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Battle of the Boyne

The Battle of the Boyne was a battle in 1690 between the forces of the deposed King James II of England and Ireland, VII of Scotland and those of King William III who, with his wife Queen Mary II, had acceded to the Crowns of England and Scotland in 1689. The battle took place across the River Boyne close to the town of Drogheda in the Kingdom of Ireland, modern-day Republic of Ireland, resulted in a victory for William; this turned the tide in James's failed attempt to regain the British crown and aided in ensuring the continued Protestant ascendancy in Ireland. The battle took place on 1 July 1690 O. S. William's forces defeated James's army, which consisted of raw recruits. Although the Williamite War in Ireland continued until October 1691, James fled to France after the Boyne, never to return; the symbolic importance of this battle has made it one of the best-known battles in the history of the British Isles and a key part of the folklore of the Orange Order. Its commemoration today is principally by the Orange Order, which records the first commemorative parades as having been held in 1791.

The battle was a major encounter in James's attempt to regain the thrones of England and Scotland, resulting from the Invitation to William and William's wife, from the'immortal seven' English peers to take the throne to defend protestantism. But the conflict had broader and deeper European geopolitical roots, of the League of Augsburg and the Grand Alliance against the expansionist ambitions of catholic Louis XIV of France, or of the House of Bourbon against the House of Habsburg. If the battle is seen as part of the War of the Grand Alliance, Pope Alexander VIII was an ally of William and an enemy to James; the previous year William had sent the Duke of Schomberg to take charge of the Irish campaign. He was a 75-year-old professional soldier who had accompanied William during the Glorious Revolution, he brought an army of 20,000 men. Under his command, affairs had remained static and little had been accomplished because the English troops suffered from fever and the army's move south was blocked by Jacobite forces.

In an Irish context, the war was a sectarian and ethnic conflict, in many ways a re-run of the Irish Confederate Wars of 50 years earlier. For the Jacobites, the war was fought for Irish sovereignty, religious tolerance for Catholicism, land ownership; the Catholic upper classes had lost or had been forced to exchange all their lands after Cromwell's conquest, as well as the right to hold public office, practise their religion, sit in the Irish Parliament. To these ends, under Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnel, they had raised an army to restore James II after the Glorious Revolution. By 1690, they controlled all of Ireland except for Enniskillen; the majority of Irish people were Jacobites and supported James II due to his 1687 Declaration of Indulgence or, as it is known, the Declaration for the Liberty of Conscience, that granted religious freedom to all denominations in England and Scotland and due to James II's promise to the Irish Parliament of an eventual right to self-determination.

Conversely, for the Williamites in Ireland, the war was about maintaining protestant rule in Ireland. They feared for their lives and their property if James and his Catholic supporters were to rule Ireland, nor did they trust the promise of tolerance, seeing the Declaration of Indulgence as a ploy to re-establish Catholicism as the sole state religion. James had antagonised English protestants with his actions. In particular, they dreaded a repeat of the Irish Rebellion of 1641, marked by widespread killing. For these reasons, Protestants fought en masse for William of Orange. Many Williamite troops at the Boyne, including their effective irregular cavalry, were Ulster Protestants, who called themselves "Enniskilliners" and were referred to by contemporaries as "Scots-Irish"; these "Enniskilliners" were the descendants of Anglo-Scottish border reivers and large numbers of these reivers had settled around Enniskillen in County Fermanagh. The opposing armies in the battle were led by the Roman Catholic King James II of England and Ireland and, opposing him, his nephew and son-in-law, the Protestant King William III who had deposed James the previous year.

James's supporters controlled much of the Irish Parliament. James enjoyed the support of his cousin, Louis XIV, who did not want to see a hostile monarch on the throne of England. Louis sent 6,000 French troops to Ireland to support the Irish Jacobites. William was Stadtholder of the Netherlands and was able to call on Dutch and allied troops from Europe as well as England and Scotland. James was a seasoned officer who had proved his bravery when fighting in Europe, notably at the Battle of the Dunes. However, recent historians have suggested that he was prone to panicking under pressure and making rash decisions, which it has been suggested may have been due to poor health associated with the Stuart line. William, although a seasoned commander, had yet to win a major battle. William's success against the French had been reliant upon tactical manoeuvres and good diplomacy rather than force, his diplomacy had assembled the League of Augsburg, a multi-national coalition formed to resist French aggression in Europe.

