SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Battle of the Trench

The Battle of the Trench known as the Battle of Khandaq and the Battle of the Confederates, was a 30-day-long siege of Yathrib by Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the Medinan defenders numbered 3,000; the outnumbered defenders of Medina Muslims led by Islamic prophet Muhammad, dug a trench on the suggestion of Salman the Persian, which together with Medina's natural fortifications, rendered the confederate cavalry useless, locking the two sides in a stalemate. Hoping to make several attacks at once, the confederates persuaded the Muslim-allied Medinan Jews, Banu Qurayza, to attack the city from the south. However, Muhammad's diplomacy derailed the negotiations, broke up the confederacy against him; the well-organised defenders, the sinking of confederate morale, poor weather conditions caused the siege to end in a fiasco. The siege was a "battle of wits", in which the Muslims tactically overcame their opponents while suffering few casualties.

Efforts to defeat the Muslims failed, Islam became influential in the region. As a consequence, the Muslim army besieged the area of the Banu Qurayza tribe, leading to their surrender; the defeat caused the Meccans to lose much of their prestige. The battle is named after the "trench", or khandaq, dug by Muslims in preparation for the battle; the word khandaq is the Arabised form of the Persian word kandak. Salman the Persian advised Muhammad to dig a trench around the city; the battle is referred to as the Battle of Confederates. The Qur'an uses the term confederates in sura Al-Ahzab to denote the confederacy of non-believers and Jews against Islam. After their flight from Mecca, the Muslims fought the Meccan Quraysh at the Battle of Badr in 624, at the Battle of Uhud in 625. Although the Muslims neither won nor were defeated at the Battle of Uhud, their military strength was growing. In April 626 Muhammad raised a force of 300 men and 10 horses to meet the Quraysh army of 1,000 at Badr for the time.

Although no fighting occurred, the coastal tribes were impressed with Muslim power. Muhammad tried, with limited success, to break up many alliances against the Muslim expansion, he was unable to prevent the Meccan one. As they had in the battles of Badr and Uhud, the Muslim army again used strategic methods against their opponents. In this battle they dug a trench to render the enemy cavalry ineffective; the reason for this battle was to save Medina from attack, after Banu Nazir and Banu Qurayzah tribes formed an alliance with the Quraysh to attack him as revenge for expelling them from Medina during the Invasion of Banu Qaynuqa and Invasion of Banu Nadir. The Muslim scholar Ibn Kathir states: "The reason why the Confederates came was that a group of the leaders of the Banu Nadir, whom the Messenger of Allah had expelled from Al-Madinah to Khaybar, including Sallam bin Abu Al-Huqayq, Sallam bin Mishkam and Kinanah bin Ar-Rabi`, went to Makkah where they met with the leaders of Quraysh and incited them to make war against the Prophet" Early in 627, the Banu Nadir met with the Quraysh of Mecca.

Huyayy ibn Akhtab, along with other leaders from Khaybar, travelled to swear allegiance with Safwam ibn Umayya at Mecca. The bulk of the Confederate armies were gathered by the Quraysh of Makkah, led by Abu Sufyan, who fielded 4,000 foot soldiers, 300 horsemen, 1,000–1,500 men on camels; the Banu Nadir began rousing the nomads of Najd. The Nadir enlisted the Banu Ghatafan by paying them half of their harvest; this contingent, the second largest, added a strength of about 2,000 men and 300 horsemen led by Unaina bin Hasan Fazari. The Bani Assad agreed to join, led by Tuleha Asadi. From the Banu Sulaym, the Nadir secured 700 men, though this force would have been much larger had not some of its leaders been sympathetic towards Islam; the Bani Amir, who had a pact with Muhammad, refused to join. Other tribes included the Banu Murra, with 400 men led by Hars ibn Auf Murri, the Banu Shuja, with 700 men led by Sufyan ibn Abd Shams. In total, the strength of the Confederate armies, though not agreed upon by scholars, is estimated to have included around 10,000 men and six hundred horsemen.

In January 627 the army, led by Abu Sufyan, marched on Medina. In accordance with the plan the armies began marching towards Medina, Meccans from the south and the others from the east. At the same time horsemen from the Banu Khuza'a left to warn Medina of the invading army; the men from Banu Khuza'a reached Muhammad in four days, warning him of the Confederate armies that were to arrive in a week. Muhammad gathered the Medinans to discuss the best strategy of overcoming the enemy. Meeting the enemy in the open, waiting for them inside the city were both suggested; the outnumbered Muslims opted to engage in a defensive battle by digging deep trenches to act as a barrier along the northern front. The tactic of a defensive trench was introduced by Salman the Persian; every capable Muslim in Medina including Muhammad contributed to digging the massive trench in six days. The ditch was dug on the northern side only, as the rest of Medina was surr

Mis Favoritas

Mis Favoritas is a Latin music compilation album series by Sony Music initiated in 2010 and issued in the US and in Colombia. Some of the albums in the series charted on the main Latin album charts, for example the Mis Favoritas compilation for Gilberto Santa Rosa became the artist's 25th charting album. Other artists included: Rocío Jurado, Rocío Dúrcal, Elvis Crespo, Cuco Sánchez, José Feliciano, José Luis Perales, Juan Gabriel, José José, Sergio Vargas, Grupo Niche, Alexandre Pires, Javier Solís, Sergio Vega, El Tigrillo Palma, Banda Recodo de Cruz Lizarraga, Los Cuates de Sinaloa, Orquesta de la Luz, Vico C, Toby Love, Frankie J, Sin Bandera, Yolandita Monge, Diego Torres, Ednita Nazario, Melina León, Rey Ruiz, Milly Quezada, José Alfredo Jiménez, D. L. G. Banda Arkángel R-15, Julio Preciado, Los Caminantes, Alejandra Guzmán, Jerry Rivera, Willie Colón, Víctor Manuelle, Ana Gabriel, Ramon Ayala, Los Marineros del Norte, Sonora Santanera, Galy Galiano, Los Palominos, Banda Machos, Raúl di Blasio, Joe Arroyo, El Chapo de Sinaloa, Armando Manzanero, José Luis Rodríguez, Leo Dan, Willy Chirino, Los Humildes, Los Hermanos Mier, Johnny Ventura, Los Flamers, Bronco, La Mafia, Los Temerarios, Grupo Manía, Celia Cruz, Gerardo Reyes, Cristian Castro, Michael Salgado, Gloria Trevi, Gloria Estefan, Luis Enrique, Danny Rivera, Guardianes del Amor, Diomedes Díaz

Wyoming Highway 191

Wyoming Highway 191 is a 11.71-mile-long state highway in Johnson County, Wyoming. Wyoming Highway 191 begins its western end in the community of Mayoworth, located northwest of Kaycee. From there WYO 191 travels southeast towards Kaycee. Nearing its end the eastern terminus of Wyoming Highway 190, which serves the outlying community of Barnum, is intersected before meeting an interchange with I-25/US 87 at exit 254 in Kaycee. 0.16 miles WYO 191 reaches its eastern terminus at Wyoming Highway 196 and the western terminus of Wyoming Highway 192 in Kaycee. The entire route is in Johnson County. Wyoming Routes 100-199 WYO 191 - WYO 192/WYO 196 to I-25/US 87 WYO 191 - I-25/US 87 to WYO 190 WYO 191 - WYO 190 to Mayoworth Kaycee, WY Chamber of Commerce