A Bayer designation is a stellar designation in which a specific star is identified by a Greek or Latin letter followed by the genitive form of its parent constellation's Latin name. The original list of Bayer designations contained 1,564 stars; the brighter stars were assigned their first systematic names by the German astronomer Johann Bayer in 1603, in his star atlas Uranometria. Bayer catalogued only a few stars too far south to be seen from Germany, but astronomers supplemented Bayer's catalog with entries for southern constellations. Bayer assigned a lower-case Greek letter or a Latin letter to each star he catalogued, combined with the Latin name of the star's parent constellation in genitive form; the constellation name is abbreviated to a standard three-letter form. For example, Aldebaran in the constellation Taurus is designated α Tauri, which means "Alpha of the Bull". Bayer used Greek letters for the brighter stars, but the Greek alphabet has only twenty-four letters, while a single constellation may contain fifty or more stars visible to the naked eye.
When the Greek letters ran out, Bayer continued with Latin letters: upper case A, followed by lower case b through z, for a total of another 24 letters. Bayer did not label "permanent" stars with uppercase letters. However, a number of stars in southern constellations have upper-case letter designations, like B Centauri and G Scorpii; these letters were assigned by astronomers, notably Lacaille in his Coelum Australe Stelliferum and Gould in his Uranometria Argentina. Lacaille followed Bayer's use of Greek letters, he used first the lowercase letters, starting with a, if needed the uppercase letters, starting with A, thus deviating somewhat from Bayer's practice. Lacaille used the Latin alphabet three times over in the large constellation Argo Navis, once for each of the three areas that are now the constellations of Carina and Vela; that was still insufficient for the number of stars, so he used uppercase Latin letters such as N Velorum and Q Puppis. Lacaille assigned uppercase letters between R and Z in several constellations, but these have either been dropped to allow the assignment of those letters to variable stars or have turned out to be variable.
In most constellations, Bayer assigned Greek and Latin letters to stars within a constellation in rough order of apparent brightness, from brightest to dimmest. Since the brightest star in a majority of constellations is designated Alpha, many people assume that Bayer meant to order the stars by brightness. In Bayer's day, stellar brightness could not be measured precisely. Stars were traditionally assigned to one of six magnitude classes, Bayer ordered stars within a constellation by class: all the first-magnitude stars, followed by all the second-magnitude stars, so on. Within each magnitude class, Bayer made no attempt to arrange stars by relative brightness; as a result, the brightest star in each class did not always get listed first in Bayer's order. In addition, Bayer did not always follow the magnitude class rule; the order looks quite arbitrary. Of the 88 modern constellations, there are at least 30 in which "Alpha" is not the brightest star, four of those lack an alpha star altogether.
The constellations with no alpha-designated star include Vela and Puppis – both part of Argo Navis, whose Greek-letter stars were split between three constellations. Α Arg was moved to the modern constellation Carina. In Orion, Bayer first designated Betelgeuse and Rigel, the two 1st-magnitude stars, as Alpha and Beta from north to south, with Betelgeuse coming ahead of Rigel though the latter is the brighter. Bayer repeated the procedure for the stars of the 2nd magnitude, labeling them from gamma through zeta in "top-down" order. Letters as far as Latin p were used for stars of the sixth magnitude. Although Bayer did not use upper-case Latin letters for "fixed stars", he did use them to label other items shown on his charts, such as neighboring constellations, "temporary stars", miscellaneous astronomical objects, or reference lines like the Tropic of Cancer. In Cygnus, for example, Bayer's fixed stars run through g, on this chart Bayer employs H through P as miscellaneous labels for neighboring constellations.
