacking the Prussian supply lines and causing them damage in minor skirmishes. The defenders of the Olomouc fortress struggled bravely and held much longer than Frederick had expected. Although by June it was on the edge of being taken, with the defensive walls destroyed by cannons in two places, the Prussians needed new supplies to be able to continue the fight. Frederick was afraid that many separate, small convoys protected by small forces could be captured by the Austrians and he therefore decided that one huge convoy guarded by a large, strong force should be sent; the supplies for the convoy were collected in Silesia and at the end of June it arrived in the territory of Moravia. The convoy was so big, it contained about 4,000 wagons loaded with military materiel and accompanied by about 2,500 head of cattle. As it set out on its way, it stretched 45 km long; the convoy was protected by 10,870 soldiers, commanded by Colonel Wilhelm von Mosel. The strongest part was cavalry consisting of 1,341 men.
As soon as Field Marshal Daun learned about the convoy, he decided it had to be stopped and destroyed. The task was given to Joseph von Siskovits. Laudon awaited the enemy at a small village in northern Moravia. Siskovits, who had lost his way in woods, was supposed to arrive in two days; this was quite a problem for Laudon, because his four infantry battalions, a regiment of dragoons, a regiment of hussars, an artillery battery and a troop of frontier guards had only about 6,000 men. Despite that he decided to attack the Prussians because Olomouc was near and there was no time for waiting, he knew that five battalions of 20,000 Prussian soldiers commanded by Lieutenant-General Hans Joachim von Zieten were rushing towards the convoy to help Mosel. The convoy arrived on 28 June early in the morning; the Austrians started shooting at the front wagons. One Prussian battalion forged ahead in order to find out the strength of the enemy, but they were routed by the Austrian artillery; the Prussians formed artillery batteries on their side of the road and started shooting.
They tried to attack the Austrian positions in the hilly terrain several times, but they were always forced back. The fight took about five hours but the Prussians started to dominate the battleground and Laudon ordered his men to retreat towards Moravský Beroun, which they did without any problems, because Mosel did not have enough cavalry to chase them. Although Laudon retreated and did not manage to destroy the convoy, his losses were much smaller than the Prussian ones. However, the most precious thing that he gained was time. Nowadays some historians point out that the Prussians had a chance to succeed if they had sacrificed some of the dispersed wagons and rushed to Olomouc. However, neither Mosel nor Zieten, who reached the convoy several hours after the clash, knew about Siskovits' approaching forces, therefore they decided to devote some time to rearranging the convoy and repairing some damage, they continued on 30 June early in the morning. Meanwhile, the Austrians prepared for a new attack.
They chose an open place between Domašov nad Bystřicí and Nová Véska, surrounded by hills and woods, ideal for an ambush. Siskovits' troops arrived on the scene first and waited for the enemy in the woods on the left side of the road. Laudon was supposed to come from Moravský Beroun in the middle of the fight, attack from the opposite side, thus increasing the chaos among the Prussian soldiers. First the vanguard consisting of 4,850 soldiers and 250 wagons arrived. Austrian artillery started the fight when the main body of the convoy was passing, which caused enormous chaos among the wagons. Siskovits' infantry was fighting with Prussian soldiers despite being outnumbered 3 to 1, when Laudon's troops appeared from the other side the result of the battle was determined. After 7 hours of fight the Prussian convoy was routed. Although the total number of fighting Austrian soldiers was 12,000, they lost only about 600 of them; the Prussian casualties were much higher. The Austrians claimed about 2,000 killed, injured or missing soldiers and 1,450 captured, while Prussians reported only 2,701 killed, injured and captured soldiers altogether, although they admitted that they found it dif
Battle of Krefeld
The Battle of Krefeld was a battle fought on 23 June 1758 between a Prussian-Hanoverian army and a French army during the Seven Years' War. The Hanoverian army led by Ferdinand, brother of the duke of Brunswick, had driven the French led by the Comte de Clermont back across the Rhine. Ferdinand's own army had crossed to the left bank of the Rhine and was now in a position to threaten the frontier of France itself; the Battle of Rheinberg fought on 12 June proved indecisive. Clermont, who had replaced the Duc de Richelieu in command of the French army, was attempting to stem Ferdinand's advance, he chose a defensive line on the south side of a walled canal running east and west. Thus the walled canal constituted a sort of natural fortification that Clermont thought would be easy to defend; the allied Prussian and Hanoverian troops led by the Duke of Brunswick seized the initiative attacking the entrenched defensive French forces. After feigning an attack against Clermont's own right flank, Ferdinand executed a wide flanking march, crossing the canal out of sight of the French and emerging from a wooded area on Clermont's left flank.
