The Histories (Polybius)
Polybius’ Histories were written in 40 volumes, only the first five of which are extant in their entirety. The bulk of the work was passed down through collections of excerpts kept in libraries in Byzantium. Polybius, a historian from the Greek city of Megalopolis in Arcadia, was taken as a hostage to Rome after the Roman defeat of the Achaean League, there he began to write an account of the rise of Rome to a world power. Polybius' Histories begin in the year 264 BC and end in 146 BC, he is concerned with the 53 years in which Ancient Rome became a dominant world power. This period, from 220 -- 167 BC, saw gain control over Hellenistic Greece. Books I through V cover the affairs of important states at the time and deal extensively with the First and Second Punic Wars. In Book VI he describes the Roman Constitution and outlines the powers of the consuls and People, he concludes that the success of the Roman state was based on their mixed constitution, which combined elements of a democracy and monarchy.
The remainder of the Histories discusses the period in which Rome came to dominate the Mediterranean, from the defeat of Hannibal in 201 B. C. to the destruction of Carthage and the Greek city-state of Corinth in 146 B. C. Tyche, which means fate or fortune, plays an integral role in Polybius’ understanding of history. Tyche takes on a double meaning in his work, it can mean fortune or happenstance, but tyche was personified as a goddess according to Hellenistic convention. The exploration of Tyche is the impetus for Polybius beginning his work, in that he discusses the fortunate events that led to Rome’s domination of the Mediterranean. In Book VI Polybius digresses into an explanation of the Roman constitution and he shows it to be mixed; the purpose for this is involved in the Hellenistic nature of the work his Greek audience. Greeks at this time believed that the strength of a state is manifested in the strength of its constitution; the mixed constitution was touted as the strongest constitution as it combined the three integral types of government: monarchy and democracy.
Polybius makes further distinction in the forms of government by including the nefarious counterparts to the ones mentioned above. These governments, according to Polybius, cycle in a process called anacyclosis, which begins with monarchy and ends with ochlocracy; the Romans avoided this problem through the structure of their Republic. The first English translation, made by Christopher Watson, was published in London in 1568 as The hystories of the most famous and worthy cronographer Polybius. F. W. Walbank wrote a comprehensive commentary on the Histories in three volumes, published in 1957. Herodotus Thucydides Xenophon Mogens Herman Hansen 1995, Sources for the Ancient Greek City-State: Symposium, August, 24-27 1994, Kgl. Danske, Videnskabernes Selskab, 376 pages ISBN 87-7304-267-6 Robert Pashley, Travels in Crete, 1837, J. Murray C. Michael Hogan, Jan. 23, 2008, The Modern Antiquarian Polybius. The Rise of the Roman Empire. Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-044362-2. English and Greek version The Histories Translation by W. R. Paton Short introduction to the life and work of Polybius Polybius and the Founding Fathers: the separation of powers
Tabaristan known as Tapuria, was the name applied to Mazandaran, a province in northern Iran. Although the natives of the region knew it as Mazandaran, the region was called Tabaristan from the Arab conquests to the Seljuk period; the Amardians are believed to have been the earliest inhabitants of the region where modern day Mazanderan and Gilan are located. The establishment of the early great kingdom dates back to about the first millennium BCE when the Hyrcanian kingdom was founded with Sadracarta as its capital, its extent was so large. The first known dynasty were the Faratatians. During the rise of the Parthians, many of the Amerdians were forced into exile to the southern slopes of the Alborz mountains known today as Varamin and Garmsar, the Tabaris replaced them in the region. During the indigenous Gushnaspian dynasty, many of the people adopted Christianity. In 418 CE, the Tapurian calendar was designed and its use implemented; the Gashnaspians ruled the region until 528 CE, after a long period of fighting, the Sasanian King Kavadh I defeated the last Gashnaspian king.
