Bayezid I

Bayezid I was the Ottoman Sultan from 1389 to 1402. He was the son of Gülçiçek Hatun, he built one of the largest armies in the known world at the time and unsuccessfully besieged Constantinople. He adopted the title of Sultan-i Rûm, he decisively defeated the Crusaders at Nicopolis in 1396, was himself defeated and captured by Timur at the Battle of Ankara in 1402 and died in captivity in March 1403, triggering the Ottoman Interregnum. The first major role of Bayezid was as governor of Kütahya, a city, conquered from the Germiyanids, he was an impetuous soldier. Bayezid ascended to the throne following the death of his father Murad I, killed by Serbian knight Miloš Obilić during, or after, the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, by which Serbia became a vassal of the Ottoman Sultanate. After obtaining the throne, he had his younger brother strangled to avoid a plot. In 1390, Bayezid took as a wife Princess Olivera Despina, the daughter of Prince Lazar of Serbia, who lost his life in Kosovo. Bayezid recognized Stefan Lazarević, the son of Lazar, as the new Serbian leader, with considerable autonomy.

The upper Serbia resisted the Ottomans until general Pasha Yiğit Bey captured the city of Skopje in 1391, converting the city to an important base of operations. Meanwhile, the sultan began unifying Anatolia under his rule. Forcible expansion into Muslim territories could endanger the Ottoman relationship with the gazis, who were an important source of warriors for this ruling house on the European frontier. So Bayezid began the practice to first secure fatwas, or legal rulings from Islamic scholars, justifying their wars against these Muslim states; however he suspected the loyalty of his Muslim Turkoman followers, for Bayezid relied on his Serbian and Byzantine vassal troops to perform these conquests. In a single campaign over the summer and fall of 1390, Bayezid conquered the beyliks of Aydin and Menteshe, his major rival Sulayman, the emir of Karaman, responded by allying himself with the ruler of Sivas, Kadi Burhan al-Din and the remaining Turkish beyliks. Bayezid pushed on and in the fall and winter of 1390 overwhelmed the remaining beyliks -- Hamid and Germiyan—as well as taking the cities of Akşehir and Niğde, as well as their capital Konya from the Karaman.

At this point, Bayezid accepted peace proposals from Karaman, concerned that further advances would antagonize his Turkoman followers and lead them to ally with Kadi Burhan al-Din. Once peace had been made with Karaman, Bayezid moved north against Kastamonu which had given refuge to many fleeing from his forces, conquered both that city as well as Sinop. However, his subsequent campaign was stopped by Burhan al-Din at the Battle of Kırkdilim. From 1389 to 1395 he conquered northern Greece. In 1394 Bayezid crossed the River Danube to attack Wallachia, ruled at that time by Mircea the Elder; the Ottomans were superior in number, but on 10 October 1394, in the Battle of Rovine, on forested and swampy terrain, the Wallachians won the fierce battle and prevented Bayezid's army from advancing beyond the Danube. In 1394, Bayezid laid siege to the capital of the Byzantine Empire. Anadoluhisarı fortress was built between 1393 and 1394 as part of preparations for the Second Ottoman Siege of Constantinople, which took place in 1395.

On the urgings of the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Palaeologus a new crusade was organized to defeat him. This proved unsuccessful: in 1396 the Christian allies, under the leadership of the King of Hungary and future Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, were defeated in the Battle of Nicopolis. Bayezid built the magnificent Ulu Cami in Bursa, thus the siege of Constantinople continued, lasting until 1402. The beleaguered Byzantines had their reprieve. At this time, the empire of Bayezid included Thrace, Macedonia and parts of Serbia in Europe. In Asia, his domains extended to the Taurus Mountains, his army was considered one of the best in the Islamic world. In 1397, Bayezid defeated the emir of Karaman in Akçay, annexing his territory. In 1398, the sultan conquered the Djanik emirate and the territory of Burhan al-Din, violating the accord with Timur. Bayezid occupied Elbistan and Malatya. In 1400, the Turco-Mongol warlord Timur succeeded in rousing the local Turkic beyliks, vassals of the Ottomans to join him in his attack on Bayezid, considered one of the most powerful rulers in the Muslim world during that period.

