Frederick the Great
Portrait of Frederick the Great;
By Anton Graff, 1781
|Reign||31 May 1740 – 17 August 1786|
|Predecessor||Frederick William I|
|Successor||Frederick William II|
24 January 1712|
Berlin, Kingdom of Prussia
17 August 1786 (aged 74)|
Potsdam, Kingdom of Prussia
|Spouse||Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern|
|Father||Frederick William I of Prussia|
|Mother||Sophia Dorothea of Hanover|
Frederick II (German: Friedrich; 24 January 1712 – 17 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king. His most significant accomplishments during his reign included his military victories, his reorganization of Prussian armies, his patronage of the arts and the Enlightenment, and his final success against great odds in the Seven Years' War. Frederick was the last Hohenzollern monarch titled King in Prussia and declared himself "King of Prussia" after achieving sovereignty over most historically Prussian lands in 1772. Prussia had greatly increased its territories and became a leading military power in Europe under his rule. He became known as Frederick the Great (Friedrich der Große), and was nicknamed Der Alte Fritz ("The Old Fritz") by the Prussian people, and eventually the rest of Germany.
In his youth, Frederick was more interested in music and philosophy than the art of war. Nonetheless, upon ascending to the Prussian throne, he attacked Austria and claimed Silesia during the Silesian Wars, winning military acclaim for himself and Prussia. Toward the end of his reign, Frederick physically connected most of his realm by acquiring Polish territories in the First Partition of Poland. He was an influential military theorist whose analysis emerged from his extensive personal battlefield experience and covered issues of strategy, tactics, mobility and logistics.
Considering himself "the first servant of the state", Frederick was a proponent of enlightened absolutism. He modernized the Prussian bureaucracy and civil service and pursued religious policies throughout his realm that ranged from tolerance to segregation. He reformed the judicial system and made it possible for men not of noble stock to become judges and senior bureaucrats. Frederick also encouraged immigrants of various nationalities and faiths to come to Prussia. Some critics, however, point out his oppressive measures against conquered Polish subjects during the First Partition. Frederick supported arts and philosophers he favored, as well as allowing complete freedom of the press and literature. Frederick is buried at his favorite residence, Sanssouci in Potsdam. Because he died childless, Frederick was succeeded by his nephew, Frederick William II, son of his brother, Augustus William.
Nearly all 19th-century German historians made Frederick into a romantic model of a glorified warrior, praising his leadership, administrative efficiency, devotion to duty and success in building up Prussia to a great power in Europe. Historian Leopold von Ranke was unstinting in his praise of Frederick's "heroic life, inspired by great ideas, filled with feats of arms ... immortalized by the raising of the Prussian state to the rank of a power". Johann Gustav Droysen was even more extolling. Frederick remained an admired historical figure through the German Empire's defeat in the First World War. The Nazis glorified him as a great German leader pre-figuring Hitler, who personally idolized him. Associations with him became far less favorable after the fall of the Nazis, largely due to his status as one of their symbols. However, by the 21st century, a re-evaluation of his legacy as a great general and enlightened monarch returned opinion of him to favour.
- 1 Youth
- 2 Crown Prince
- 3 Inheritance
- 4 Reign (1740–1786)
- 4.1 War of the Austrian Succession
- 4.2 The Seven Years' War
- 4.3 First Partition of Poland
- 4.4 War of the Bavarian Succession
- 4.5 Military theorist
- 4.6 Modernization of Prussia
- 4.7 Religious policies
- 4.8 Architecture
- 4.9 The picture gallery at Sanssouci
- 4.10 Music, arts and learning
- 4.11 Environment and agriculture
- 4.12 Berlin Academy
- 4.13 Sexuality
- 4.14 Later years and death
- 5 Historiography and memory
- 6 Frederick in popular culture
- 7 Ancestry
- 8 Titles, styles, honours and arms
- 9 See also
- 10 Footnotes
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
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Frederick, the son of Frederick William I and his wife, Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, was born in Berlin on 24 January 1712. He was baptised with only one name, Friedrich, and was not given any other names. The birth of Frederick was welcomed by his grandfather, Frederick I, with more than usual pleasure, as his two previous grandsons had both died in infancy. With the death of his father in 1713, Frederick William became King in Prussia, thus making young Frederick the crown prince. The new king wished for his sons and daughters to be educated not as royalty, but as simple folk. He had been educated by a Frenchwoman, Madame de Montbail, who later became Madame de Rocoulle, and he wished that she educate his children.
Frederick William I, popularly dubbed as the Soldier-King, had created a large and powerful army led by his famous "Potsdam Giants", carefully managed his treasury finances and developed a strong, centralized government. However, he also possessed a violent temper (in part due to porphyritic illness) and ruled Brandenburg-Prussia with absolute authority. As Frederick grew, his preference for music, literature and French culture clashed with his father's militarism, resulting in Frederick William frequently beating and humiliating him. In contrast, Frederick's mother Sophia was polite, charismatic and learned. Her father, George Louis of Brunswick-Lüneburg, succeeded to the British throne as King George I in 1714.
Frederick was brought up by Huguenot governesses and tutors and learned French and German simultaneously. In spite of his father's desire that his education be entirely religious and pragmatic, the young Frederick, with the help of his tutor Jacques Duhan, procured for himself a three thousand volume secret library of poetry, Greek and Roman classics, and French philosophy to supplement his official lessons.
Although Frederick William I was raised a Calvinist, he feared he was not of the elect. To avoid the possibility of Frederick being motivated by the same concerns, the king ordered that his heir not be taught about predestination. Nevertheless, although Frederick was largely irreligious, he to some extent appeared to adopt this tenet of Calvinism. Some scholars have speculated that he did this to spite his father.
In the mid-1720s, a double marriage was proposed. Queen Sophia Dorothea attempted to arrange Frederick and his sister Wilhelmine with Amelia and Frederick, the children of her brother, King George II of Great Britain. Fearing an alliance between Prussia and Great Britain, Field Marshal von Seckendorff, the Austrian ambassador in Berlin, bribed the Prussian Minister of War, Field Marshal von Grumbkow, and the Prussian ambassador in London, Benjamin Reichenbach. The pair slandered the British and Prussian courts in the eyes of the two kings. Angered by the idea of the effete Frederick's being so honored by Britain, Frederick William presented impossible demands to the British, such as "securing Prussia's rights to the principalities of Jülich-Berg", and after 1728, only Berg, which led to the collapse of the marriage proposal.
Frederick found an ally in his sister, Wilhelmine, with whom he remained close for life; he was later devastated by her death in 1758. At age 16, Frederick formed a homosexual attachment to the king's 13-year-old Scottish page, Peter Karl Christoph von Keith. Wilhelmine recorded that the two "soon became inseparable. Keith was intelligent, but without education. He served my brother from feelings of real devotion, and kept him informed of all the king's actions." Margaret Goldsmith, a biographer of Frederick's, suggests the attachment was of a sexual and/or romantic nature, and as a result thereof, Keith was sent away to an unpopular regiment near the Dutch frontier, while Frederick was temporarily sent to his father's hunting lodge at Königs Wusterhausen in order "to repent of his sin". Around the same time, he became close friends with Hans Hermann von Katte, a young Prussian officer who served as one of his tutors; it is believed they held romantic feelings for each other.
When he was 18, Frederick plotted to flee to England with Katte and other junior army officers. While the royal retinue was near Mannheim in the Electorate of the Palatinate, Robert Keith, Peter Keith's brother, had an attack of conscience when the conspirators were preparing to escape and begged Frederick William for forgiveness on 5 August 1730; Frederick and Katte were subsequently arrested and imprisoned in Küstrin. Because they were army officers who had tried to flee Prussia for Great Britain, Frederick William leveled an accusation of treason against the pair. The king briefly threatened the crown prince with the death penalty, then considered forcing Frederick to renounce the succession in favour of his brother, Augustus William, although either option would have been difficult to justify to the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. The king forced Frederick to watch the decapitation of his confidant Katte at Küstrin on 6 November, leading the crown prince to faint right before the fatal blow was struck.
Frederick was granted a royal pardon and released from his cell on 18 November, although he remained stripped of his military rank. Instead of returning to Berlin, however, he was forced to remain in Küstrin and began rigorous schooling in statecraft and administration for the War and Estates Departments on 20 November. Tensions eased slightly when Frederick William visited Küstrin a year later, and Frederick was allowed to visit Berlin on the occasion of his sister Wilhelmine's marriage to Margrave Frederick of Bayreuth on 20 November 1731. The crown prince returned to Berlin after finally being released from his tutelage at Küstrin on 26 February 1732.
Marriage and War of the Polish Succession
Frederick William considered marrying Frederick to Elisabeth of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, the niece of Empress Anna of Russia, but this plan was ardently opposed by Prince Eugene of Savoy. Frederick himself proposed marrying Maria Theresa of Austria in return for renouncing the succession. Instead, Eugene persuaded Frederick William, through Seckendorff, that the crown prince marry Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Bevern, a Protestant relative of the Austrian Habsburgs. Although Frederick wrote to his sister that, "There can be neither love nor friendship between us," and he considered suicide, he went along with the wedding on 12 June 1733 despite this. He had little in common with his bride and resented the political marriage as an example of the Austrian political interference which had plagued Prussia since 1701. Once Frederick secured the throne in 1740, he prevented Elisabeth from visiting his court in Potsdam, granting her instead Schönhausen Palace and apartments at the Berliner Stadtschloss. Frederick bestowed the title of the heir to the throne, "Prince of Prussia", on his brother Augustus William; despite this, his wife remained devoted to him. In their early married life, the royal couple resided at the Crown Prince's Palace in Berlin. Although Frederick gave Elisabeth Christine all the honors befitting her station, he rarely saw her during his reign and never showed her any affection.
Frederick was restored to the Prussian Army as Colonel of the Regiment von der Goltz, stationed near Nauen and Neuruppin. When Prussia provided a contingent of troops to aid the Army of the Holy Roman Empire during the War of the Polish Succession, Frederick studied under Reichsgeneralfeldmarschall Prince Eugene of Savoy during the campaign against France on the Rhine; he noted the weakness of the Imperial Army under the command of the Archduchy of Austria, something that he would capitalize on at Austria's expense when he later took the throne. Frederick William, weakened by gout brought about by the campaign and seeking to reconcile with his heir, granted Frederick Schloss Rheinsberg in Rheinsberg, north of Neuruppin. In Rheinsberg, Frederick assembled a small number of musicians, actors and other artists. He spent his time reading, watching dramatic plays, composing and playing music, and regarded this time as one of the happiest of his life. Frederick formed the Bayard Order to discuss warfare with his friends; Heinrich August de la Motte Fouqué was made the grand master of the gatherings.
The works of Niccolò Machiavelli, such as The Prince, were considered a guideline for the behavior of a king in Frederick's age. In 1739, Frederick finished his Anti-Machiavel, an idealistic refutation of Machiavelli. It was written in French and published anonymously in 1740, but Voltaire distributed it in Amsterdam to great popularity. Frederick's years dedicated to the arts instead of politics ended upon the 1740 death of Frederick William and his inheritance of the Kingdom of Prussia. Frederick and his father were more or less reconciled at the latter's death, and Frederick later admitted, despite their constant conflict, that Frederick William had been an effective ruler: "What a terrible man he was. But he was just, intelligent, and skilled in the management of affairs... it was through his efforts, through his tireless labor, that I have been able to accomplish everything that I have done since." 