When the Sasanian Empire fell, Yazdegerd III ordered Adhar Valash to cede the dominion to spahbed Gil Gavbara in 645 CE, while western and Southern Gilan and other parts of Gil's domain merged under the name of Tapuria. He chose Amol as capital of United Tapuria in 647 CE; the dynasty of Gil was known as Gavbareh in Gilan, as the Dabuyids in eastern Tapuria. Mazandaranis and Gilaks were among the first groups of Iranians to fight against Islam. Tabaristan was one of the last parts of Persia to fall to the Muslim Conquest, maintaining resistance until 761, when local rulers became vassals of the Abassid Caliphate. After this, Tabaristan remained independent of direct control of the Caliphate, underwent numerous power struggles and rebellions. In the early 9th century, for example, a Zoroastrian by the name of Mazyar rebelled, taking control of Tabaristan and persecuting Muslims there before his ultimate execution in 839. After this rebellion, the territory was restored to the control of the Bavand dynasty, who ruled there as vassals of various successive empires, including the Seljuks and Mongols.
The area of Tabaristan gained a large Shi'ite element, by 900, a Zaydi Shi'ite kingdom was established under the Alavids. In 930, a Zoroastrian commander named Mardavij established the Ziyarid dynasty and conquered much of northern Persia before being betrayed and killed in 935 CE; the Ziyarid dynasty continued to rule over much of Tabaristan until its demise in 1090 CE. While the Dabuyids controlled the lowlands, the Sokhrayans governed the mountain regions. Vandad Hormozd ruled the region for about 50 years until 1034 CE. After 1125 CE, an increase in conversion to Islam was achieved, not by the Arab Caliphs, but by the Imam's ambassadors. Tapuria remained independent until 1596, when Shah Abbas I, Mazandarani on his mother's side, incorporated Mazandaran into his Safavid empire, forcing many Armenians, Georgians and Qajar Turks to settle in Mazandaran. Pietro della Valle, who visited a town near Pirouzcow in Mazandaran in 1618, noted that Mazandarani women never wore the veil and didn't hesitate to talk to foreigners.
He noted the large amount of Circassians and Georgians in the region, that he had never encountered people with as much civility as the Mazandaranis. Today, Persia proper, Mazanderan on the Caspian Sea and many other lands of this empire are all full of Georgian and Circassian inhabitants. Most of them remain Christian to this day, but in a crude manner, since they have neither priest nor minister to tend them. After the Safavid period, the Qajars began to campaign south from Mazandaran with Agha Mohammad Khan who incorporated Mazandaran into his empire in 1782. On 21 March 1782, Agha Mohammad Shah proclaimed Sari as his imperial capital. Sari was the site of local wars in those years, which led to the transfer of the capital from Sari to Tehran by Fath Ali Shah. Inostranzev, M. Iranian Influence on Moslem Literature – Appendix I: Independent Zoroastrian Princes of Tabaristan. Khalifa Uthman bin Ghani. Islamic Conquests Muhammad B. Al-Hasan B. Isfandiyár. History of Tabaristán. Leiden, The Netherlands: E.
Euthydemus I was a Greco-Bactrian king in about 230 or 223 BC according to Polybius. Strabo, on the other hand, correlates his accession with internal Seleucid wars in 223–221 BC, his kingdom seems to have been substantial, including Sogdiana to the north, Margiana and Ariana to the south or east of Bactria. Euthydemus was a native of Magnesia, son of the Greek general Apollodotus, born c. 295 BC, who might have been son of Sophytes, by his marriage to a sister of Diodotus II and daughter of Diodotus I, born c. 250 BC, was the father of Demetrius I according to Strabo and Polybius. For Euthydemus himself was a native of Magnesia, he now, in defending himself to Teleas, said that Antiochus was not justified in attempting to deprive him of his kingdom, as he himself had never revolted against the king, but after others had revolted he had possessed himself of the throne of Bactria by destroying their descendants. Euthydemus sent off his son Demetrius to ratify the agreement. Antiochus, on receiving the young man and judging him from his appearance and dignity of bearing to be worthy of royal rank, in the first place promised to give him one of his daughters in marriage and next gave permission to his father to style himself king.
Little is known of his reign until 208 BC when he was attacked by Antiochus III the Great, whom he tried in vain to resist on the shores of the river Arius, the modern Herirud. Although he commanded 10,000 horsemen, Euthydemus lost a battle on the Arius and had to retreat, he successfully resisted a three-year siege in the fortified city of Bactra, before Antiochus decided to recognize the new ruler, to offer one of his daughters to Euthydemus's son Demetrius around 206 BC. As part of the peace treaty, Antiochus was given Indian war elephants by Euthydemus. Classical accounts relate that Euthydemus negotiated peace with Antiochus III by suggesting that he deserved credit for overthrowing the descendants of the original rebel Diodotus, that he was protecting Central Asia from nomadic invasions thanks to his defensive efforts: "...for if he did not yield to this demand, neither of them would be safe: seeing that great hords of Nomads were close at hand, who were a danger to both. The war lasted altogether three years and after the Seleucid army left, the kingdom seems to have recovered from the assault.