From William's point of view, his taking power in England and the ensuing campaign in Ireland was just a

First normal form

First normal form is a property of a relation in a relational database. A relation is in first normal form if and only if the domain of each attribute contains only atomic values, the value of each attribute contains only a single value from that domain; the first definition of the term, in a 1971 conference paper by Edgar Codd, defined a relation to be in first normal form when none of its domains have any sets as elements. First normal form is an essential property of a relation in a relational database. Database normalization is the process of representing a database in terms of relations in standard normal forms, where first normal is a minimal requirement. First normal form enforces these criteria: Eliminate repeating groups in individual tables Create a separate table for each set of related data Identify each set of related data with a primary key The following scenarios first illustrate how a database design might violate first normal form, followed by examples that comply. Below is a table.

One requirement though is to retain multiple telephone numbers for some customers. The simplest way of satisfying this requirement is to allow the "Telephone Number" column in any given row to contain more than one value: The telephone number column contains multiple phone numbers in a single value. For example, the first row has two telephone numbers separated by a comma; the column values are not atomic: it can be subdivided into two numbers. This violates first normal form. An apparent solution is to introduce more columns: Technically, this table does not violate the requirement for values to be atomic. However, the two telephone number columns still form a "repeating group": they repeat what is conceptually the same attribute, namely a telephone number. An arbitrary and hence meaningless ordering has been introduced: why is 555-861-2025 put into the Telephone Number1 column rather than the Telephone Number2 column? There's no reason why customers could not have more than two telephone numbers, so how many Telephone NumberN columns should there be?

It is not possible to search for a telephone number without searching an arbitrary number of columns. Adding an extra telephone number may require the table to be reorganized by the addition of a new column rather than just having a new row added. To bring the model into the first normal form, we split the strings we used to hold our telephone number information into "atomic" entities: single phone numbers, and we ensure. Note that the "ID" is no longer unique in this solution with duplicated customers. To uniquely identify a row, we need to use a combination of; the value of the combination is unique. Being able to uniquely identify a row is a requirement of 1NF. An alternative design uses two tables: Columns do not contain more than one telephone number in this design. Instead, each Customer-to-Telephone Number link appears on its own row. Using Customer ID as key, a one-to-many relationship exists between the number tables. A row in the "parent" table, Customer Name, can be associated with many telephone number rows in the "child" table, Customer Telephone Number, but each telephone number belongs to one, only one customer.

It is worth noting that this design meets the additional requirements for second and third normal form. Edgar F. Codd's definition of 1NF makes reference to the concept of'atomicity'. Codd states that the "values in the domains on which each relation is defined are required to be atomic with respect to the DBMS." Codd defines an atomic value as one that "cannot be decomposed into smaller pieces by the DBMS" meaning a column should not be divided into parts with more than one kind of data in it such that what one part means to the DBMS depends on another part of the same column. Hugh Darwen and Chris Date have suggested that Codd's concept of an "atomic value" is ambiguous, that this ambiguity has led to widespread confusion about how 1NF should be understood. In particular, the notion of a "value that cannot be decomposed" is problematic, as it would seem to imply that few, if any, data types are atomic: A character string would seem not to be atomic, as the RDBMS provides operators to decompose it into substrings.

A fixed-point number would seem not to be atomic, as the RDBMS provides operators to decompose it into integer and fractional components. An ISBN would seem not to be atomic, as it includes publisher identifier. Date suggests that "the notion of atomicity has no absolute meaning": a value may be considered atomic for some purposes, but may be considered an assemblage of more basic elements for other purposes. If this position is accepted, 1NF cannot be defined with reference to atomicity. Columns of any conceivable data type are acceptable in a 1NF table—although not always desirable. According to Date's definition, a table is in first normal form if and only if it is "isomorphic to some relation", which means that it satisfies the following five conditions: There's no top-to-bottom ordering to the rows. There's no left-to-right ordering to the columns. There are no duplicate rows; every row-and-column intersection contains one value from the applicable domain. All columns are regular [i.e. rows have no hidden components such as row IDs, object IDs, or hidd

Tanasekharan Autherapady

Tanasekharan Autherapady is a Malaysian lawyer and politician. He is the former Democratic Action Party assemblyman for Bagan Dalam, Penang for two terms from 2008 to 2018. Tanasekharan was dropped by DAP as a candidate in the 2018 general election. Tanasekharan is currently serving as Vice Chairman for Penang Hindu Endowments Board. Tanasekharan was born in Kuala Kurau and received his primary school education in Wellesley Primary School Penang and secondary education in Penang Free School. Upon completing secondary education, he continued studying for Law in an External Programme with University of London and completed Law Degree in 1982