In one defining respect Frederick would come to the throne with an exceptional inheritance. A Prussian population estimated at 2.24 million might not be enough to confer great power status, but it turned out that an army of 80,000 men could be. The ratio of one soldier for every 28 citizens can be compared with a ratio of one soldier for every 310 citizens in Great Britain, frequently an indispensable ally and another aggressively expansionist power during the middle part of the eighteenth century. Moreover, the Prussian infantry trained by Frederick William I were, at the time of Frederick's accession, arguably without rival in discipline and firepower. By 1770, after two decades of punishing war alternating with intervals of peace, Frederick would have doubled the size of the huge army that he had inherited from his father, and which during his reign would consume 86% of the state budget. The situation is summed up in a widely translated and quoted aphorism attributed to Mirabeau who asserted in 1786 that Prussia under Frederick was not a state in possession of an army, but an army in possession of a state ("La Prusse n’est pas un pays qui a une armée, c’est une armée qui a un pays.").
Prince Frederick was twenty-eight years old when his father Frederick William I died and he ascended to the throne of Prussia. Before his accession, Frederick was told by D'Alembert, "The philosophers and the men of letters in every land have long looked upon you, Sire, as their leader and model." Such devotion, however, had to be tempered by political realities. When Frederick ascended the throne as "King in Prussia" in 1740, Prussia consisted of scattered territories, including Cleves, Mark, and Ravensberg in the west of the Holy Roman Empire; Brandenburg, Hither Pomerania, and Farther Pomerania in the east of the Empire; and the Kingdom of Prussia, the former Duchy of Prussia, outside of the Empire bordering the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. He was titled King in Prussia because this was only part of historic Prussia; he was to declare himself King of Prussia after acquiring most of the rest in 1772.
War of the Austrian Succession
Frederick's goal was to modernize and unite his vulnerably disconnected lands; toward this end, he fought wars mainly against Austria, whose Habsburg dynasty reigned as Holy Roman Emperors almost continuously from the 15th century until 1806. Frederick established Prussia as the fifth and smallest European great power by using the resources his frugal father had cultivated.
Upon succeeding to the throne on 31 May 1740 at the death of his father, and desiring the prosperous Austrian province of Silesia (which Prussia also had a minor claim to), Frederick declined to endorse the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, a legal mechanism to ensure the inheritance of the Habsburg domains by Maria Theresa of Austria, daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. Thus, upon the death of Charles VI on 29 October 1740, Frederick disputed the succession of the 23-year-old Maria Theresa to the Habsburg lands, while simultaneously making his own claim on Silesia. Accordingly, the First Silesian War (1740–1742, part of the War of the Austrian Succession) began on 16 December 1740, when Frederick invaded and quickly occupied the province. Frederick was worried that if he did not move to occupy Silesia, Augustus III, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, would seek to connect his own disparate lands through Silesia. Therefore, the Prussian king struck preemptively and quickly occupied Silesia, using as justification an obscure treaty from 1537 between the Hohenzollern and the Piast dynasty of Brieg (Brzeg).
Frederick occupied Silesia, except for three fortresses at Glogau, Brieg and Breslau, in just seven weeks, despite poor roads and bad weather. The fortress at Ohlau fell to Frederick almost immediately and became the winter quarters for Frederick's army. In late March 1741, Frederick set out on his campaign again but was forced to fall back by a sudden surprise attack by the Austrians. The first real battle Frederick faced in Silesia was the Battle of Mollwitz on 10 April 1741. Though Frederick had actually served under Prince Eugene of Savoy, this was the first time he would command an army. Believing that his army had been defeated by the Austrians, Frederick sought to avoid capture and galloped away, leaving Field Marshal Kurt Schwerin in command of the army. In actuality, the Prussians had won the battle at the very moment that Frederick had fled. Frederick would later admit to humiliation at this breach of discipline and would later state: "Mollwitz was my school." Disappointed with the performance of his cavalry, whose training his father had neglected in favor of the infantry, Frederick spent much of his time in Silesia establishing a new doctrine for them.
In early September 1741, the French entered the war against Austria and together with their allies, the Electorate of Bavaria, marched on Prague. With Prague under threat, the Austrians pulled their army out of Silesia to defend Bohemia. When Frederick pursued them into Bohemia and blocked their path to Prague, the Austrians attacked him on 17 May 1742. However, Frederick's re-trained cavalry proved to be a powerful force and ultimately Prussia claimed victory at the Battle of Chotusitz. After this dramatic victory, and with the Franco-Bavarian forces having captured Prague, Frederick forced the Austrians to seek peace. The terms of the Treaty of Breslau between the Austrians and the Prussians, negotiated in June 1742, gave Prussia all of Silesia and Glatz County, with the Austrians retaining only that portion of Upper Silesia called "Austrian or Czech Silesia." Prussian possession of Silesia gave the kingdom control over the navigable Oder River as well as nearly doubling the size of its population, economy and territory. In 1744, Frederick also gained the minor territory of East Frisia (located on the North Sea coast of Germany) after its last ruler died without issue.
By 1743, the Austrians had subdued Bavaria and driven the French out of Bohemia. Frederick strongly suspected Maria Theresa would resume war with Prussia in an attempt to recover Silesia. Accordingly, he renewed his alliance with the French and preemptively invaded Bohemia in August 1744, beginning the Second Silesian War. By late August 1744, all of Frederick's columns had crossed the Bohemian frontier. Frederick marched straight for Prague and laid siege to the city. On 11 September 1744, the Prussians began a three-day artillery bombardment of Prague, which fell a few days later. Three days after the fall of Prague, Frederick's troops were again on the march into the heart of central Bohemia. However, the Austrians refused to directly engage in battle with Frederick and simply harassed his supply lines, eventually forcing him to withdraw to Silesia as winter approached. With the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VII of Bavaria in January 1745, Maria Theresa's husband Francis of Lorraine was elected Emperor and Saxony joined the Austrians' side against Frederick.
On 4 June 1745, Frederick trapped a joint force of Saxons and Austrians that had crossed the mountains to invade Silesia. After allowing them to cross the mountains ("If you want to catch a mouse, leave the trap open," Frederick is quoted as saying at the time), Frederick then pinned the enemy force down and defeated them at the Battle of Hohenfriedberg. Pursuing the Austrians into Bohemia, Frederick caught the enemy on 30 September 1745 and delivered a flanking attack on the Austrian right wing at the Battle of Soor, which set the Austrians to flight.  Frederick then turned towards Dresden when he learned the Saxons were preparing to march on Berlin. However, on 15 December 1745, the Saxons were soundly defeated at the Battle of Kesselsdorf by Prussian commander Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau. After linking up his army with Leopold's, Frederick occupied the Saxon capitol of Dresden, forcing the Saxon Elector (and King of Poland) Augustus III to capitulate.
Once again, Frederick's stunning victories on the battlefield caused his enemies to seek peace terms. Under the terms of the Treaty of Dresden, signed on 25 December 1745, Austria was forced to adhere to the terms of the Treaty of Breslau giving Silesia to Prussia.
The Seven Years' War
Habsburg Austria and Bourbon France, traditional enemies, allied together in the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 following the collapse of the Anglo-Austrian Alliance. Frederick swiftly made an alliance with Great Britain at the Convention of Westminster. When the neighboring countries began conspiring against him, Frederick was determined to strike first. On 29 August 1756 his well-prepared army crossed the frontier and preemptively invaded Saxony, thus beginning the Third Silesian War and the larger Seven Years' War, both of which lasted until 1763. He faced widespread criticism for his attack on neutral Saxony and for his forcible incorporation of the Saxon forces into the Prussian army following the Siege of Pirna in October 1756. While the Prussian invasion of Saxony was successful, it took uncharacteristically long to complete, costing Prussia the initiative. Frederick's subsequent 1757 invasion of Austrian Bohemia, though initially successful, ended in his first defeat at the Battle of Kolin and forced him into retreat. However, when the French and the Austrians attempted to counter-attack into Saxony and Silesia, Frederick decisively defeated them at the battles of Rossbach and Leuthen. Frederick hoped these two great victories would force Austria to negotiate, but Maria Theresa was determined not to make peace until she had recovered Silesia, and so the war continued. Despite its excellent performance, the Prussian army became increasingly stretched thin by various costly battles.
Facing a coalition including Austria, France, Russia, Saxony and Sweden, and having only Great Britain, Hesse, Brunswick, and Hanover as his allies, Frederick narrowly kept Prussia in the war despite having his territories repeatedly invaded. He suffered some severe defeats himself and was frequently at the last gasp, but he always managed to recover. His position became even more desperate in 1761 when Britain (having made gains in India and the Americas) ended its financial support for Prussia after the death of King George II, Frederick's uncle. On 6 January 1762, he wrote to Count Karl-Wilhelm Finck von Finckenstein, "We ought now to think of preserving for my nephew, by way of negotiation, whatever fragments of my territory we can save from the avidity of my enemies". With the Russians slowly advancing towards Berlin, it looked as though Prussia was about to collapse.
The sudden death of Empress Elizabeth of Russia in January 1762 led to the succession of her Germanized nephew (Duke of Holstein-Gottorp), pro-Prussian Peter III. This "Miracle of the House of Brandenburg" led to the collapse of the anti-Prussian coalition; Peter immediately ended the Russian occupation of East Prussia and Pomerania, returning them to Frederick. One of Peter III's first diplomatic endeavors was to seek a Prussian title from Frederick, which Frederick naturally obliged. Peter III was so enamored of Frederick that he not only offered him the full use of a Russian corps for the remainder of the war against Denmark, he also wrote to Frederick that he would rather have been a general in the Prussian army than Tsar of Russia. More significantly, Russia's about-face from once an enemy of Prussia to its patron rattled the leadership of Sweden, who, seeing the writing on the wall, hastily made peace with Frederick as well. With the threat to his eastern borders over, and France also seeking peace after its defeats by Britain, Frederick was able to fight the Austrians to a stalemate and finally brought them to the peace table. While the ensuing Treaty of Hubertusburg simply returned the European borders to what they had been before the Seven Years' War, Frederick's ability to retain Silesia in spite of the odds earned Prussia admiration throughout the German-speaking territories. A year following the Treaty of Hubertusberg, Catherine the Great (Peter III's widow and usurper) signed an eight-year alliance with Prussia.
Frederick's ultimate success in the Seven Years' War came at a heavy price, both to him and to Prussia. According to the Anglo-Prussian Convention, Frederick received from 1758 till 1762 yearly ₤670,000 British subsidies, stopped by George III of England and the Parliament of Great Britain when Frederick allied with Peter III of Russia, who planned to solve the Gottorp question and attacking Danish Holstein in 1762 after the death of Frederick Charles, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön. During the war Frederick devalued the Prussian coin five times in order to finance the war; debased coins were produced (with the help of Veitel Heine Ephraim and Daniel Itzig, mintmasters in Leipzig) and spread outside Prussia: in Saxony, Poland, and Kurland. Saxony, occupied by Prussia for most of the conflict, was bled dry to support the war effort. While Prussia lost no territory, her population and army were severely depleted by constant combat and invasions by Austria, Russia and Sweden. Many of Frederick's closest friends (as well as his sister Wilhelmine, his brother Augustus William and his mother) and the best of his officer corps died during the war. By 1772, with his economy largely recovered, Frederick had managed to bring his army up to 190,000 men (making it the third-largest army in Europe), but almost none of the officers were veterans of his generation, and the King's attitude towards them was extremely harsh.