The death of Euthydemus has been estimated to 200 BC or 195 BC, the last years of his reign saw the beginning of the Bactrian invasion of South Asia. There exist many coins of Euthydemus, portraying him as a middle-aged and old man, he is featured on no less than three commemorative issues by kings, Antimachus I and one anonymous series. He was succeeded by Demetrius, his coins were imitated by the nomadic tribes of Central Asia for decades after his death. Coins of Euthydemus "Euthydemus". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
Demetrius I of Bactria
Demetrius I called Dharmamita, was a Hellenistic king of Gandhara. He was the son of the Greco-Bactrian ruler Euthydemus I and succeeded him around 200 BC, after which he conquered extensive areas in what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan, he was never defeated in battle and was posthumously qualified as the Invincible on the pedigree coins of his successor Agathocles. Demetrius I may have been the initiator of the Yavana era, starting in 186–185 BC, used for several centuries thereafter. "Demetrius" was the name of at least two and three Greek kings of Bactria. The much debated Demetrius II was a possible relative, whereas Demetrius III, is known only from numismatic evidence; the father of Demetrius, was attacked by the Seleucid ruler Antiochus III around 210 BC. Although he commanded 10,000 horsemen, Euthydemus lost a battle on the Arius and had to retreat, he successfully resisted a three-year siege in the fortified city of Bactra, before Antiochus decided to recognize the new ruler. The final negotiations were made between Antiochus Demetrius.
Antiochus III was highly impressed by the demeanour of the young prince, offered him one of his daughters in marriage, around 206 BC: "And after several journeys of Teleas to and fro between the two, Euthydemus at last sent his son Demetrius to confirm the terms of the treaty. Antiochus received the young prince. Polybius 11.34The term used for "young prince" is neaniskos, suggesting an age around 16, which in turn gives a birth date for Demetrius around 222 BC. In an inscription found in the Kuliab area of Tadjikistan, in western Greco-Bactria, dated to 200-195 BC, a Greek by the name of Heliodotos, dedicating a fire altar to Hestia, mentions Euthydemus as the greatest of all kings, his son as "Demetrios Kalinikos" "Demetrius the Glorious Conqueror": "Heliodotos dedicated this fragrant altar for Hestia, venerable goddess, illustrious amongst all, in the grove of Zeus, with beautiful trees. Demetrius started the invasion of northwestern India in 180 BC, following the destruction of the Mauryan dynasty by the general Pushyamitra Shunga, who founded the new Indian Shunga dynasty.
The Mauryans had diplomatic alliances with the Greeks, they may have been considered as allies by the Greco-Bactrians. The Greco-Bactrians may have invaded India in order to protect Greek populations in the subcontinent. Demetrius may have first started to recover the province of Arachosia, an area south of the Hindu Kush inhabited by many Greeks but ruled by the Mauryas since the annexation of the territory by Chandragupta from Seleucus. In his "Parthian stations", Isidorus of Charax mentions a colony named Demetrias founded by Demetrius himself: "Beyond is Arachosia, and the Parthians call this White India. As far as this place the land is under the rule of the Parthians." "Parthians stations", 1st century BCA Greek dedication inscribed on stone and discovered in Kuliab, a hundred kilometers northeast of Ai-Khanoum mentioned the victories of the prince Demetrius during the reign of his father: "Heliodotos dedicated this fragrant altar so that the greatest of all kings Euthydemus, as well as his son, the glorious and remarkable Demetrius, be preserved of all pains, with the help of the Fortune with divine thoughts" The Greek campaigns may have gone as far as the capital Pataliputra in eastern India: "Those who came after Alexander went to the Ganges and Pataliputra""The Greeks who caused Bactria to revolt grew so powerful on account of the fertility of the country that they became masters, not only of Ariana, but of India, as Apollodorus of Artemita says: and more tribes were subdued by them than by Alexander — by Menander in particular, for some were subdued by him and others by Demetrius, the son of Euthydemus the king of the Bactrians."
