Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae. They are classified as doglike carnivorans. Although only eight species of bears are extant, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the Northern Hemisphere and in the Southern Hemisphere. Bears are found on the continents of North America, South America and Asia. Common characteristics of modern bears include large bodies with stocky legs, long snouts, small rounded ears, shaggy hair, plantigrade paws with five nonretractile claws, short tails. While the polar bear is carnivorous, the giant panda feeds entirely on bamboo, the remaining six species are omnivorous with varied diets. With the exception of courting individuals and mothers with their young, bears are solitary animals, they may have an excellent sense of smell. Despite their heavy build and awkward gait, they are adept runners and swimmers. Bears use shelters, such as logs, as their dens. Bears have been hunted since prehistoric times for their fur. With their powerful physical presence, they play a prominent role in the arts and other cultural aspects of various human societies.
In modern times, bears have come under pressure through encroachment on their habitats and illegal trade in bear parts, including the Asian bile bear market. The IUCN lists six bear species as vulnerable or endangered, least concern species, such as the brown bear, are at risk of extirpation in certain countries; the poaching and international trade of these most threatened populations are prohibited, but still ongoing. The English word "bear" comes from Old English bera and belongs to a family of names for the bear in Germanic languages, such as Swedish björn used as a first name; this form is conventionally said to be related to a Proto-Indo-European word for "brown", so that "bear" would mean "the brown one". However, Ringe notes that while this etymology is semantically plausible, a word meaning "brown" of this form cannot be found in Proto-Indo-European, he suggests instead that "bear" is from the Proto-Indo-European word *ǵʰwḗr- ~ *ǵʰwér "wild animal". This terminology for the animal originated as a taboo avoidance term: proto-Germanic tribes replaced their original word for bear—arkto—with this euphemistic expression out of fear that speaking the animal's true name might cause it to appear.
According to author Ralph Keyes, this is the oldest known euphemism. Bear taxon names such as Arctoidea and Helarctos come from the ancient Greek ἄρκτος, meaning bear, as do the names "arctic" and "antarctic", via the name of the constellation Ursa Major, the "Great Bear", prominent in the northern sky. Bear taxon names such as Ursidae and Ursus come from he-bear/she-bear; the female first name "Ursula" derived from a Christian saint's name, means "little she-bear". In Switzerland, the male first name "Urs" is popular, while the name of the canton and city of Bern is derived from Bär, German for bear; the Germanic name Bernard means "bear-brave", "bear-hardy", or "bold bear". The Old English name Beowulf is a kenning; the family Ursidae is one of nine families in the suborder Caniformia, or "doglike" carnivorans, within the order Carnivora. Bears' closest living relatives are the pinnipeds and musteloids. Modern bears comprise eight species in three subfamilies: Ailuropodinae and Ursinae. Nuclear chromosome analysis show that the karyotype of the six ursine bears is nearly identical, with each having 74 chromosomes, whereas the giant panda has 42 chromosomes and the spectacled bear 52.
These smaller numbers can be explained by the fusing of some chromosomes, the banding patterns on these match those of the ursine species, but differ from those of procyonids, which supports the inclusion of these two species in Ursidae rather than in Procyonidae, where they had been placed by some earlier authorities. The earliest members of Ursidae belong to the extinct subfamily Amphicynodontinae, including Parictis and the younger Allocyon, both from North America; these animals looked different from today's bears, being small and raccoon-like in overall appearance, with diets more similar to that of a badger. Parictis does not appear in Africa until the Miocene, it is unclear whether late-Eocene ursids were present in Eurasia, although faunal exchange across the Bering land bridge may have been possible during a major sea level low stand as early as the late Eocene and continuing into the early Oligocene. European genera morphologically similar to Allocyon, to the much younger American Kolponomos, are known from the Oligocene, including Amphicticeps and Amphicynodon.
There has been various morphological evidence linking amphicynodontines with pinnipeds, as both groups were semi-aquatic, otter-like mammals. In addition to the support of the pinniped–amphicynodontine clade, other morphological and some molecular evidence supports bears being the closet living relatives to pinnipeds; the raccoon-sized, dog-like Cephalogale is the oldest-known member of the subfamily Hemicyoninae, which first appeared during the middle Oligocene
Shaki is a town situated in the northern part of Oyo State in western Nigeria. The terrain is hilly; the town lies near the source of the Ofiki River, the chief tributary of the Ogun River, about 40 miles from the Benin border. It is referred to as the food basket of Oyo State because of its agricultural activities, it is the headquarters of Saki West local government authority. Part of the Oyo Empire, Shaki became a Yoruba refugee settlement after the destruction in 1835 of Old Oyo, 70 miles east-northeast, by Fulani conquerors. By the early 1860s the Yoruba Mission had established an Anglican church in the town; the traditional ruler is the Okere of Shaki town, Oba Khalid Olabisi Oyeniyi, the newly installed Ọ̀kẹ̀rẹ̀ of Shaki-Okeogun, Oyo State after the demised of Ọba Kilani Olarinre Olatoyese Ilufemiloye who died on Friday, 5 April 2013, 2 days to the first anniversary of his coronation. Since the death of Kilani Olatoyese Ilufemiloye Olarinre, the town has been without a Traditional Ruler as the process of selecting a new traditional ruler has been stalled by court litigation.