Clermont, who had just sat down for a midday meal, was late in sending reinforcements and, as a result, his left flank was crushed. The Comte de Gisors, the popular, only child of the French minister of war, the Duc de Belle-Isle, was mortally wounded while charging at the head of the French Carabiniers; the Comte de St. Germain, who commanded the French left wing, was able to put together a sufficient defense to prevent a complete rout, the French army retired from the field in good order; the Erbprinz, son of the Duke of Brunswick who would die of wounds received at the battle of Jena during the Napoleonic Wars distinguished himself commanding the allied flanking troops. Clermont asked to be relieved of his command after this defeat, his wish was granted, he was succeeded in command by Marshal de Contades. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Flag". Encyclopædia Britannica. 10. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 454–463. Ripley, George. "Flag". The American Cyclopædia. 8. P. 250. "The Vinkhuijzen collection of military uniforms: France, 1750-1757".
New York Public Library. 25 March 2011. Archived from the original on 8 March 2013
Bohemia is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic. In a broader meaning, Bohemia sometimes refers to the entire Czech territory, including Moravia and Czech Silesia in a historical context, such as the Lands of the Bohemian Crown ruled by Bohemian kings. Bohemia was a duchy of Great Moravia an independent principality, a kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire, subsequently a part of the Habsburg Monarchy and the Austrian Empire. After World War I and the establishment of an independent Czechoslovak state, Bohemia became a part of Czechoslovakia. Between 1938 and 1945, border regions with sizeable German-speaking minorities of all three Czech lands were joined to Nazi Germany as the Sudetenland; the remainder of Czech territory became the Second Czechoslovak Republic and was subsequently occupied as the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, In 1969, the Czech lands were given autonomy within Czechoslovakia as the Czech Socialist Republic. In 1990, the name was changed to the Czech Republic, which became a separate state in 1993 with the split of Czechoslovakia.
Until 1948, Bohemia was an administrative unit of Czechoslovakia as one of its "lands". Since administrative reforms have replaced self-governing lands with a modified system of "regions" which do not follow the borders of the historical Czech lands. However, the three lands are mentioned in the preamble of the Constitution of the Czech Republic: "We, citizens of the Czech Republic in Bohemia and Silesia…"Bohemia had an area of 52,065 km2 and today is home to 6.5 million of the Czech Republic's 10.5 million inhabitants. Bohemia was bordered in the south by Upper and Lower Austria, in the west by Bavaria and in the north by Saxony and Lusatia, in the northeast by Silesia, in the east by Moravia. Bohemia's borders were marked by mountain ranges such as the Bohemian Forest, the Ore Mountains, the Krkonoše, a part of the Sudetes range. In the 2nd century BC, the Romans were competing for dominance in northern Italy with various peoples including the Gauls-Celtic tribe Boii; the Romans defeated the Boii at the Battle of Mutina.
After this, many of the Boii retreated north across the Alps. Much Roman authors refer to the area they had once occupied as Boiohaemum; the earliest mention was by Tacitus' Germania 28, mentions of the same name are in Strabo and Velleius Paterculus. The name appears to include the tribal name Boi- plus the Germanic element *haimaz "home"; this Boiohaemum was isolated to the area where King Marobod's kingdom was centred, within the Hercynian forest. Emperor Constantine VII in 10th century De Administrando Imperio mentioned the region as Boïki; the Czech name "Čechy" is derived from the name of the Slavic ethnic group, the Czechs, who settled in the area during the 6th or 7th century AD. Bohemia, like neighbouring Bavaria, is named after the Boii, who were a large Celtic nation known to the Romans for their migrations and settlement in northern Italy and other places. Another part of the nation moved west with the Helvetii into southern France, one of the events leading to the interventions of Julius Caesar's Gaulish campaign of 58 BC.
The emigration of the Helvetii and Boii left southern Germany and Bohemia a inhabited "desert" into which Suebic peoples arrived, speaking Germanic languages, became dominant over remaining Celtic groups. To the south, over the Danube, the Romans extended their empire, to the southeast in present-day Hungary, were Dacian peoples. In the area of modern Bohemia the Marcomanni and other Suebic groups were led by their king Marobodus, after suffering defeat to Roman forces in Germany, he took advantage of the natural defenses provided by its forests. They were able to maintain a strong alliance with neighbouring tribes including the Lugii, Hermunduri and Buri, sometimes controlled by the Roman Empire, sometimes in conflict with it, for example in the second century when they fought Marcus Aurelius. In late classical times and the early Middle Ages, two new Suebic groupings appeared to the west of Bohemia in southern Germany, the Alemanni, the Bavarians. Many Suebic tribes from the Bohemian region took part in such movements westwards settling as far away as Spain and Portugal.