It is considered that Demetrius ruled in Taxila. The Indian records describes Greek attacks on Saketa, Panchala and Pataliputra. However, the campaigns to Pataliputra are attested to the king Menander I and Demetrius I only invaded areas in Pakistan. Other kings may have expanded the territory as well. By c. 175 BC, the Indo-Greeks ruled parts of northwestern India, while the Shungas remained in the Gangetic and Eastern India. The Hathigumpha inscription of the Kalinga king Kharavela mentions that fearing him, a Yavana king or general retreated to Mathura with his demoralized army; the name of the Yavana king is not clear, but it contains three letters, the middle letter can be read as ma or mi. Some historians, such as R. D. Banerji and K. P. Jayaswal reconstructed the name of the Yavana king as "Dimita", identified him with Demetrius. However, several other historians, such a
Antiochus II Theos
Antiochus II Theos was a Greek king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire who reigned from 261 to 246 BC. He succeeded his father Antiochus I Soter in the winter of 262–61 BC, he was the younger son of Antiochus I and princess Stratonice, the daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes. He inherited a state of war with Ptolemaic Egypt, the "Second Syrian War", fought along the coasts of Asia Minor, the constant intrigues of petty despots and restless city-states in Asia Minor. Antiochus made some attempt to get a footing in Thrace. During the war he was given the title Theos, being such to the Milesians in slaying the tyrant Timarchus. During the time Antiochus was occupied with the war against Egypt, his satrap in Parthia, proclaimed independence. According to Justin's epitome of Pompeius Trogus, in Bactria, his satrap Diodotus revolted in 255 BC, founded the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, which would further expand in India in 180 BC to form the Indo-Greek Kingdom. In 253 BC, in the aftermath of the Second Syrian War, Antiochus II made peace with the pharaoh Ptolemy II Philadelphus.
He divorced Laodice and married Ptolemy II's daughter Berenice, with the understanding that any children born from their union would inherit the Seleucid throne. Although no longer queen, Laodice was still a powerful and political influential figure. Antiochus gave Laodice various land grants throughout Anatolia. In a royal record at Sardis mentions her land titles were to be kept as royal land in disposal in grants or sales. During her stay in Ephesus, Laodice continued numerous intrigues to become queen again. By 246 BC Antiochus had left Berenice and their infant son Antiochus, in Antioch to live again with Laodice I in Asia Minor. Laodice took the occasion to poison Antiochus while her partisans at Antioch murdered Berenice and their infant son. Antiochus was buried in the Belevi Mausoleum. Laodice I proclaimed Seleucus II as King. With his cousin-wife Laodice I, Antiochus had two sons: Seleucus II Callinicus, Antiochus Hierax and three daughters: Apama, Stratonice of Cappadocia and Laodice.
An uncertain Antiochus is mentioned in the Edicts of Ashoka, as one of the recipients of the Indian Emperor Ashoka's Buddhist proselytism: "And this conquest has been won by the Beloved of the Gods here and in all the borderlands, as far as six hundred yojanas away, where Antiochus, king of the Yavanas rules, beyond this Antiochus four kings named Ptolemy, Antigonos and Alexander rule."Ashoka claims that he encouraged the development of herbal medicine, for men and animals, in the territories of the Hellenistic kings: "Everywhere within Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi's domain, among the people beyond the borders, the Cholas, the Pandyas, the Satiyaputras, the Keralaputras, as far as Tamraparni and where the Greek king Antiochus rules, among the kings who are neighbours of Antiochus, everywhere has Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi, made provision for two types of medical treatment: medical treatment for humans and medical treatment for animals. Wherever medical herbs suitable for humans or animals are not available, I have had them imported and grown.