First Partition of Poland
Frederick had despised Polish people since his youth, and numerous statements are known in which he expressed anti-Polish prejudice, calling Polish society "stupid" and stating that "all these people with surnames ending with -ski, deserve only contempt". He passionately hated everything associated with Poland, while justifying his hatred and territorial expansion with ideas of the Enlightenment. He described Poles as "slovenly Polish trash"; referring to them in a letter from 1735 as "dirty" and "vile apes", and compared the Polish peasants to American Indians.
Frederick undertook the conquest of Polish territory under the pretext of an enlightened and civilizing mission, particularly given his negative perceptions about Poland and the traditions of its ruling elite, all of which merely provided a convenient path for the "sanguine ameliorism" of the Enlightenment and heightened assurance in the "distinctive merits of the 'Prussian way'". He prepared the ground for the partition of Poland-Lithuania in 1752 at the latest, hoping to gain territorial bridge between Pomerania, Brandenburg and East Prussian provinces. Frederick was himself partly responsible for the weakness of the Polish government, having inflated its currency with Polish coin dies obtained during the conquest of Saxony in 1756. The profits exceeded twice the peacetime national budget of Prussia. He opposed attempts of political reform in Poland, and his troops bombarded customs ports on the Vistula, thwarting Polish efforts to create a modern fiscal system. As early as 1731 Frederick had suggested that the country would be well-served by annexing Polish Prussia in order to join the separated territories of the Kingdom of Prussia.
According to Scott, Frederick was eager to exploit Poland economically as part of his wider aim of increasing Prussia's wealth. Scott views this as a continuation of his previous violations of Polish territory in 1759 and 1761 and raids within Greater Poland until 1765. After acquiring dies from which the currency of Poland was struck Prussia issued debased Polish coins, which drove money out of Poland into Hohenzollern territory – this resulted in 25 million thalers in profit, while causing considerable monetary problems for Poland.
Lewitter says: "The conflict over the rights of religious dissenters [in Poland] had led to civil war and foreign intervention." Out of 11 to 12 million people in Poland, 200,000 were Protestants and 600,000 Eastern Orthodox. The Protestant dissidents were still free to practice their religion, although their schools were shut down. All dissidents could own property, but Poland increasingly reduced their civic rights after a period of considerable religious and political freedoms. They were allowed to serve in the army and vote in elections, but were barred from public offices and the Polish Parliament the Sejm, and during the 1760s their importance became out of proportion compared to their numbers. Frederick exploited this conflict as means to keep Poland weak and divided.
Empress Catherine II of Russia was staunchly opposed to Prussia. At the same time Frederick opposed Russia, whose troops had been allowed to freely cross the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Seven Years' War of 1756–63. Despite their personal hostility, Frederick and Catherine signed a defensive alliance in 1764 that guaranteed Prussian control of Silesia in return for Prussian support for Russia against Austria or the Ottoman Empire. Catherine's candidate for the Polish throne, Stanisław August Poniatowski, was then elected King of Poland in September of that year, and she controlled Polish politics.
Frederick became concerned, however, after Russia gained significant influence over Poland in the Repnin Sejm of 1767, a position which also threatened Austria and the Ottoman Turks. In the ensuing Russo-Turkish War (1768–74), Frederick supported Catherine with a subsidy of 300,000 rubles, albeit with reluctance as he did not want Russia to become even stronger through acquisitions of Ottoman territory. The Prussian king achieved a rapprochement with Emperor Joseph and the Austrian chancellor Kaunitz.
After Russia occupied the Danubian Principalities in 1769–70, Frederick's representative in Saint Petersburg, his brother Prince Henry, convinced Frederick and Maria Theresa that the balance of power would be maintained by a tripartite division of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth instead of Russia taking land from the Ottomans. They agreed to the First Partition of Poland in 1772, which took place without a war. Frederick claimed most of the Polish province of Royal Prussia. Prussia annexed 20,000 square miles (52,000 km2) and 600,000 inhabitants, the least of the partitioning powers. However, Prussia's Polish territory was also the best-developed economically. The newly created province of West Prussia connected East Prussia and Farther Pomerania and granted Prussia control of the mouth of the Vistula River. Frederick also invited German immigrants to the province, hoping they would displace the Poles. Maria Theresa had only reluctantly agreed to the partition, to which Frederick sarcastically commented, "she cries, but she takes".
Frederick himself tried further propaganda to justify the Partition, portraying the acquired provinces as underdeveloped and improved by Prussian rule. According to Karin Friedrich these claims were accepted for a long time in German historiography and sometimes still reflected in modern works. Frederick did not justify his conquests on an ethnic basis, however, unlike later nationalist, 19th-century German historians. Dismissive of contemporary German culture, Frederick instead pursued an imperialist policy, acting on the security interests of his state. Frederick II settled 300,000 colonists in territories he had conquered, and enforced Germanization.
After the first partition Frederick engaged in plunder of Polish property, confiscating Polish estates and monasteries to support German colonization, and in 1786 he ordered forced buy-outs of Polish holdings. The new strict tax system and bureaucracy was particularly disliked among the Polish population, as was the compulsory military service in the army, which didn't exist previously in Poland. Frederick abolished the gentry's freedom from taxation and restricted its power. Royal estates formerly belonging to the Polish Crown were redistributed to German landowners, reinforcing Germanization. Both Protestant and Roman Catholic teachers (mostly Jesuits) taught in West Prussia, and teachers and administrators were encouraged to be able to speak both German and Polish. Economic exploitation of Poland, especially by Prussia and Austria, followed the territorial seizures.
Frederick looked upon many of his new Polish citizens with scorn, but carefully concealed that scorn when actually dealing with them. Frederick's long-term goal was to remove all Polish people from his territories, both peasants and nobility. He sought to expel the nobles through an oppressive tax system and the peasantry by eradicating the Polish national character of the rural population by mixing them with Germans invited in their thousands by promises of free land. By such means, Frederick boasted he would "gradually...get rid of all Poles".
Frederick wrote that Poland had "the worst government in Europe with the exception of Turkey". After a prolonged visit to West Prussia in 1773, Frederick informed Voltaire of his findings and accomplishments: "I have abolished serfdom, reformed the savage laws, opened a canal which joins up all the main rivers; I have rebuilt those villages razed to the ground after the plague in 1709. I have drained the marshes and established a police force where none existed. . . it is not reasonable that the country which produced Copernicus should be allowed to moulder in the barbarism that results from tyranny. Those hitherto in power have destroyed the schools, thinking that the uneducated people are easily oppressed. These provinces cannot be compared with any European country--the only parallel would be Canada." But in a letter to his favorite brother, Prince Henry, Frederick admitted that the Polish provinces were economically profitable:
- It is a very good and advantageous acquisition, both from a financial and a political point of view. In order to excite less jealousy I tell everyone that on my travels I have seen just sand, pine trees, heath land and Jews. Despite that there is a lot of work to be done; there is no order, and no planning and the towns are in a lamentable condition."
Frederick also sent in Jesuits to open schools, and befriended Ignacy Krasicki, whom he asked to consecrate St. Hedwig's Cathedral in 1773. He also advised his successors to learn Polish, a policy followed by the Hohenzollern dynasty until Frederick III decided not to let the future William II learn the language.
War of the Bavarian Succession
Late in his life Frederick involved Prussia in the low-scale War of the Bavarian Succession in 1778, in which he stifled Austrian attempts to exchange the Austrian Netherlands for Bavaria. For their part, the Austrians tried to pressure the French to participate in the War of Bavarian Succession since there were guarantees under consideration related to the Peace of Westphalia, clauses which linked the Bourbon dynasty of France and the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty of Austria. Unfortunately for the Austrian Emperor Joseph II, the French were unable to provide sufficient manpower and resources to the endeavor since they were already struggling on the North American continent against the British, aiding the American cause for independence in the process. Frederick ended up as a beneficiary of the French and British struggle across the Atlantic, as Austria was left more or less isolated.
Moreover, Saxony and Russia, both of which had been Austria's allies in the Seven Years' War, were now allied with Prussia. Although Frederick was weary of war in his old age, he was determined not to allow the Austrians dominance in German affairs. Frederick and Prince Henry marched the Prussian army into Bohemia to confront Joseph's army, but the two forces ultimately descended into a stalemate, largely living off the land and skirmishing rather than actively attacking each other. Frederick's longtime rival Maria Theresa (Joseph's mother and co-ruler) did not want a new war with Prussia, and secretly sent messengers to Frederick to discuss peace negotiations. Finally, Catherine II of Russia threatened to enter the war on Frederick's side if peace was not negotiated, and Joseph reluctantly dropped his claim to Bavaria. When Joseph tried the scheme again in 1784, Frederick created the Fürstenbund, allowing himself to be seen as a defender of German liberties, in contrast to his earlier role of attacking the imperial Habsburgs. In the process of checking Joseph II's attempts to acquire Bavaria, Frederick enlisted two very important players, the Electors of Hanover and Saxony along with several other second-rate German princes. Perhaps even more significant, Frederick benefited from the defection of the senior prelate of the German Church (Archbishop of Mainz) who was also the arch-chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire, which further strengthened Frederick and Prussia's standing amid the German states.
Contrary to what his father had feared, Frederick proved himself very courageous in battle (with the exception of his first battlefield experience, Mollwitz). He frequently led his military forces personally and had six horses shot from under him during battle. During his reign he commanded the Prussian Army at sixteen major battles (most of which were victories for him) and various sieges, skirmishes and other actions. He is often admired as one of the greatest tactical geniuses of all time, especially for his usage of the oblique order of battle, in which attack is focused on one flank of the opposing line, allowing a local advantage even if his forces were outnumbered overall (which they often were). Even more important were his operational successes, especially preventing the unification of numerically superior opposing armies and being at the right place at the right time to keep enemy armies out of Prussian core territory.
An example of the place that Frederick holds in history as a ruler is seen in Napoleon Bonaparte, who saw the Prussian king as the greatest tactical genius of all time; after Napoleon's victory of the Fourth Coalition in 1807, he visited Frederick's tomb in Potsdam and remarked to his officers, "Gentlemen, if this man were still alive I would not be here". Napoleon frequently "pored through Frederick's campaign narratives and had a statuette of him placed in his personal cabinet." Frederick and Napoleon are perhaps the most admiringly quoted military leaders in Clausewitz' On War. More than Frederick's use of the oblique order, Clausewitz praised particularly the quick and skillful movement of his troops.
Frederick the Great's most notable and decisive military victories on the battlefield were the Battles of Hohenfriedberg, fought during the War of Austrian Succession in June 1745; the Battle of Rossbach, where Frederick defeated a combined Franco-Austrian army of 41,000 with a mere 21,000 soldiers (10,000 dead for the Franco-Austrian side with only 550 casualties for Prussia); and the Battle of Leuthen, which was a follow up victory to Rossbach pitting Frederick's 36,000 troops against Charles of Lorraine's Austrian force of 80,000—Frederick's masterful strategy and tactics at Leuthen inflicted 7,000 casualties upon the Austrians and yielded 20,000 prisoners.
Frederick the Great believed that creating alliances was necessary, as Prussia did not have the comparable resources of nations like France or Austria. After the Seven Years' War, the Prussian military acquired a formidable reputation across Europe. Esteemed for their efficiency and success in battle, the Prussian army of Frederick became a model emulated by other European powers, most notably by Russia and France; the latter of which quickly applied the lessons of Frederick's military tactics under the direction of Napoleon Bonaparte upon their erstwhile European neighbors.