Bayer did not intend such labels as catalog designations, but some have survived to refer to astronomical objects: P Cygni for example is still used as a designation for Nova Cyg 1600. Tycho's Star, another "temporary star", appears as B Cassiopeiae. In charts for constellations that did not exhaust the Greek letters, Bayer sometimes used the left-over Greek letters for miscellaneous labels as well. Ptolemy designated four stars as "border stars", each shared by two constellations: Alpheratz, Elnath, Nu Boötis, Fomalhaut. Bayer assigned the first three of these stars a Greek letter from both constellations: Alpha Andromedae = Delta Pegasi, Beta Tauri = Gamma Aurigae, Nu Boötis
C/2007 Q3, is an Oort cloud comet, discovered by Donna Burton in 2007 at Siding Spring Observatory in New South Wales, Australia. Siding Spring came within 1.2 astronomical units of Earth and 2.25 AU of the Sun on October 7, 2009. The comet was visible with binoculars until January 2010. Images of the comet taken in March 2010 by N. Howes using the Faulkes telescope, showed; the comet has an observation arc of 1,327 days and is still been observed as of April 2011. The orbit of a long-period comet is properly obtained when the osculating orbit is computed at an epoch after leaving the planetary region and is calculated with respect to the center of mass of the solar system. Using JPL Horizons, the barycentric orbital elements for epoch 2030-Jan-01 generate a semi-major axis of 7,500 AU, an apoapsis distance of 15,000 AU, a period of 650,000 years. Before entering the planetary region, C/2007 Q3 had a calculated barycentric orbital period of ~6.4 million years with an apoapsis distance of about 69,000 AU.
The comet was in the outer Oort cloud for millions or billions of years with a loosely bound chaotic orbit until it was perturbed inward. Orbital simulation from JPL / Horizons Ephemeris C/2007 Q3 - Seiichi Yoshida @ aerith.net Curious coma-tail of C/2007 Q3 Splitting of C/2007 Q3 nucleus
RETNA is a contemporary artist recognized for graffiti art. He was born and raised in Los Angeles and started his career in the early 1990s, he developed a distinctive constructed script, derived from Blackletter, Egyptian Hieroglyphics and Hebrew calligraphy, as well as more traditional types of street-based graffiti. In addition to exhibiting at institutions and galleries in Los Angeles, London, New York and Hong Kong, Retna has done advertising work for brands such as VistaJet, Louis Vuitton, Nike, his artwork adorns the cover of Justin Bieber's Purpose album that debuted in 2015. Born Marquis Lewis in 1979 in Los Angeles, he has African-American and Cherokee ancestry; as a child, Lewis moved between several schools in the L. A. area, becoming more involved in graffiti culture at each location. In 1996, he chose the name Retna from a Wu-Tang Clan lyric. Retna cites eclectic artistic influences, such as illuminated manuscripts, Renaissance imagery, contemporary text-based art. Religious architecture and décor have long been a focus of his.
He has mentioned Degas, Basquiat and the Art Nouveau movement as historical references. Particular to his graffiti writing and David Choe are cited as influences, among others. Retna has developed a constructed script which he uses in much of his work; each block of text is a system of hieroglyphs and illuminated script, influenced by Arabic calligraphy, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Hebrew and Native American typographies. Retna's script communicates personal messages and poetry which are not decipherable to a pedestrian audience, his hieroglyphic style artwork has been seen in the Lower East Side on the Rivington Street Wall near Bowery. A typical studio session involves the creation of new material and continued editions on existing works. Retna notes that his most common media formats are based in painting: acrylic, enamel and oils, his work is anchored in typographic forms. 2013: RETNA: Para mi gente. Artist was invited to create art installation inside Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, CA. In 2016 he was commissioned to paint the side of the 24 story public housing building, Edificio Cuauhtémoc, in the Tlatelolco zone of Mexico City.
2017: MARGRAVES, Maddox Gallery, London, UK 2017: MANO A MANO, New Image Gallery, Los Angeles, CA 2017: LA Art Show Nike. Retna contributed to the overall graphic and visual arts elements for the re-opening of a Nike store in Las Vegas. Louis Vuitton. In October 2012, Retna was commissioned by the fashion design firm Louis Vuitton to create signage for their temporary Miami Design District boutique; the project was a collaboration with street artists Aiko and Os Gêmeos, included the design of scarves and accessories. VistaJet; the airline company VistaJet commissioned Retna to decorate the tailfin of the VistaJet Global Express XRS with his signature script. Since its completion, the vessel's value is estimated at $60 million; the completed project was unveiled in 2012 in Geneva. Justin Bieber's Purpose. In 2015, Retna designed the artwork for Justin Bieber's new album "Purpose"; the artwork had some Buddhist and Hindu influences and Bieber is there with his both hands joined vertically. Opera Aida.