However, the new king emerged on 18th December, 2019 after due consultation by the King makers and the state government. Ogun is from this town. Traditionally, the work of inhabitants in the olden days were blacksmith, farming and clay pot mouldering; the crown: This is only for the king, it shows authority over all citizens of the kingdom. The kings staff: This is used to stamp a declaration at a meeting; the red beads: It was traditionally used by only the royal family, it was made with washed up red clay and tree stems. Now, it is just a traditional symbol worn by everybody; the throne: This is the kings seat, it is seated in the kings chamber. Anybody that seats on the throne except the king, dies of skin illness; the crown ring: this is given to the last prince. In the past it was given to the bastard prince to lay claim to the throne if all other heirs to the throne are dead; this ring as only been used twice. The throne/heir ring: It is given to the first prince to lay claim to the throne; the first prince given the ring to his immediate brother has automatically passed on all claims to his birthright.
Shaki is an exporter of cotton, swamp rice and tobacco. The flue curing of tobacco has been important in the area since 1940. Indigo is grown in the area for local dyeing, the town is a centre of cotton weaving. Yams, corn, beans, shea nuts, okra are grown for subsistence. Cattle raising is increasing in importance, there is a government livestock station. Shaki has a government Hospital, many Private Hospitals and branch of UCH is under construction. A 1,600-foot inselberg rises above the surrounding savanna; the town is prominent in the production of aluminum pots for cooking. Users of pots and sellers from far and near visit the town to purchase the product. Shaki Sango Market has brought the town into limelight as buyers and sellers attend the market every Thursdays. Shaki is the location of a Muslim hospital; the Muslim Hospital was commissioned by M. K. O Abiola in 1987, it is home to the following educational institutions: The Oke-Ogun Polytechnic, Saki www.tops.edu.ng The Polytechnic, Ibadan The Kings Poly, Saki The Kings Poly www.thekingspoly.com School of Basic Midwifery, Muslim Hospital, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Baptist Medical Centre, Baptist Medical Centre School of Medical Laboratory.
Baptist High School, Ansaru-ud-deen High School, Okere Grammar School Parapo Community High School, Asabari Grammar School, Ayekale Community High School, Shaki International Muslim College, Baptist Medical Centre Secondary School, Ansaru-ud-deen Comprehensive College, Benefit Comprehensive College, Shaki, Al-khalipha Ashimi international college, Sharon Rose College and Queens College, Primerose Model College, Aisha Model School, Turath College, Revival of Islamic Heritage School, off Ogbooro Road, Muslim Secondary School, Islamic High School,Koomi Road, Gbooro Muslim College, Shaki Community Secondary School, Army Barracks, Christ Grammar School, Community High School, Shaki, Distinct Model school, Comfort upward Schools, Shaki, Baptist Medical Centre Nur/Pry School, Heritage International School, Shaki, Ideal Academy Group of Schools, Opo-Malu Area, Command Day Secondary School, Shaki NUD Primary School, African Baptist Primary School, L. A. Primary School, Isale Taba, L. A. Primary School, Isale Onikeke, Kinnikinni Baptist Primary School, L.
A. Primary School, Ajegunle Baptist Primary School, Shaki, CMS Primary School, Shaki, Oge Baptist Primary School, Shaki, L. A. Primary School, Agbonle Army Children School, Asabari Barracks, Shaki, L. A. Primary School Sani-Sala, L. A Primary School, Wasangare e.t.c History of Saki land, A. A Kolajo
Serve the People! is a 2005 novel by Yan Lianke. The English version, translated by Julia Lovell, was published in 2010 by Black Cat/Grove; this phrase was coined by Mao Zedong in 1944 when he wrote an article, "To Serve The People", to commemorate the death of a red army soldier Zhang Side. In that article Mao said:" To die for the benefit of the people, is more important than Tai mountain. Comrade Zhang Side died for the benefit of the people, so his death is heavier than Tai mountain." During the Cultural Revolution, this article was required reading for millions of Chinese. "To serve the people" became one of the most popular slogans of all times being used today. However, there was evidence suggested by author Jung Chang's book Mao: The Unknown Story, indicating that Comrade Zhang Si-De was in fact killed while processing raw opium when the kiln collapsed on him. Yan Lianke used Mao's phrase for the name of his novel "Serve The People!", which contains vivid and colorful descriptions of sex scenes, resulting in extensive controversy when it was featured in 2005 in a magazine "Flower City".
The Chinese government ordered the publisher to stop the release of 30,000 copies of the magazine, which in turn created huge demand for the novel. The storyline is similar to D. H. Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover: the younger wife of an old and impotent army general, begins to seduce a soldier, assigned to do the domestic chores for the general. During a three-day run of sex, the soldier runs out of energy, they discovered. Afterward they smash or deface all of the Mao imagery in their residence to prove their love for each other; the story's background, the Cultural Revolution, means the main characters are aware of the consequences of smashing Mao's statues: death by firing squad. The novel was banned by the Chinese government at least because of its depiction of items related to Mao Zedong and political issues, as well as sexual content, it has been translated into French, Norwegian, Dutch, Italian and English. There have been reports of a South Korean erotic film adaptation by Jang Cheol-soo, but the project seems to have been abandoned