Frederick was an influential military theorist whose analysis emerged from his extensive personal battlefield experience and covered issues of strategy, tactics, mobility and logistics. Austrian co-ruler Emperor Joseph II wrote, "When the King of Prussia speaks on problems connected with the art of war, which he has studied intensively and on which he has read every conceivable book, then everything is taut, solid and uncommonly instructive. There are no circumlocutions, he gives factual and historical proof of the assertions he makes, for he is well versed in history."
Historian Robert M. Citino describes Frederick's strategic approach:
- In war...he usually saw one path to victory, and that was fixing the enemy army in place, maneuvering near or even around it to give himself a favorable position for the attack, and then smashing it with an overwhelming blow from an unexpected direction. He was the most aggressive field commander of the century, perhaps of all time, and one who constantly pushed the limits of the possible.
Historian Dennis Showalter argues, "The King was also more consistently willing than any of his contemporaries to seek decision through offensive operations."
Foresight ranked among the most important attributes when fighting an enemy, according to the Prussian monarch, as the discriminating commander must see everything before it takes place, so "nothing will be new to him." Thus it was flexibility that was often paramount to military success. Donning both the skin of a fox or a lion in battle, as Frederick once remarked, reveals the intellectual dexterity he applied to the art of warfare.
Much of the structure of the more modern German General Staff owed its existence and extensive structure to Frederick, along with the accompanying power of autonomy given to commanders in the field. According to Citino, "When later generations of Prussian-German staff officers looked back to the age of Frederick, they saw a commander who repeatedly, even joyfully, risked everything on a single day's battle – his army, his kingdom, often his very life." As far as Frederick was concerned, there were two major battlefield considerations – speed of march and speed of fire. So confident in the performance of men he selected for command when compared to those of his enemy, Frederick once quipped, "A general considered audacious in another country is only ordinary in [Prussia]; [our general] is able to dare and undertake anything it is possible for men to execute."
Even the later military reputation of Prussia under Bismarck and Moltke rested on the weight of mid-eighteenth century military developments and the territorial expansion of Frederick the Great. Despite his dazzling success as a military commander, Frederick was no fan of protracted warfare, and once wrote, "Our wars should be short and quickly fought… A long war destroys … our [army's] discipline; depopulates the country, and exhausts our resources." Martial adeptness and that thoroughness and discipline so often witnessed on the battlefield was not correspondingly reflected on the domestic front for Frederick. In lieu of his military predilections, Frederick administered his Kingdom justly and ranks among the most "enlightened" monarchs of his era; this, notwithstanding the fact that in many ways, "Frederick the Great represented the embodiment of the art of war". Consequently, Frederick continues to be held in high regard as a military theorist the world over.
Modernization of Prussia
Frederick helped transform Prussia from a European backwater to an economically strong and politically reformed state. He protected his industries with high tariffs and minimal restrictions on domestic trade. He reformed the judicial system, allowed freedom of speech, the press and literature. He abolished most uses of judicial torture, except the flogging of soldiers, as punishment for desertion. The death penalty could be carried out only with a warrant signed by the King himself; Frederick only signed a handful of these warrants per year, and then only for murder. He made it possible for men not of noble stock to become judges and senior bureaucrats. Langer finds that, "Prussian justice became the most prompt and efficient in Europe." Frederick the Great promoted a more active population policy, which meant more tax revenues, but also soldiers for the army. New agricultural land was reclaimed at the Oder.
In January 1750, Johann Philipp Graumann was appointed as Frederick's confidential adviser on finance, military affairs, and royal possessions, as well as the Director-General of all mint facilities. Graumann had two main tasks: first, he was to secure the availability of coin silver for the Prussian monetary system; second, he was to eliminate the currency chaos of the Austrian War of Succession and rationalize the Prussian coinage. Prussia adopted a Prussian thaler containing 1⁄14 of a Cologne mark of silver, rather than 1⁄12 (in use since 1690), probably in the expectation that this realistic coin foot would prevail throughout the empire. In addition, he wanted to compete with the French Louis d'or, which was used all over Germany and the Dutch currency which was used for trading in the Baltic states. Graumann announced that he would be able to achieve high coin seignorage for the state and that Berlin would become the largest exchange center in Central and Northern Europe.
Frederick reorganized the Prussian Academy of Sciences and attracted many scientists to Berlin. Around 1751 he founded the Emden Company to promote trade with China. He introduced Friedrich d'or, a lottery, a fire insurance and to stabilize the economy a giro discount and credit bank. One of Frederick's achievements after the Seven Years' War included the control of grain prices, whereby government storehouses would enable the civilian population to survive in needy regions, where the harvest was poor. He commissioned Johann Ernst Gotzkowsky to promote the trade and — to take on the competition with France — put a silk factory where soon 1,500 people found employment. Frederick the Great followed his recommendations in the field of toll levies and import restrictions. When Gotzkowsky asked for a deferral during the Amsterdam banking crisis of 1763, Frederick took over his porcelain factory, now known as KPM.
Frederick modernized the Prussian bureaucracy and civil service and promoted religious tolerance throughout his realm to attract more settlers in East Prussia. With the help of French experts, he organized a system of indirect taxation, which would provide the state with more revenue than direct taxation; the French officials who would have to lease the tax failed. In 1781, Frederick made coffee a royal monopoly and employed disabled soldiers to spy on citizens sniffing in search of illegally roasted coffee, much to the annoyance of the general population.
While Frederick was something of a religious skeptic (in contrast to his devoutly Calvinist father) and tolerated all faiths in his realm, Protestantism remained the favored religion, and Catholics were not chosen for higher state positions. Frederick was known to be more tolerant of Jews and Catholics than many neighboring German states, although he considered "most Jews (and all serfs) as less than human."
Frederick retained Jesuits as teachers in Silesia, Warmia, and the Netze District after their suppression by Pope Clement XIV. Just like Catherine II, Frederick recognised the educational skills the Jesuits had as an asset for the nation. He was interested in attracting a diversity of skills to his country, whether from Jesuit teachers, Huguenot citizens, or Jewish merchants and bankers; the best known were the Rothschilds of Frankfurt, who eventually attained the status of court bankers in Hesse-Kassel in 1795 after Frederick's passing. Nonetheless, Frederick wanted development throughout the country, specifically in areas that he judged as needing a particular kind of development. Thus, he accepted countless Protestant weavers from Bohemia, who were fleeing from the devoutly Catholic rule of Maria Theresa. Frederick granted the weavers freedom from taxes and military service. As an example of Frederick's practical-minded but not fully unprejudiced tolerance, Frederick wrote in his Testament politique that:
We have too many Jews in the towns. They are needed on the Polish border because in these areas Hebrews alone perform trade. As soon as you get away from the frontier, the Jews become a disadvantage, they form cliques, they deal in contraband and get up to all manner of rascally tricks which are detrimental to Christian burghers and merchants. I have never persecuted anyone from this or any other sect; I think, however, it would be prudent to pay attention, so that their numbers do not increase.
Jews on the Polish border were therefore encouraged to perform all the trade they could and received all the protection and support from the king as any other Prussian citizen. The success in integrating the Jews into those areas of society that Frederick encouraged them in can be seen by the role played by Gerson von Bleichröder in financing Bismarck's efforts to reunite Germany.
In territories he conquered from Poland, Frederick persecuted Polish Roman Catholic churches by confiscating goods and property, exercising strict control of churches, and interfering in church administration
As Frederick made more wasteland arable, Prussia looked for new colonists to settle the land. To encourage immigration, he repeatedly emphasized that nationality and religion were of no concern to him. This policy allowed Prussia's population to recover very quickly from the considerable losses it suffered during Frederick's three wars.
Frederick had famous buildings constructed in his capital, Berlin, most of which still exist today, such as the Berlin State Opera, the Royal Library (today the State Library Berlin), St. Hedwig's Cathedral, and Prince Henry's Palace (now the site of Humboldt University). However, the king preferred spending his time in his summer residence at Potsdam, where he built the palace of Sanssouci, the most important work of Northern German rococo. Sanssouci, which translates from French as "carefree" or "without worry", was a refuge for Frederick. "Frederician Rococo" developed under Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff.
The picture gallery at Sanssouci
As a great patron of the arts, Frederick was a collector of paintings and ancient sculptures; his favorite artist was Jean-Antoine Watteau. The picture gallery at Sanssouci "represents a unique synthesis of the arts in which architecture, painting, sculpture and the decorative arts enter into dialogue with each other, forming a compendium of the arts." The gilded stucco decorations of the ceilings were created by Johann Michael Merck (1714–1784) and Carl Joseph Sartori (1709–1770). Both the wall paneling of the galleries and the diamond shapes of the floor consist of white and yellow marble. Paintings by different schools were displayed strictly separately: 17th-century Flemish and Dutch paintings filled the western wing and the gallery's central building, while Italian paintings from the High Renaissance and Baroque were exhibited in the eastern wing. Sculptures were arranged symmetrically or in rows in relation to the architecture.
Music, arts and learning
Frederick was a patron of music as well as a gifted musician who played the transverse flute. He composed more than 100 sonatas for the flute as well as four symphonies. The Hohenfriedberger Marsch, a military march, was supposedly written by Frederick to commemorate his victory in the Battle of Hohenfriedberg during the Second Silesian War. His court musicians included C. P. E. Bach, Johann Joachim Quantz, Carl Heinrich Graun and Franz Benda. A meeting with Johann Sebastian Bach in 1747 in Potsdam led to Bach's writing The Musical Offering.
Frederick also aspired to be a Platonic philosopher king like the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius. The king joined the Freemasons in 1738 and stood close to the French Enlightenment, corresponding with some of its key figures, such as Voltaire. The personal friendship of Frederick and Voltaire came to an unpleasant end after Voltaire's visit to Berlin and Potsdam in 1750–1753, although they reconciled from afar in later years.
While using German as a working language in the army and with his administration, Frederick read and wrote his literary works in French and also generally used that language with his closest relatives or friends. Though he had a good command of this language, his writing style was flawed; he had troubles with its orthography and always had to rely on French proofreaders.
Frederick disliked the German language and literature, explaining that German authors "pile parenthesis upon parenthesis, and often you find only at the end of an entire page the verb on which depends the meaning of the whole sentence". He discarded many Baroque era authors as uncreative pedants and especially despised German theatre. Also, Frederick II was mostly indifferent to the revival of German culture in the later part of his reign, as he was unimpressed by the authors of the "Sturm und Drang" movement and remained of essentially classical taste. His main inspirations were ancient philosophers and poets as well as French authors of the 17th century. However, interest in foreign cultures was by no means an exception in Germany at that time. The Habsburg court at Vienna was open to influences from Italy, Spain and France. Many German rulers sought to emulate the success of Louis XIV of France and adopted French tastes and manners, though often adapted to the German cultural context. In the case of Frederick II, it might also have been a reaction to the austerity of the familial environnement in which he grew up, as his father had a deep aversion for France and was not interested in the cultural development of his state.