In 2016, Retna was invited by Francesca Zambello to create the set design for Aida at the San Francisco Opera. John F. Kennedy Center. In 2017, Retna's work was used as inspiration to design the set and costumes for Washington National Opera’s Aida. A series of hand-painted murals were displayed for six-week exhibition at the Kennedy Center Grand Foyer and Hall of Nations at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts; the words of JFK can be found in these original murals. Opera Aida. In 2018, Retna collaborated with Seattle Opera to design the stage sets for Verdi's Aida. Retna has repeatedly been in the news for violent acts, which have included: destroying artworks, an accusation of assaulting his ex-girlfriend Brittny Gastineau, vandalizing a Los Angeles gallery. Official website Artsy Artnet Kennedy Center
The New Zealand Labour Party leadership election, 1920 was held on 24 June 1920 to determine the future leadership of the New Zealand Labour Party. The election was won by retaining office. After the 1919 election, former Labour Party President James McCombs who had narrowly lost the previous leadership election to Harry Holland decided to launch a fresh attempt at the leadership. There was a certain level of underlying personal animosity between the two, both remaining bitter over McCombs' resignation from the Labour Party in 1917 over the liquor question; this is thought to be a contributing factor to McCombs' attempts to dethrone Holland. Holland had won Labour's leadership the previous year and had led them in to the 1919 election where they gained several seats and captured a quarter of the popular vote, though this only equated to an extra three seats in Parliament. McCombs was the leader of the Labour Party's moderate faction and continued his agitation against Holland's leadership which he and others thought to be too autocratic.
His main supporters in caucus in his plight were fellow Christchurch MPs Dan Sullivan and Ted Howard. The election was conducted through a members' ballot by Labour's parliamentary caucus. Holland secured five votes to McCombs' three. Harry Holland continued to lead the Labour Party, would until his death in 1933. McCombs and Sullivan continued to agitate against Holland's claim to the leadership for the next few years. Gee, David. My Dear Girl: A biography of Elizabeth and James McCombs. Christchurch: Treehouse. ISBN 0-473-02084-X. O'Farrell, P. J.. Harry Holland: Militant Socialist. Canberra, Australia: Australian National University Press
Kenneth Wayne "Ken" Howard is an American author, ordained minister of the Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Washington, thought leader in church planting and post-partisan Christian unity. Howard is first rector of Saint Nicholas Church, he led Saint Nicholas through its 1388% growth from 1995 to present, including purchasing and breaking ground on its own property and constructing the church building itself. He gives talks and presentations nationwide on topics from his book Paradoxy: Creating Christian Community Beyond Us and Them, as well as consulting on conflict resolution and direction for congregations and dioceses, through the Paradoxy Center for Incarnational Christianity at St. Nicholas Church. A Christian of Jewish origins, Howard has been an ordained priest in the Episcopal Church since 1993, focusing on church planting, congregational vitality, conflict transformation. Prior to ordination Howard was a consultant in team-building, organizational development, strategic planning.
He holds a Master of Divinity degree from Virginia Theological Seminary, with honors in Church History for his research into the Jewish origins of early Christianity, published in Jewish Christianity in the Early Church. In 2010, Howard authored the book Paradoxy: Creating Christian Community Beyond Us and Them, the premise of, to help congregations "transcend dead-end divisions and transform conflict into healthy diversity united by the love of Christ and the power of the Holy Spirit". Notable critical reviews of the book include the following: Phyllis Tickle, a leader in the Emerging Christianity movement, called Paradoxy "one of the clearest and most concise commentaries presently available about where the Church may reasonably be seen as going in this time of paradigmatic shift." ExploreFaith.org's Andrew MacBeth said "This book might not be the easiest'read', since there is some abstract theology to wade through along the way. But it's hard to imagine a book that could have a more profound impact on our understanding of church today."