Years of insulting letters had passed between Bayezid. Both rulers insulted each other in their own way while Timur preferred to undermine Bayezid's position as a ruler and play down the significance of his military successes; this is the excerpt from one of Timur's letters addressed to Ottoman sultan: "Believe me, you are but pismire ant: don't seek to fight the elephants for they'll crush you under their feet. Shall a petty prince such as you are contend with us? But your rodomontades are not extraordinary. If you don't follow our counsels you will regret it". In the fateful Battle of Ankara, on 20 July 1402, Bayezid was captured by Timur and the Ottoman army was defeated. Many writers claim; however and historians from Timur's own cou

South Stack

South Stack is an island situated just off Holy Island on the northwest coast of Anglesey. South Stack is famous as the location of one of Wales' most spectacular lighthouses, South Stack Lighthouse, it has a height of 41 metres, a maximum area of seven acres. Until 1828 when an iron suspension bridge was built, the only means of crossing the deep water channel on to the island was in a basket, suspended on a hemp cable; the suspension bridge was replaced in 1964, but by 1983 the bridge had to be closed to the public, due to safety reasons. A new aluminium bridge was built and the lighthouse was reopened for public visits in 1997. Thousands of people visit the lighthouse every year, thanks to the continued public transport service from Holyhead's town centre. There are over 390 stone steps and 10 metal steps down to the footbridge, the descent and ascent provide an opportunity to see some of the 8,000 nesting birds that line the cliffs during the breeding season; the cliffs are part of the RSPB South Stack Cliffs bird reserve, with a visitor centre, bird hide at Elin's Tower.

The tower provides a place to see choughs, peregrine falcons and various marine mammals such as harbour porpoises seen at high tide, grey seals, Risso's dolphins and bottlenose dolphins. The Anglesey Coastal Path passes South Stack; the latter has short variants. Travelling from the Breakwater Country Park, other sites along the way are the North Stack Fog Signal station, Caer y Tŵr, Holyhead Mountain and Tŷ Mawr Hut Circles; the South Stack Formation was chosen as one of the top 100 geosites in the United Kingdom by the Geological Society of London, for its display of small-scale folding. In 2019, proposals to develop a 35km2'West Anglesey Demonstration Zone' tidal energy project at South Stack were submitted for approval under the Transport and Works Act 1992; as the development will come within 500 metres of the South Stack SSSI, concerns have been expressed about the visual impact on the Anglesey Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and the Holyhead Mountain Heritage Coast along with the resultant impact on the tourism and fishing sectors.

The developers have identified that seabird and mammal populations would be affected within the Holy Island Coast Special Area of Conservation and Special Protection Area along with the North Anglesey Marine Special Area of Conservation. Most notably bottle-nosed dolphin and harbour porpoise would be affected, whilst razorbill and common guillemot will be impacted, with the RSPB highlighting concern that under the proposal's worst case scenario the razorbill colony on their South Stack reserve would be wiped out; the cover photo for Roxy Music's Siren album was taken directly below the central span of the bridge on a slope on the south side, by Graham Hughes in August 1975. In 2010 a French comic entitled Les Gardiens des Enfers was published, its story is set in South Stack lighthouse in 1859. The cover and the first pages can be seen on the publisher's website. South Stack fleawort, a plant endemic to the area around South Stack

Castlemaine Perkins Building

Castlemaine Perkins Building is a heritage-listed former warehouse at 418-420 Adelaide Street, Brisbane City, City of Brisbane, Australia. It was designed by Thomas Ramsay Hall and built from 1918 to 1919 by George Albert Baumber and was extended in 1928 to 1929, it is known as Castlemaine Brewery and Quinlan, Gray & Co Building. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 6 March 2009; the building at 418-420 Adelaide Street was constructed in a number of stages between c. 1900 and 1928-1929. The main section was erected in 1918-1919 for The Castlemaine Brewery and Quinlan, Gray & Co Brisbane Ltd; the designer, Brisbane architect Thomas Ramsay Hall, incorporated an earlier two-storeyed stone warehouse into the structure. In 1928-1929 a new bulk store was added at the rear; the Castlemaine Brewery and Quinlan, Gray & Co. Brisbane Ltd manufactured imported wine and spirits; the origins of the firm dated to 1871, when Michael Quinlan and N Donnelly entered into partnership as Quinlan, Donnelly and Co. general business and shipping agents, Brisbane.