On the other hand, while still considering the German culture of his time to be inferior to that of France or Italy, he did actually take an interest in its development. He thought that it had partly been hindered by the great wars of the 17th century (the Thirty Years' War, the Ottoman wars, the invasions of Louis XIV) but that with some time and effort, it could equal or even surpass that of its rivals. In his view, this would require a complete codification of the German language with the help of official academies, the emergence of talented classical German authors and extensive patronage of the arts from Germanic rulers. However, he did not expect to see this happen in his lifetime. His love for French culture was not without limits either. Frederick II was not appreciative of the luxury and extravagance of the French royal court, and he ridiculed German princes (especially Augustus III, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland) who mimicked the French by indulging in those pleasures. His own court remained quite Spartan, frugal and small, restricted to a limited circle of close friends- a layout similar to his father's court, though Frederick and his friends were far more cultured than Frederick William. Also, Frederick the Great was dismissive of the radical philosophy of later French thinkers such as Rousseau (though he in fact sheltered Rousseau from persecution for a number of years), and grew to believe that the French cultural golden age was drawing to a close.
Despite his distaste for German, Frederick did sponsor the "Königliche Deutsche Gesellschaft" (Royal German Society), founded in Königsberg in 1741, the aim of which was to promote and develop the German language. He allowed the association to be titled "royal" and have its seat at the Königsberg Castle. However, he does not seem to have taken much interest in the work of the society. Frederick also promoted the use of German instead of Latin in the field of law, though mainly for practical reasons. Moreover, it was under his reign that Berlin became an important center of German enlightenment.
The king's criticism led many German writers to attempt to impress Frederick with their writings in the German language and thus prove its worthiness. Many statesmen, including Baron vom und zum Stein, were also inspired by Frederick's statesmanship. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe gave his opinion of Frederick during a visit to Strasbourg (Strassburg) by writing:
Well, we had not much to say in favour of the constitution of the Reich; we admitted that it consisted entirely of lawful misuses, but it rose therefore the higher over the present French constitution which is operating in a maze of unlawful misuses, whose government displays its energies in the wrong places and therefore has to face the challenge that a thorough change in the state of affairs is widely prophesied. In contrast when we looked towards the north, from there shone Frederick, the Pole Star, around whom Germany, Europe, even the world seemed to turn ...
Environment and agriculture
Frederick the Great was keenly interested in land use, especially draining swamps and opening new farmland for colonizers who would increase the kingdom's food supply. He called it "peopling Prussia" (Peuplierungspolitik). About a thousand new villages were founded in his reign that attracted 300,000 immigrants from outside Prussia. He told Voltaire, "Whoever improves the soil, cultivates land lying waste and drains swamps, is making conquests from barbarism". Using improved technology enabled him to create new farmland through a massive drainage program in the country's Oderbruch marsh-land. This program created roughly 60,000 hectares (150,000 acres) of new farmland, but also eliminated vast swaths of natural habitat, destroyed the region's biodiversity, and displaced numerous native plant and animal communities. Frederick saw as this project as the "taming" and "conquering" of nature, which, in its wild form, he regarded as "useless" and "barbarous"—an attitude that reflected his enlightenment-era, rationalist sensibilities. He presided over the construction of canals for bringing crops to market, and introduced new crops, especially the potato and the turnip, to the country. For this, he was sometimes called Der Kartoffelkönig (the Potato King).
Frederick's interest in land reclamation may have resulted from his upbringing. As a child, his father, Frederick I, made young Frederick work in the region's provinces, teaching the boy about the area's agriculture and geography. This created an interest in cultivation and development that powered the boy as he became ruler.
The king founded the first veterinary school in Germany. Unusual for his time and aristocratic background, he criticized hunting as cruel, rough and uneducated. When someone once asked Frederick why he didn't wear spurs when riding his horse, he replied, "Try sticking a fork into your naked stomach, and you will soon see why." He loved dogs and his horse and wanted to be buried with his greyhounds. In 1752 he wrote to his sister Wilhelmine that people indifferent to loyal animals would not be more grateful to other humans and that it was better to be too sensitive than too harsh. He was also close to nature and issued decrees to protect plants.
Aarsleff notes that before Frederick came to the throne in 1740, the Prussian Academy of Sciences (Berlin Academy) was overshadowed by similar bodies in London and Paris. During the reign of Frederick's father, the Academy had been closed down as an economy measure, but Frederick promptly re-opened it when he took the throne in 1740. Frederick made French the official language and speculative philosophy the most important topic of study. The membership was strong in mathematics and philosophy and included Immanuel Kant, Jean D'Alembert, Pierre Louis de Maupertuis, and Étienne de Condillac. However the Academy was in a crisis for two decades at mid-century, due to scandals and internal rivalries such as the debates between Newtonianism and Leibnizian views, and the personality conflict between Voltaire and Maupertuis. At a higher level Maupertuis, the director 1746–59 and a monarchist, argued that the action of individuals was shaped by the character of the institution that contained them, and they worked for the glory of the state. By contrast d' Alembert took a republican rather than monarchical approach and emphasized the international Republic of Letters as the vehicle for scientific advance. By 1789, however, the academy had gained an international repute while making major contributions to German culture and thought. Frederick invited Joseph-Louis Lagrange to succeed Leonhard Euler at the Berlin Academy; both were world-class mathematicians. Other intellectuals attracted to the philosopher's kingdom were Francesco Algarotti, d'Argens, and Julien Offray de La Mettrie. Immanuel Kant published religious writings in Berlin which would have been censored elsewhere in Europe.
Recent major biographers are unequivocal that he was primarily homosexual, and that his sexuality was central to his life and character. After a lowering defeat on the battlefield, Frederick wrote: "Fortune has it in for me; she is a woman, and I am not that way inclined."
At age 13, Frederick seems to have embarked upon a youthful affair with Peter Karl Christoph Keith, a 10-year-old page of his father. Rumors of the liaison spread in the court and the "intimacy" between the two boys provoked the condemnation of even his elder and favorite sister, Wilhelmine, who was his protector in all things. Rumors finally reached King Frederick William, who cultivated in his court an ideal of ultramasculine, military life, and enjoyed bullying his son. As a result, Keith was dismissed from his service to the king and sent away to a regiment by the Dutch border, while Frederick was sent to Wusterhausen in order to "repent of his sin". Frederick's relationship with Hans Hermann von Katte was also believed by King Frederick William to be romantic, a suspicion which enraged him, and he had von Katte put to death.
Frederick's physician Johann Georg Ritter von Zimmermann claimed that Frederick had suffered a minor deformity during an operation to cure gonorrhea in 1733, and convinced himself that he was impotent, but pretended to be homosexual in order to appear that he was still virile and capable of intercourse, albeit with men. This story is doubted by Wolfgang Burgdorf, who is of the opinion that "Frederick had a physical disgust of women" and therefore "was unable to sleep with them". In 1739, Frederick met the Venetian philosopher Francesco Algarotti, and they were both infatuated. Frederick planned to make him a count. Challenged by Algarotti that northern Europeans lacked passion, Frederick penned for him an erotic poem which imagined Algarotti in the throes of sexual intercourse with a female partner referred to as Chloris. In 1740, Frederick was forced to marry Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Bevern, with whom he had no children. He immediately separated from his wife when his father died the same year. He would later only pay her formal visits once a year. These were on her birthday and were some of the rare occasions when Frederick did not wear military uniform.
William Hogarth's painting The Toilette features a flautist (who stands next to a painting of Zeus, as an eagle, abducting Ganymede), which may be a satirical depiction of Frederick – thereby publicly outing him as a homosexual as early as 1744. Frederick certainly spent much of his time at Sanssouci, his favourite residence in Potsdam, in a circle that was exclusively male, though a number of his entourage were happily married. The palace gardens include a Temple of Friendship (built as a memorial to Wilhelmine), which celebrate the homoerotic attachments of Greek Antiquity, and which is decorated with portraits of Orestes and Pylades, amongst others. At Sanssouci, Frederick entertained his most privileged guests, especially the French philosopher Voltaire, whom he asked in 1750 to come to live with him. Their literary correspondence and friendship, which spanned almost 50 years, was marked by mutual intellectual fascination, and began as a flirtation. However, in person Frederick found Voltaire difficult to live with, and was often annoyed by Voltaire's many quarrels with his other friends. Voltaire's angry attack on Maupertuis, the President of Frederick's academy, in the form of Le Diatribe du Docteur Akakia provoked Frederick to burn the pamphlet publicly and put Voltaire under house arrest, after which Voltaire left Prussia.
In the 1750s Voltaire began writing his Mémoires. The manuscript was stolen and a pirate copy was published in Amsterdam in 1784 as The Private Life of the King of Prussia. In it, Voltaire explicitly detailed Frederick's homosexuality and the circle surrounding him. The revelations and language were strikingly similar to those detailed in a scurrilous pamphlet published in French, in London in 1752. After a temporary cooling of Frederick and Voltaire's friendship, they resumed their correspondence, and aired mutual recriminations, to end as friends once more. A further intimate friendship was with his first valet Michael Gabriel Fredersdorf who, Frederick confided to his diary, had "a very pretty face": Fredersdorf was provided with an estate, and acted as unofficial prime minister.
Later years and death
In 1785, Frederick signed a Treaty of Amity and Commerce with the United States of America, recognising the independence of the new nation. The agreement included a novel clause, whereby the two leaders of the executive branches of either country guaranteed a special and humane detention for prisoners of war.
Near the end of his life, Frederick grew increasingly solitary. His circle of close friends at Sanssouci gradually died off with few replacements, and Frederick became increasingly critical and arbitrary, to the frustration of the civil service and officer corps. The populace of Berlin always cheered the king when he returned to the city from provincial tours or military reviews, but Frederick evinced little pleasure from his popularity with the common people, preferring instead the company of his pet Italian greyhounds, whom he referred to as his "marquises de Pompadour" as a jibe at the French royal mistress. Even in his late 60s and early 70s when his health was increasingly poor, he rose before dawn, drank six to eight cups of coffee a day, "laced with mustard and peppercorns", and attended to state business with characteristic tenacity.
On the morning of 17 August 1786, Frederick died in an armchair in his study at Sanssouci, aged 74. He left instructions that he should be buried next to his greyhounds on the vineyard terrace, on the side of the corps de logis of Sanssouci. His nephew and successor Frederick William II instead ordered the body to be entombed next to his father in the Potsdam Garrison Church. Near the end of World War II, Hitler ordered Frederick's coffin, along with those of his father Frederick William I, World War I Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg, and Hindenburg's wife Gertrud, to be hidden in a salt mine as protection from destruction. The United States Army relocated the remains to Marburg in 1946; in 1953, the coffins of Frederick and his father were moved to Burg Hohenzollern.
On the 205th anniversary of his death, on 17 August 1991, Frederick's casket lay in state in the court of honor at Sanssouci, covered by a Prussian flag and escorted by a Bundeswehr guard of honor. After nightfall, Frederick's body was finally laid to rest in the terrace of the vineyard of Sanssouci – in the still existing crypt he had built there – without pomp, in accordance with his will.
Historiography and memory
Frederick in German memory became a great national hero in the 19th century. Many Germans said he was the greatest monarch in modern history. German historians often made him the romantic model of a glorified warrior, praising his leadership, administrative efficiency, devotion to duty and success in building up Prussia to a leading role in Europe.