Brian McLaren wrote in the book's foreword, "Ken Howard does what good leaders do in times of change and challenge. First, he describes, he tells the story of how we got here. He gives us a vision of where to go from here he simplifies without oversimplifying complex historical and philosophical developments." C. K. Robertson, Canon to the Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church, reviewed Paradoxy, saying "parish priest and organizational development consultant Ken Howard addresses tendency toward polarization while offering an intriguing alternative to the familiar'either/or' dichotomy."In 2011, Howard co-founded The Spiritual Formation Centers of Greater Washington, a network of non-profit multi-church spiritual formation and training centers whose stated goal is "to provide consultation and capacity building in individual and organizational spiritual development for churches and other religious organizations." Washington Episcopal Clergy Association 2008–present - Board Member 2008–2013 - Communications Director 2009–2010 - Secretary 2010–2014 - Program Chair 2014–present - Vice-President Episcopal Diocese of Washington 1996-1997 - Diocesan Common Ground Dialogue on Human Sexuality - Chair.
1997-2003 - Diocesan Council 2000-2003 - Diocesan Council Executive Committee. 2000 - General Convention Alternate Delegate – 2001-2002 - Bishop's Pastoral Representative to Christ Church, Accokeek, MD. 2003 - General Convention Alternate Delegate – 2003 - Bishop's Working Group on Mission Canons - Chair. 2003-2004 - Bishop's Pastoral Representative to Holy Spirit Mission, Germantown, MD. 2004-2005 - Bishop's Working Group on Episcopal-Jewish Relations - Co-Chair. 2008-2011 - Ecclesiastical Trial Court Member "Paradoxy: Creating Christian Community Beyond Us and Them" by Ken Howard. Published by Paraclete Press. ISBN 1557257752, ISBN 978-1557257758. "Excommunicating the Faithful: Jewish Christianity in the Early Church" by Kenneth W. Howard. Published by the Paradoxy Center for Incarnational Christianity. ASIN B00HH1K3QQ "A New Middle Way? Surviving and Thriving in the Coming Religious Realignment," Anglican Theological Review "Elements of a Successful Diocesan Mission Plan," Episcopal Diocese of Washington.
"Jewish Christianity in the Early Church: How the Church Lost Its Jewish Roots," Virginia Theological Seminary. "A Comprehensive Expectancy Motivation Model: Implications for Adult Education and Training," Adult Education Quarterly. Official Website of the Paradoxy Center for Incarnational Christianity" Official Website of St. Nicholas Episcopal Church
There were several Independent candidates in the 1990 Manitoba provincial election. Information about these candidates may be found on this page. William Hawryluk was a perennial candidate for political office in Winnipeg, he received 108 votes, finishing fourth against New Democratic Party candidate George Hickes. Roy Price was a businessman, civic activist and perennial candidate in north-end Winnipeg, he was the owner of Harmony Music, served as president of the Norquay Community Centre in 1991. Price opposed several social outreach programs in north-end Winnipeg, claiming that they brought unwelcome persons into the region, he spoke out against a Christian mission soup kitchen for this reason in 1998, subsequently opposed a needle exchange program. In 1994, he complained about "satanic and obscene" graffiti in Winnipeg's subway system, he first ran for the Manitoba legislature in the 1988 provincial election, in the constituency of St. Johns, he received 68 votes, finishing fifth against New Democratic Party incumbent Judy Wasylycia-Leis.
He received 66 votes in 1990, finishing fifth against NDP candidate George Hickes. Price campaigned for the Winnipeg School Board in 1992, 1995 and 1998, lost all times. Price died on March 4, 2002, at age 71. Walter Diawol was a gadfly candidate for public office in the late 1980s and early 1990s, he was a junk collector, fought an extended battle with the City of Winnipeg over his failure to clean up his property. The city removed his garbage collection in 1985, 1986, 1987 and 1993, took title of his house on the last occasion. A newspaper report indicates that Winnipeg officials needed "nine five-ton truckloads and three garbage truckloads to clear his property of dead batteries, scrap wood, broken lawn chairs, broken TVs and headboards and box springs" in the July 1993 cleanup. Diawol was not forced to leave the house and continued to reside there until his death in 1994; when questioned, Diawol said that junk was his hobby. Stephen Keki ran for political office at the federal and municipal levels four times between 1986 and 1990.
He identified himself as a meat processor during the 1988 federal election