With them were tribes who had pushed from the east, such as the Vandals, Alans. Other groups pushed southwards towards Pannonia; the last known mention of the kingdom of the Marcomanni, concerning a queen named Fritigil is in the 4th century, she was thought to have lived in or near Pannonia. The Suebian Langobardi, who moved over many generations from the Baltic Sea, via the Elbe and Pannonia to Italy, recorded in a tribal history a time spent in "Bainaib". After this migration period, Bohemia was repopulated around the 6th century, Slavic tribes arrived from the east, their language began to replace the older Germanic and Sarmatian ones; these are precursors of today's Czechs, though the exact amount of Slavic immigration is a subject of debate. The Slavic influx was divided into three waves; the first wave came from the
Battle of Kolín
The Battle of Kolín on 18 June 1757 saw 44,000 Austrians under Count von Daun defeat 32,000 Prussians under Frederick the Great during the Third Silesian War. The Prussians lost the battle and nearly 14,000 men, the Austrians lost 8,000 men. Frederick II of Prussia was now besieging Prague. Austrian Marshal Daun arrived too late to participate in the battle of Prague, but picked up 16,000 men who escaped from the battle. With this army he moved to relieve Prague, forcing the Prussian forces to split. Frederick took 34,000 of his men to intercept Daun. Daun knew that the Prussian forces were too weak to both besiege Prague and keep him away from Prague for a longer time, so his Austrian forces took defensive positions on hills near Kolín. Frederick was forced to attack the Austrians, who were waiting on the defensive with a force of 35,160 infantry, 18,630 cavalry and 154 guns; the battlefield of Kolín consisted of rolling hill slopes. Frederick's plan was to envelop the Austrian right wing with most of his army.
Along the Austrian lines he kept only enough troops to hide the concentration on the Prussian left wing. The Prussian main force would turn right toward the Austrians to attack their right flank; the Prussian left wing would locally outnumber the Austrians. After the Austrian right wing was defeated the battle would be decided. Frederick's main force turned toward the Austrians too early and attacked their defensive positions frontally instead of outflanking them. Austrian Croatian light infantry played an important role in this; the disunited Prussian columns blundered into a series of uncoordinated attacks, each against superior numbers. By the afternoon, after about five hours of fighting, the Prussians were disoriented and Daun's troops were driving them back. Prussian cuirassiers under Oberst Friedrich Wilhelm von Seydlitz showed up. There were many counter-charges on the Křečhoř Hill; the first Guard battalion under General Friedrich Bogislav von Tauentzien saved the Prussian army from a worse fate, covering the Prussian retreat.
Kerels, wollt ihr den euwig leben? The battle was Frederick's first defeat in this war, forced him to abandon his intended march on Vienna, raise his siege of Prague, fall back on Litoměřice; the Austrians, reinforced by the 48,000 troops in Prague, followed them, 100,000 strong, falling on Prince August Wilhelm of Prussia, retreating eccentrically at Zittau, inflicted a severe check upon him. The king was compelled to abandon Bohemia. Following the battle, the Empress Maria Theresia founded the Military Order of Maria Theresia The Kolingasse in the 9th District of Vienna was named after this victory in 1870. Two memorials were erected in Bedřichov to remind of this battle. Asprey, Robert. "Frederick the Great: A Magnificent Enigma", Ticknor & Fields, 2007 ISBN 0-89919-352-8 Chase Maenius. The Art of War: Paintings of Heroes and History. 2014. ISBN 978-1320309554 Clodfelter, M.. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492-2015. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland.
ISBN 978-0786474707. Duffy, Christopher. 2013 "By Force of Arms: Vol 2 of The Austrian Army in the Seven Years War", Emperor's Press, ISBN 978-1-883476-30-4 Duffy, Christopher. "The Army of Frederick the Great", Emperor Press, ISBN 1-883476-02-X Duffy, Christopher, "The Army of Maria Theresa", Terence Wise, ISBN 0-7153-7387-0 Millar, Simon. 2001 "Kolin 1757: Frederick the Great's first defeat", Osprey Publishing,ISBN 1-84176-297-0 Seldes, George. 1985. The Great Thoughts. Ballantine Books, New York. P. 143 Obscure Battles: Kolin 1757 by Jeff Berry Kronskaf: Battle of Kolin Bellum.cz – Battle of Kolín 18th June 1757