Historian Leopold von Ranke was unstinting in his praise of Frederick's "heroic life, inspired by great ideas, filled with feats of arms ... immortalized by the raising of the Prussian state to the rank of a power". Johann Gustav Droysen was even more favorable. Nationalist historian Heinrich von Treitschke presented Frederick as the greatest German in centuries. Onno Klopp was one of the few German historians of the 19th century who denigrated and ridiculed Frederick. The novelist Thomas Mann in 1914 also attacked Frederick, arguing – like Empress Maria Theresa – that he was a wicked man who robbed Austria of Silesia, precipitating the alliance against him. Nevertheless, with Germany humiliated after the World War, Frederick's popularity as a heroic figure remained high in Germany. Frederick's place in British historiography was established by Thomas Carlyle's History of Frederick the Great (8 vol. 1858–65), emphasizing the power of one great "hero" to shape history.
In 1933–45, the Nazis glorified Frederick as a precursor to Adolf Hitler and presented Frederick as holding out hope that another miracle would again save Germany at the last moment. Nevertheless, the nationalist (but anti-Nazi) historian Gerhard Ritter condemned Frederick's brutal seizure in the first partition of Poland; however, he praised the results as beneficial to the Polish people. Ritter's biography of Frederick, published in 1936, was designed as a challenge to Nazi claims that there was a continuity between Frederick and Hitler. Dorpalen says "The book was indeed a very courageous indictment of Hitler's irrationalism and recklessness, his ideological fanaticism and insatiable lust for power."
Throughout the World War II, Hitler often compared himself to Frederick the Great. British-American historian Gordon A. Craig relates that to help legitimize Nazi rule, Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels commissioned artists to render fanciful images of Frederick, Bismarck, and Hitler together to postulate a historical continuum between them. Hitler kept an oil painting of Anton Graff's portrait of Frederick with him to the end in the Führerbunker in Berlin.
Frederick's reputation was sharply downgraded after 1945 in both East and West Germany. His diminished legacy in Germany was due in part to the Nazis' fascination with him, to say nothing of his supposed connection with "Prussian militarism". Nonetheless, nowadays Frederick is generally held in high regard, especially for his statesmanship – and for his enlightened reforms that positively changed not only Germany but European society in general, allowing German intellectuals to assert that the revolutions in both France and America were to some extent "belated" attempts to "catch up with Prussia".
In the 21st century his reputation as a warrior remains strong among military historians. Historians in general continue to debate the issue of continuity versus innovation. How much of the king's achievement was based on developments already under way, and how much can be attributed to his initiative? How closely linked was he to The Enlightenment? Is the category of "enlightened absolutism" still useful for the scholar?
Frederick in popular culture
The Great King (German: Der Große König) is a 1942 German drama film directed by Veit Harlan and starring Otto Gebühr. It depicts the life of Frederick the Great. It received the rare "Film of the Nation" distinction. Otto Gebühr also played the King in many other films.
- Films with Otto Gebühr as Frederick the Great
- 1920: The Dancer Barberina – director: Carl Boese
- 1921–23: Fridericus Rex – director: Arzén von Cserépy
- Teil 1 – Sturm und Drang
- Teil 2 – Vater und Sohn
- Teil 3 – Sanssouci
- Teil 4 – Schicksalswende
- 1926: The Mill at Sanssouci – director: Siegfried Philippi
- 1928: The Old Fritz – 1. Teil Friede – director: Gerhard Lamprecht
- 1928: Der alte Fritz – 2. Teil Ausklang – director: Gerhard Lamprecht
- 1930: The Flute Concert of Sanssouci – director: Gustav Ucicky
- 1932: The Dancer of Sanssouci – director: Friedrich Zelnik
- 1933: Der Choral von Leuthen – director: Carl Froelich
- 1936. Heiteres und Ernstes um den großen König – director: Phil Jutzi
- 1936: Fridericus – director: Johannes Meyer
- 1937: Das schöne Fräulein Schragg – director: Hans Deppe
- 1942: The Great King – director: Veit Harlan
In the 2004 German film Der Untergang (Downfall), Adolf Hitler is shown sitting in a dark room forlornly gazing at a painting of Frederick. This is based on an incident witnessed by Rochus Misch.
The 2012 German made-for-television film Friedrich – ein deutscher König (Frederick – a German King) starred the actresses Katharina Thalbach and her daughter Anna Thalbach in the title roles as the old and young king respectively.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- 24 January 1712 – 31 May 1740 – His Royal Highness The Crown Prince [of Prussia]
- 31 May 1740 – 19 February 1772 – His Majesty The King in Prussia.
- 19 February 1772 – 17 August 1786 – His Majesty The King of Prussia.
- Royal Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter
- Master and Sovereign of the Order of the Black Eagle 1740–1786
- List of people from Berlin
- Battle of Hohenfriedberg
- Der Hohenfriedberger (Marsch)
- Battle of Kolín
- Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf
- Battle of Rossbach
- Battle of Liegnitz (1760)
- Treaty of Hubertusburg
- First Partition of Poland
- Pierre Louis Maupertuis
- but critical of Christianity nonetheless
- Letters of Voltaire and Frederick the Great (New York: Brentano's, 1927), trans. Richard Aldington, letter 37 from Frederick to Voltaire (June 1738)
- Christianity ... is an old metaphysical fiction, stuffed with fables, contradictions and absurdities: it was spawned in the fevered imagination of the Orientals, and then spread to our Europe, where some fanatics espoused it, where some intriguers pretended to be convinced by it and where some imbeciles actually believed it. Attributed in "The West and the Rest", by Niall Ferguson, Penguin 2011 (Kindle edition).
- Frederick was the third and last "King in Prussia"; beginning in 1772 he used the title "King of Prussia".
- Richard 1913, p. 383.
- see Antimachiavel. In: "Œuvres". Vol. 8, p. 66, and "Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de la maison de Brandenbourg". In: "Œuvres", Vol. 1, P. 123.
- Stanislaw Salmonowicz, "Was Frederick the Great an Enlightened Absolute Ruler?" Polish Western Affairs (1981) 22#1 pp. 56–69
- William Langer, Western Civilization (1968) p 193
- Conquest: How Societies Overwhelm Others by David Day, Oxford University Press, p. 212, 2008
- Mitford 2013, p. 59.
- G. P. Gooch, Frederick the Great: The Ruler, the Writer, the Man (1947) pp. 343–376; quote p. 346
- Hoffmann, Hilmar (30 August 1997). The Triumph of Propaganda: Film and National Socialism, 1933-1945, Volume 1. p. 49.
- Jürgen Angelow, "Kontexte ungleicher Deutung", Zeitschrift für Religions- und Geistesgeschichte (2004) 56#2 pp 136–151.
- Schieder (2000). Frederick the Great, pp. 43–44.
- MacDonogh 2001, p. 37.
- MacDonogh 2001, p. 35.
- Reiners, p. 33
- Margaret Goldsmith (1929). Frederick the Great. C. Boni. [Van Rees Press]. p. 50.
- MacDonogh 2001, p. 63.
- Reiners, p. 41
- Mitford 2013, p. 35.
- Reiners, p. 52
- Reiners, p. 63
- Reiners, p. 69
- Reiners, p. 71
- MacDonogh 2001, p. 125.
- Duffy, Christopher "Frederick the Great: A Military Life" pp. 20.
- Michael Sontheimer (June 2016). "Altes Reich und neue Macht: Unterschiedlicher als der Preuße Friedrich II. und die Östericherin Maria Theresa konnten Rivalen kaum sein. Ihr Machtkampf spaltete das Reich". Das Reich der Deuschen 962-1871: Eine Nation entsteht. Der Spiegel: 106–107.
- Richard A. Billows (1995). The king, the army and Macedonian imperialism. Kings and Colonists: Aspects of Macedonian Imperialism. E.J.Brill, Leiden, New York & Cologne. p. 17. ISBN 90-04-10177-2.
- Clémentine Baron (9 May 2015). "La Prusse n'est pas un pays qui a une armée, c'est une armée qui a un pays". Les citations historiques : Mirabeau et la Prusse. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
- Luvaas 1966, p. 3.
- Asprey 1986, p. 141.
- Asprey 1986, p. 154.
- Luvaas 1966, p. 136.
- Asprey 1986, pp. 196–203.
- Asprey 1986, p. 203.
- Luvaas 1966, p. 4.
- Luvaas 1966, p. 46.
- Asprey 1986, p. 220.
- Asprey 1986, p. 279.
- Asprey 1986, p. 289.
- Asprey 1986, p. 292.
- Asprey 1986, p. 293.
- Asprey 1986, p. 294.
- Luvaas 1966, p. 5.
- Asprey 1986, p. 337.
- Asprey 1986, p. 347.
- MacDonogh 2001, p. 246.
- MacDonogh 2001, p. 248.
- For a quick overview of the conflict, see: Marston, Daniel. The Seven Years' War. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2001.
- Schieder (1983). Friedrich der Grosse. Ein Königtum der Widersprüche, p. 188.
- Cited from: The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, and General Information, (1910), Volume 9. p. 285.
- Anderson 2001, p. 492.
- Anderson 2001, pp. 492–493.
- Anderson 2001, p. 493.
- Stone (2006). Fighting for the Fatherland: The Story of the German Soldier from 1648 to the Present Day. p. 82.
- F.A.J. Szabo (2008) The Seven Years War in Europe, p. 386
- R. Middleton (1985) The Bells of Victory. The Pitt-Newcastle Ministry and the Conduct of the Seven Years’War 1757-1762, p. 201-213
- THE ANGLO‐PRUSSIAN BREACH OF 1762: AN HISTORICAL REVISION by FRANK SPENCER
- The Parliamentary Debates: Official Reports, Band 15. Great Britain. Parliament
- England, Prussia, and the Seven Years War: Studies in Alliance Policies and ... by Karl W. Schweizer, p. 97
- The Berlin Jewish Community: Enlightenment, Family and Crisis, 1770-1830 by Steven M. Lowenstein, p. 26
- Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia, 1600-1947 by Christopher Clark
- How Jews Became Germans: The History of Conversion and Assimilation in Berlin by Deborah Hertz
- Duffy, Christopher "Frederick the Great: A Military Life" (1985) pp. 245
- Polish Western Affairs, Volume 32 Instytut Zachodni 1991, page 114
- Przegląd humanistyczny, Tom 22, Wydania 3-6 Państwowe Wydawn. Naukowe, 1978 page 104
- Przegląd humanistyczny, Tom 22, Wydania 3-6 Państwowe Wydawn. Naukowe, 1978, 108
- Localism, Landscape and the Ambiguities of Place: German-Speaking Central Europe, 1860–1930 By David Blackbourn and James Retallack German and European Studies University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, page 157
- Compare: Ritter, Gerhard (1936). Frederick the Great; a Historical Profile. Historical Profile. University of California Press (published 1968). p. 180. Retrieved 2014-12-04.
He did not, however, prefer Germans for the sake of their nationality but because they were better workers than the 'slovenly Polish trash.' [...] As Frederick repeatedly emphasized, the race and religion of the newcomers were of no concern to him.
- Przegląd humanistyczny, Tom 22, Wydania 3–6 Jan Zygmunt Jakubowski Państwowe Wydawn. Naukowe, 2000, page 105
- Ritter, p. 192
- Hans-Jürgen Bömelburg, Friedrich II. zwischen Deutschland und Polen: Ereignis- und Erinnerungsgeschichte (Stuttgart: Alfred Kröner Verlag, 2011) p 88
- Clark 2006, p. 239.
- Karin Friedrich, The Other Prussia: Royal Prussia, Poland and Liberty, 1569–1772 p. 189
- Jerzy Tadeusz Lukavski (2013). Libertys Folly:Polish Lithuan. Routledge. p. 176.