In late 1873 Donnelly relinquished his interest in the partnership and Quinlan continued to trade as Quinlan and Co. In 1874 the company's office and stores were re-located from Mary Street to Queen Street, opposite the Customs House and close to the new wharves being developed at Petrie Bight, establishing a long connection with the Petrie Bight district. Following Michael Quinlan's death in July 1878 his widow took control of the company and in August 1878 entered into partnership with George Wilkie Gray, the firm's principal manager, as Quinlan, Gray & Co. Prior to Michael Quinlan's death the company had entered into negotiations with Edward and Nicholas Fitzgerald, owners of the Castlemaine Brewery in Victoria, to establish a brewery in Brisbane. In 1877 the firm of Fitzgerald, Quinlan & Co. was formed and the Queensland Distillery at Milton was acquired and developed as the Castlemaine Brewery. The first Castlemaine XXX Sparkling Ale was sold in late 1878. In 1887 The Castlemaine Brewery and Quinlan, Gray & Co.

Brisbane Ltd was formed to acquire the assets of Fitzgerald, Quinlan & Co. and Quinlan, Gray & Co.. In addition to the brewing business the firm supplied wine, spirits and general merchandise to hotelkeepers and graziers throughout Queensland; the firm continued to occupy premises in Queen Street near the Customs House through the 1890s and early 1900s, in 1901 took up the lease of 385-391 Adelaide Street as a bond store. In 1909-1910 the company purchased two nearby allotments, at the corner of Adelaide Street and Clark Lane, with the object of constructing their own building on the site; these allotments were part of a larger parcel of land bounded by Wharf and Ann streets alienated in 1853 by Dr William Hobbs. In the late 1870s the Brisbane Municipal Council formed the north-east end of Adelaide Street and in the process Adelaide Street was cut down in front of Dr Hobbs residence to better link with Queen Street at Petrie Bight. By 1881, when Dr Hobbs placed his property on the market, a right of way existed over what is now Clark Lane.

In subsequent years much of Dr Hobbs' property was acquired for the St John's Cathedral precinct, his former residence is now The Deanery at St John's. The allotments at the corner of Adelaide Street and Clark Lane remained unimproved until George Bowser and George Montague Bowser, acquired title to the allotment adjoining Clark Lane in late 1899. Bowser & Co. were the proprietors of the Bowen Park Quarry opposite the Exhibition Grounds, supplying porphyry for both building and asphalting purposes, appear to have been responsible for the construction of a two-storeyed stone warehouse at the corner of Clark Lane and Adelaide Street c. 1900. The hill was cut into to accommodate this building but may have been excavated from the late 1870s when Dr Hobbs, in an attempt to create better access to his property after the cutting down of Adelaide Street, sold fill from his land to the Municipal Council for road works. From October 1900 the Salvation Army held a five-year lease over Bowser & Co'.s building, which they conducted as a Workmen's Metropole providing low-cost temporary accommodation to itinerant working men.

After the Salvation Army vacated this building it was occupied by various businesses, including the Queensland Motor Agency, WF Turk & Co. electrical engineers and machinery agents, JW Walker, clothing manufacturer. In April 1909 title was transferred to Quinlan Gray & Co.. Brisbane Limited, which acquired title to the adjacent unimproved allotment in April 1910, providing the firm with a total of 52.6 perches with a frontage of 99 feet to Adelaide Street. Work on construction of a new building had not commenced prior to World War I, which interrupted trade and had a detrimental impact on the company's activities. In 1916 the directors made three significant decisions: to withdraw from general importing and to specialise in brewing and in the distribution of wine and spirits. Construction commenced about September 1918 and was completed in 1919 at a total cost of £22,950; the architect was TR Hall and the contractor GA Baumber, a shareholder in the company. The new structure more than doubled the footprint of the existing building on the site, necessitating further cutting into the rocky outcrop adj