Wherever medical roots or fruits are not available I have had them grown. Along roads I have had wells dug and trees planted for the benefit of humans and animals."Alternatively, the Greek king mentioned in the Edict of Ashoka could be Antiochus's father, Antiochus I Soter, who arguably had more proximity with the East. Antiochus II entry in'Seleucid Genealogy'
The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC. Seleucus received Babylonia and from there expanded his dominions to include much of Alexander's near-eastern territories. At the height of its power, the Empire included central Anatolia, the Levant and what is now Kuwait and parts of Pakistan and Turkmenistan; the Seleucid Empire became a major center of Hellenistic culture – it maintained the preeminence of Greek customs where a Greek political elite dominated in the urban areas. The Greek population of the cities who formed the dominant elite were reinforced by immigration from Greece. Seleucid expansion into Anatolia and Greece halted abruptly in the early 2nd century BC after decisive defeats at the hands of the Roman army. Seleucid attempts to defeat their old enemy. Having come into conflict in the East with Chandragupta Maurya of the Maurya Empire, Seleucus I entered into an agreement with Chandragupta whereby he ceded vast territory west of the Indus, including the Hindu Kush, modern-day Afghanistan, the Balochistan province of Pakistan and offered his daughter in marriage to the Maurya Emperor to formalize the alliance.
Antiochus III the Great attempted to project Seleucid power and authority into Hellenistic Greece, but his attempts were thwarted by the Roman Republic and by Greek allies such as the Kingdom of Pergamon, culminating in a Seleucid defeat at the 190 BC Battle of Magnesia. In the subsequent Treaty of Apamea in 188 BC, the Seleucids were compelled to pay costly war reparations and relinquished claims to territories west of the Taurus Mountains; the Parthians under Mithridates I of Parthia conquered much of the remaining eastern part of the Seleucid Empire in the mid-2nd century BC, while the independent Greco-Bactrian Kingdom continued to flourish in the northeast. However, the Seleucid kings continued to rule a rump state from Syria until the invasion by Armenian king Tigranes the Great in 83 BC and their ultimate overthrow by the Roman general Pompey in 63 BC. Contemporary sources, such as a loyalist degree from Ilium, in Greek language define the Seleucid state both as an empire and as a kingdom.
Seleucid rulers were described as kings in Babylonia. Starting from the 2nd century BC, ancient writers referred to the Seleucid ruler as the King of Syria, Lord of Asia, other designations, he refers to either Alexander Balas or Alexander II Zabinas as a ruler. Alexander, who conquered the Persian Empire under its last Achaemenid dynast, Darius III, died young in 323 BC, leaving an expansive empire of Hellenised culture without an adult heir; the empire was put under the authority of a regent in the person of Perdiccas, the territories were divided among Alexander's generals, who thereby became satraps, at the Partition of Babylon, all in that same year. Alexander's generals jostled for supremacy over parts of his empire. Ptolemy, a former general and the satrap of Egypt, was the first to challenge the new system. Ptolemy's revolt led to a new subdivision of the empire with the Partition of Triparadisus in 320 BC. Seleucus, "Commander-in-Chief of the Companion cavalry" and appointed first or court chiliarch received Babylonia and, from that point, continued to expand his dominions ruthlessly.
Seleucus established himself in Babylon in 312 BC, the year used as the foundation date of the Seleucid Empire. The rise of Seleucus in Babylon threatened the eastern extent of Antigonus I territory in Asia. Antigonus, along with his son Demetrius I of Macedon, unsuccessfully led a campaign to annex Babylon; the victory of Seleucus ensured his claim of legitimacy. He ruled not only Babylonia, but the entire enormous eastern part of Alexander's empire, as described by Appian:Always lying in wait for the neighboring nations, strong in arms and persuasive in council, he acquired Mesopotamia, Armenia,'Seleucid' Cappadocia, Parthia, Arabia, Sogdia, Arachosia and other adjacent peoples, subdued by Alexander, as far as the river Indus, so that the boundaries of his empire were the most extensive in Asia after that of Alexander; the whole region from Phrygia to the Indus was subject to Seleucus. In the region of Punjab, Chandragupta Maurya founded the Maurya Empire in 321 BC. Chandragupta conquered the Nanda Empire in Magadha, relocated to the capital of Pataliputra.
Chandragupta redirected his attention back to the Indus and by 317 BC he conquered the remaining Greek satraps left by Alexander. Expecting a confrontation, Seleucid marched to the Indus, it is said that Chandragupta himself fielded an army of 9,000 war elephants. Mainstream scholarship asserts that Chandragupta received vast territory, sealed in a treaty, west of the Indus, including the Hindu Kush, modern day Afghanistan, the Balochistan province of Pakistan. Archaeologically, concrete indications of Mauryan rule, such as the inscriptions of the Edicts of Ashoka, are known as far as Kandahar in southern Afghanistan. According to Appian: He [Sel