- Davies, Norman (1996). Europe: A History. Oxford University Press (published 2010). p. 663. ISBN 978-1-4070-9179-2. Retrieved 2014-12-04.
The Prussians had bombarded Polish customs posts on the Vistula, thereby ending all preparations for a modern fiscal system.
- MacDonogh 2001, p. 78.
- Hamish M. Scott, The emergence of the Eastern powers 1756–1775 Cambridge University Press 2001, page 176
- Magda Teter (2005), Jews and Heretics in Catholic Poland: A Beleaguered Church in the Post-Reformation Era, pp. 58-60.
- The Emergence of the Eastern Powers, 1756–1775 by H. M. Scott, page 177
- The Emergence of the Eastern Powers, 1756–1775 By H. M. Scott, page 177
- The Emergence of the Eastern Powers, 1756–1775 By H. M. Scott, page 177-178
- Reiners, p.250
- Koch, p. 136
- Norbert Finszch and Dietmar Schirmer. Identity and Intolerance: Nationalism, Racism, and Xenophobia in Germany and the United States (Cambridge University Press, 2006). ISBN 0-521-59158-9
- The Other Prussia: Royal Prussia, Poland and Liberty, 1569–1772 Karin Friedrich, page 16
- Clark 2006, pp. 232–233.
- Duch Rzeczypospolitej Jerzy Surdykowski – 2001 Wydawn. Nauk. PWN, 2001, page 153
- Polszczyzna Niemców Maria Brzezina Państwowe Wydawnictwo. Naukowe, page 26, 1989
- Polacy i Niemcy wobec siebie: postawy, opinie, stereotypy (1697–1815) : próba zarysu Stanisław Salmonowicz Ośrodek Badań Nauk. im. Wojciecha Kętrzyńskiego w Olsztynie, 1993 page 86
- Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966-1945, page 148 Jerzy Jan Lersk
- Mniejszości narodowe w Polsce: 1918–1995 Henryk Chałupczak, Tomasz Browarek Wydawn. Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, page 123
- Conquest: How Societies Overwhelm Others David Day, page 212 Oxford University Press 2012
- The Holocaust as Colonial Genocide: Hitler's 'Indian Wars' in the 'Wild East' Carroll P. Kakel II, page 29, Palgrave Macmillan page 213
- Mitford 2013, p. 218.
- MacDonogh 2001, p. 363.
- Simms 2013, p. 129.
- Simms 2013, pp. 129–130.
- Blanning (2008). The Pursuit of Glory: The Five Revolutions that Made Modern Europe: 1648–1815, p. 283.
- Koch, p. 126
- Koch, p. 160
- Clark 2006, p. 307.
- Carl von Clausewitz, On War; see for instance Book 7, Chapter 13.
- Richard Holmes and Martin Marix Evans (2009). A Guide to Battles: Decisive Conflicts in History, p. 102.
- Archer, Ferris, Herwig, & Travers (2008). World History of Warfare, p. 337.
- Holmes & Evans (2009). A Guide to Battles: Decisive Conflicts in History, pp. 105-107.
- Goerlitz (1985). History of the German General Staff, p. 5.
- Stone (2006). Fighting for the Fatherland: The Story of the German Soldier from 1648 to the Present Day. p. 86.
- Luvaas 1966, pp. 18–22.
- Reiners, pp.247–248
- Robert M. Citino, The German Way of War: From the Thirty Years' War to the Third Reich (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2008), p. 36.
- Showalter (1996). The Wars of Frederick the Great, p. 67.
- Frederick the Great, Oeuvres XXVIII: 42, as found in On War and Leadership: The Words of Combat Commanders from Frederick the Great to Norman Schwarzkopf, by Owen Connelly (2002), p. 15.
- Goerlitz (1985). History of the German General Staff, 1657–1945, pp. 5-7.
- Goerlitz (1985). History of the German General Staff, 1657–1945, p. 7.
- Frederick the Great, Oeuvres XXVII: 39, as found in On War and Leadership: The Words of Combat Commanders from Frederick the Great to Norman Schwarzkopf, by Owen Connelly (2002), p. 13.
- Egremont (2011). Forgotten Land: Journeys among the Ghosts of East Prussia, p. 36.
- Fredrick the Great, Oeuvres XXVIII: 84, as found in On War and Leadership: The Words of Combat Commanders from Frederick the Great to Norman Schwarzkopf, by Owen Connelly (2002), p. 10.
- Ozment (2005). A Mighty Fortress: A New History of the German People, pp. 140-141.
- Blanning (1998). The Oxford History of Modern Europe, p. 78.
- William Langer, Western Civilization (1968) pp 192-94
- Rebellious Prussians: Urban Political Culture Under Frederick the Great and his successors von Florian Schui
- Frederick the Great by Theodor Schieder, H.R. Scott, Sabina Krause, p. 207
- Ritter, Gerhard (1974). Frederick the Great: A Historical Profile. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 178. ISBN 0-520-02775-2.
- W.O. Henderson, Studies in the Economic Policy of Frederick the Great (1963) ch 3 online
- I. Mittenzwei, p. 135-136; 139
- Jews Welcome Coffee: Tradition and Innovation in Early Modern Germany Robert Liberles page 29
- A History of Modern Germany: 1648–1840, Volume 1 Hajo Holborn, page 274
- Amos Elon (2002) The Pity Of It All. A History of Jews in Germany 1743–1933, pp. 2, 3. ISBN 0805059644
- Ellen Judy Wilson; Peter Hanns Reill. Encyclopedia Of The Enlightenment. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- John G. Gagliardo, Germany under the Old Regime, 1600–1790 (London: Longman, 1991), p. 148.
- Brunhouse, Jay. Maverick Guide to Berlin. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- MacDonogh 2001, p. 347.
- W.O. Henderson, Studies in the Economic Policy of Frederick the Great (London: Frank Cass, 1963) p 90
- Stern, p. 19
- Polacy i Niemcy wobec siebie: postawy, opinie, stereotypy (1697–1815) : próba zarysu Stanisław Salmonowicz Ośrodek Badań Nauk. im. Wojciecha Kętrzyńskiego w Olsztynie, 1993 page 88
- Gerhard Ritter Frederick the Great: a historical profile. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975; p. 180
- Arthur Edward Waite (2013). A New Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Volume I. Cosimo, Inc. pp. 287–8.
- James Van Horn Melton (2001). The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 267.
- "Picture Gallery at Sanssouci Park in Potsdam celebrates 250th anniversary with exhibition", artdaily.org
- For more details, see Paul Seidel, "Friedrich der Große als Sammler von Gemälden und Skulpturen", Jahrbuch der Königlich-Preußischen Kunstsammlungen 13 (1892), pp. 183ff.; Hans-Joachim Giersberg and Claudia Meckel, eds., Friedrich II. und die Kunst, 2 vols. (Potsdam 1986); Helmut Börsch-Supan, "Friedrichs des Großen Umgang mit Bildern", Zeitschrift des Deutschen Vereins für Kunstwissenschaft 42 (1988), pp. 23ff.
- Michael O'Loghlin, Frederick the Great and his Musicians: The Viola da Gamba Music of the Berlin School (2008)
- Sabine Henze-Döhring, Friedrich der Große: Musiker und Monarch (Munich 2012).
- An enlightening and entertaining depiction of Frederick's meeting with Johann Sebastian Bach is found in James R. Gaines' Evening in the Palace of Reason: Bach Meets Frederick the Great in the Age of Enlightenment. New York: Harper Perennial, 2006.
- Frederick II, Jean-Paul Bled
- MacDonogh 2001, p. 370.
- Frédéric II, Jean-Paul Bled
- History of Germany, Joseph Rovan
- An Essay On German Literature; Frederick the great
- Des mœurs, des coutumes, de l'industrie, des progrès de l'esprit humain dans les arts et dans les sciences, Frederick the Great
- Frédéric II, Jean-Paul Bled
- Die Zweisprachigkeit Friedrichs des Großen: Ein linguistisches Porträt, Corina Petersilka
- Koch, p. 138
- David Blackbourn, "Conquests from Barbarism: Taming Nature in Frederick the Great's Prussia," in Christof Mauch, ed., Nature in German History (2004) pp 10-30, quote p. 13
- David Blackbourn, "Conquests from Barbarism: Taming Nature in Frederick the Great's Prussia,"; "Conquests from Barbarism: Interpreting Land Reclamation in 18th Century Prussia" earlier version online
- Niemann, Christoph (14 October 2012). "The Legend of the Potato King". The New York Times.
- Blackbourn, David (2006). The Conquest of Nature. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. pp. 31–32. ISBN 978-0-393-06212-0.
- "Friedrich ist der Begründer der Tiermedizin in Deutschland". Süddeutsche Zeitung. 24 January 2013.
- Mary Terrall, "The Culture of Science in Frederick the Great's Berlin", History of Science, Dec 1990, Vol. 28 Issue 4, pp. 333–364
- Hans Aarsleff, "The Berlin Academy under Frederick the Great", History of the Human Sciences, May 1989, Vol. 2 Issue 2, pp. 193–206
- Reinhard Alings, "Don't ask – don't tell: War Friedrich schwul?" In Friederisiko: Friedrich der Große: Die Ausstellung (Munich: Hirmer, 2012), pp. 238-247.
- Blanning 2016, pp. 55–56, 77.
- Wolfgang Burgdorf, Friedrich der Große (Freiburg: Herder 2011), pp. 67ff.
- Peter-Michael Hahn, Friedrich II. von Preußen: Feldherr, Autokrat und Selbstdarsteller (Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer 2013), chapter 2.
- Susan W. Henderson, "Frederick the Great of Prussia: A Homophile Perspective", Gai Saber 1, no. 1 (1977), pp. 46-54.
- Blanning 2016, p. 230.
- Mitford 1970, p. 34.
- Harper's New Monthly Magazine, Vol. 40, 1870
- See also Oliver Das Gupta, "300 Jahre Friedrich der Große – Der schwule Fritz", Süddeutsche Zeitung, 23 January 2012.
- MacDonogh 2001, p. 71.
- Norbert Schmitz, Der italienische Freund: Francesco Algarotti und Friedrich der Große (Hanover: Wehrhahn 2012).
- Hadley, Kathryn Frederick the Great's Erotic Poem, History Today, 2011; p71 http://www.historytoday.com/blog/2011/09/frederick-greats-erotic-poem#sthash.IurkBhsy.dpuf
- L. Reiners, Frederick the Great, New York, 1960
- "Magnificent Monarchs" p. 8 (Fact Attack series) by Ian Locke; published by MacMillan UK in 1999; ISBN 978-0330-374965
- Bernd Krysmanski, Das einzig authentische Porträt des Alten Fritz? Is the only true likeness of Frederick the Great to be found in Hogarth's 'Marriage A-la-Mode'? Dinslaken 2015.
- ""Hogarth's Portrait of Frederick the Great" - Giles MacDonogh – Blog". www.macdonogh.co.uk.
- Blanning 2016, p. 481.
- Ursula Pia Jauch, Friedrichs Tafelrunde und Kants Tischgesellschaft: Ein Versuch über Preußen zwischen Eros, Philosophie und Propaganda (Berlin 2014).
- J.D. Steakley, Sodomy in Enlightenment Prussia, Journal of Homosexuality, 16, 1/2 (1988): 163–175
- MacDonogh 2001, p. 117.
- Louis Crompton, Homosexuality & Civilization (Cambridge, MA and London 2003), pp. 504-518.
- Voltaire, Mémoires pour servir à la vie de M. de Voltaire ėcrits par lui-même, ed, Paris: Le Livre de poche, 1998
- Johnson, E. Joe; Wells, Bryon, An American Voltaire, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, p242
- MacDonogh 2001, pp. 341, 382.
- S. W. Henderson, "Frederick the Great of Prussia: a homophile perspective", Gai Saber; 1,1 (1977): 46–54.
- Klaus Büstrin, ' "Ich habe gemeinet, du häst mihr lieb": Friedrichs enge Beziehungen zu seinem Kammerdiener Fredersdorf', Potsdamer Neueste Nachrichten, 1 September 2012.
- The text of the treaty. Thomas Jefferson signed on behalf of the United States in Paris, Benjamin Franklin in Passy, and John Adams in London; on behalf of the king of Prussia, Friedrich Wilhelm von Thulemeyer signed the agreement in Den Haag.
- Ritter, p. 200
- MacDonogh 2001, p. 366.
- MacDonogh 2001, p. 380.
- Alford, Kenneth D. (2000). Nazi Plunder: Great Treasure Stories of World War II. Da Capo Press. p. 102.
- Jones, Tamara (1991). "Frederick the Great at Peace--Not Germany". Los Angeles Times.
- G. P. Gooch, Frederick the Great: The Ruler, the Writer, the Man (1947) p 343
- G. P. Gooch, Frederick the Great (1947) p 346
- Michael Bentley (2002). Companion to Historiography. Taylor & Francis. pp. 398–400, 414–415.
- Kershaw (2001). Hitler: 1936–1945, Nemesis, pp. 610–611.
- Gooch, Frederick the Great (1947) pp 343–376
- Ritter, Frederick the Great pp 191–193
- Andreas Dorpalen, "Historiography as History: The Work of Gerhard Ritter". Journal of Modern History (1962) (March, 1962), p 9
- Kershaw (2001). Hitler: 1936–1945, Nemesis, p. 277.
- Craig (1980). Germany, 1866–1945, p. 543.
- Clark 2006, pp. 680, 686.
- Dennis Showalter (2012). Frederick the Great: A Military History. Casemate Publishers. p. Introduction.
- Elizabeth Krimmer and Patricia Anne Simpson, eds. Enlightened War: German Theories and Cultures of Warfare from Frederick the Great to Clausewitz (Rochester, N.Y.: Camden House, 2011)
- T.C.W. Blanning, "Frederick the Great" in H.M. Scott, ed., Enlightened Absolutism (1990) pp 265–288
- Peter Paret, "Frederick the Great: A Singular Life, Variably Reflected", Historically Speaking (Jan. 2012) 13#1 pp 29–33
- Historic Reeseville, Early King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, archived from the original on 2006-05-31, retrieved 2017-03-16
- "The Great King". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 July 2008.
- Erwin Leiser (1974) Nazi Cinema; tr. Gertrud Mander and David Wilson. London: Secker and Warburg ISBN 0-02-570230-0; p. 116
- Schnoor, Stefan; Klinge, Boris (15 May 2011). "The Last Survivor of Hitler's Downfall – The Führer's Bodyguard Gives Last Interview". Daily Express. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- "Frederick the Great". Board Games Geek. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- Laveaux, C.J. & King of Prussia, F (1789). The life of Frederick the Second, King of Prussia: To which are added observations, Authentic Documents, and a Variety of Anecdotes. J. Derbett London.
- Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 16.
- Anderson, Fred (2001). Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-375-70636-3.
- Archer, Christon I., John R. Ferris, Holger H. Herwig, and Timothy H. E. Travers. World History of Warfare. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2008.
- Asprey, Robert B. (1986). Frederick the Great: The Magnificent Enigma. New York: Ticknor & Fields. ISBN 0-89919-352-8.
- Blanning, T. C. W. The Oxford History of Modern Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
- ______________. The Pursuit of Glory: The Five Revolutions that Made Modern Europe: 1648–1815. New York: Penguin Books, 2008.
- Blanning, Tim (2016). Frederick the Great: King of Prussia. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-1-4000-6812-8.
- Citino, Robert Michael. The German Way of War: From the Thirty Years' War to the Third Reich. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2008.
- Clark, Christopher (2006). Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia 1600–1947. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-02385-4.
- Connelly, Owen. On War and Leadership: The Words of Combat Commanders from Frederick the Great to Norman Schwarzkopf. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002.
- Craig, Gordon. Germany, 1866–1945. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.
- Davies, Norman. Europe: A History, A Panorama of Europe, East and West, From the Ice-Age to the Cold War, From the Urals to Gibraltar. New York: Harper Perennial, 1998.
- Egremont, Max. Forgotten Land: Journeys among the Ghosts of East Prussia. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2011.
- Fraser, David (2000). Frederick the Great: King of Prussia. New York: Fromm International. ISBN 0-88064-261-0.
- Gaines, James R. Evening in the Palace of Reason: Bach Meets Frederick the Great in the Age of Enlightenment. New York: Harper Perennial, 2006.
- Goerlitz, Walter. History of the German General Staff, 1657–1945. Boulder and London: Westview Press, 1985 .
- Holmes, Richard, and Martin Marix Evans. A Guide to Battles: Decisive Conflicts in History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
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- Luvaas, Jay (1966). Frederick the Great on the Art of War. New York: Free Press. ISBN 978-1-111-78540-6.
- MacDonogh, Giles (2001). Frederick the Great: A Life in Deed and Letters. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0-312-27266-9.
- Mitford, Nancy (2013). Frederick the Great. New York: nyrb. ISBN 978-1-59017-623-8.
- Ozment, Steven. A Mighty Fortress: A New History of the German People. New York: Harper Perennial, 2005.
- Reiners, Ludwig (1960). Frederick the Great: A Biography. New York: G. P. Putnam & Sons.
- Richard, Ernst (1913). History of German Civilization. A General Survey. New York: Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 978-1-330-40480-5.
- Ritter, Gerhard (1936). Frederick the Great: A Historical Profile. English translation 1974 ed. by Peter Peret. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-02775-2.; Called by Russell Weigley "The best introduction to Frederick the Great and indeed to European warfare in his time."
- Schieder, Theodor. Frederick the Great. Edited and translated by Sabina Berkeley and H. M. Scott. Harlow and New York: Addison Wesley Longmann, 2000.
- _______________. Friedrich der Grosse. Ein Königtum der Widersprüche. Frankfurt: Propyläen Verlag, 1983.
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- Showalter, Dennis (2012). Frederick the Great: A Military History. Casemate Publishers.
- Simms, Brendan (2013). Europe: The Struggle for Supremacy, from 1453 to the Present. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-06486-1.
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- Stone, David J. Fighting for the Fatherland: The Story of the German Soldier from 1648 to the Present Day. Herndon, VA: Potomac Books, 2006.
- Teter, Magda. Jews and Heretics in Catholic Poland: A Beleaguered Church in the Post-Reformation Era. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
- Aksan, Virginia H. "An Ottoman portrait of Frederick the Great." Oriente Moderno 18.1 (1999): 203-215.
- Blanning, Tim. Frederick the Great: King of Prussia (2016), major new scholarly biography.
- Duffy, Christopher (1985). Frederick the Great: A Military Life. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-7100-9649-6.
- Duffy, Christopher (1974). The Army of Frederick the Great. Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-88254-277-X. OCLC 15481656.
- Figal, Sara Eigen. "When Brothers are Enemies: Frederick the Great's Catechism for War," Eighteenth-Century Studies (2009) 43#1 pp 21–36.
- Gooch, G. P. Frederick the Great, the Ruler, the Writer, the Man (1947).
- Haworth, Paul Leland. "Frederick the Great and the American Revolution." American Historical Review 9.3 (1904): 460-478. JSTOR free
- Horn, D.B. Frederick the Great and the Rise of Prussia (Harper & Row, 1969).
- Hubatsch, Walther (1975). Frederick the Great of Prussia: Absolutism and Administration. London: Thames and Hudson.
- Johnson, Hubert C. Frederick the Great and His Officials (Yale U.P. 1975)
- Palmer, R.R. "Frederick the Great, Guibert, Bulow," in Peter Paret et al. eds. Makers of Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age (2010) ch 6
- Pangels, Charlotte (1998). Friedrich der Große. Bruder, Freund und König. München: Diederichs. ISBN 3-424-01241-6.
- Rose, J. Holland. "Frederick the Great and England, 1756–1763 (Continued)." English Historical Review 29.114 (1914): 257-275. JSTOR
- Scott, H. M. "Aping the Great Powers: Frederick the Great and the Defence of Prussia's International Position, 1763-86." German History 12.3 (1994): 286.
- Showalter, Dennis E. The Wars of Frederick the Great (Modern Wars in Perspective) (1995), 384pp; on his armies and battles
- Simon, Edith. The making of Frederick the Great (1963).
- Telp, Claus. The evolution of operational art, 1740–1813: from Frederick the Great to Napoleon (Routledge, 2004)
- Browning, Reed. "New Views on the Silesian Wars," Journal of Military History (2005) 69#2 pp 521–534 online
- Dorpalen, Andreas. "Historiography as History: The Work of Gerhard Ritter," Journal of Modern History (1962) 34#1 pp 1–18. in JSTOR
- Paret, Peter. "Frederick the Great: A Singular Life, Variably Reflected," Historically Speaking (Jan. 2012) 13#1 online
- Luvaas, Jay, ed. Frederick the Great on The Art Of War (1999)
- Kunisch Johannes: Friedrich der Große. Der König und seine Zeit. 4. edition, Munich 2005 (standard biography)
- Luh, Jürgen, Der Große. Friedrich II. von Preußen (München, 2011)
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- Works by King of Prussia Frederick II at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Frederick the Great at Internet Archive
- Digital edition of Frederick the Great's Works by Trier University Library (in German and French)
- Voltaire and Frederick the Great by Lytton Strachey
- Story about Frederick and Madame de Pompadour (in German)
- Free scores at the Mutopia Project
- History of Frederick II of Prussia by Thomas Carlyle Project Gutenberg Ebook
-  Frederick's Political Testament
- Free scores by Frederick the Great at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)
- "In Our Time: Frederick the Great" BBC discussion with Tim Blanning, Katrin Kohl and Thomas Bishop, hosted by Melvyn Bragg, first broadcast July 2, 2015.
- Friedrich (1789). [Opere]. 4. A Berlin: chez Voss et fils, et Decker et fils, et chez Treuttel.
- Friedrich (1849). Oeuvres poètiques. 2. Berlin: Imprimerie Royale R. Decker.
- Friedrich (1849). Poésies posthumes. 1. Berlin: Imprimerie Royale R. Decker.
- Friedrich (1849). Poésies posthumes. 2. Berlin: Imprimerie Royale R. Decker.
- Friedrich (1850). Oeuvres poètiques de Frédéric 2. roi de Prusse. Berlin: Imprimerie Royale R. Decker.
- Friedrich (1849). Oeuvres poètiques. 1. Berlin: Imprimerie Royale R. Decker.
Frederick the GreatBorn: 24 January 1712 Died: 17 August 1786
Frederick William I
| King in Prussia
as King of Prussia
| Elector of Brandenburg
Prince of Neuchâtel
Frederick William II
|| King of Prussia|
| Prince of East Frisia|