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Beaumaris is a community, the former county town, of Anglesey, Wales, at the eastern entrance to the Menai Strait, the tidal waterway separating Anglesey from the coast of North Wales. At the 2011 census, its population was 1,938. Beaumaris was a Viking settlement known as Porth y Wygyr, but the town itself began its development in 1295 when Edward I of England, having conquered Wales, commissioned the building of Beaumaris Castle as part of a chain of fortifications around the North Wales coast; the castle was built on a marsh and, where it found its name. The ancient village of Llanfaes, a mile to the north of Beaumaris, in the modern had been occupied by Anglo-Saxons in 818 but had been regained by Merfyn Frych, King of Gwynedd, remained a vital strategic settlement. To counter further Welsh uprisings, to ensure control of the Menai Strait, Edward I chose the flat coastal plain as the place to build Beaumaris Castle; the castle was designed by the Savoyard mason Master James of Saint George and is considered the most perfect example of a concentric castle.

The'troublesome' residents of Llanfaes were removed en bloc to Rhosyr in the west of Anglesey, a new settlement King Edward entitled "Newborough". French and English masons were brought in to construct the castle and the walled town. Beaumaris was awarded a royal charter by Edward I, drawn up on similar terms to the charters of his other castle towns in North Wales and intended to invest only the English and Norman-French residents with civic rights. Native Welsh residents of Beaumaris were disqualified from holding any civic office, carrying any weapon, holding assemblies; the charter specifically prohibited Jews from living in Beaumaris. A requirement that all trade in the immediate area be conducted at Beaumaris meant the town became the main commercial centre of Anglesey. Beaumaris was the port of registration for all vessels in North West Wales, covering every harbour on Anglesey and all the ports from Conwy to Pwllheli. Shipbuilding was a major industry in Beaumaris; this was centred on Gallows Point – a nearby spit of land extending into the Menai Strait about a mile west of the town.

Gallows Point had been called "Osmund's Eyre" but was renamed when the town gallows was erected there – along with a "Dead House" for the corpses of criminals dispatched in public executions. Hangings were carried out at the town gaol and the bodies buried in a lime-pit within the curtilage of the gaol. One of the last prisoners to hang at Beaumaris issued a curse before he died – decreeing that if he was innocent the four faces of the church clock would never show the same time. Notable buildings in the town include the castle, a courthouse built in 1614, the 14th-century St Mary's and St Nicholas's Church, Beaumaris Gaol, the 14th-century Tudor Rose and the Bulls Head Inn, built in 1472, which General Thomas Mytton made his headquarters during the "Siege of Beaumaris" during the second English Civil War in 1648; the hill leading north from the town is named Red Hill from the blood spilled in that conflict. A native of Anglesey, David Hughes, founded Beaumaris Grammar School in 1603, it became a non-selective school in 1952 when Anglesey County Council became the first authority in Britain to adopt comprehensive secondary education.

The school was moved to Menai Bridge and only the ancient hall of the original school building now remains. Beaumaris Pier, opened in 1846, was designed by Frederick Foster and is a masonry jetty on wooden and concrete pilings; the pier was rebuilt and extended to 570 feet after storm damage in 1872, a large pavilion containing a cafe was built at the end. It was once the landing stage for steamships of the Liverpool and North Wales Shipping Company, including the Snowdon, La Marguerite, St. Elvies and St. Trillo, although the larger vessels in its fleet – the St. Seriol and St. Tudno – were too large for the pier and landed their passengers at Menai Bridge. In the 1960s, through lack of maintenance, the pier became unsafe and was threatened with demolition, but local yachtswoman and lifeboat secretary Miss Mary Burton made a large private donation to ensure the pier was saved for the town. A further reconstruction was carried out between 2010 and 2012; this included the addition of a floating pontoon.

Today, the impressive old steamers have long since gone, but Beaumaris Pier is still a busy base for yachts and pleasure vessels of all kinds. A marina on the western shore of Gallows Point has been proposed, but at present all moorings at Beaumaris are tidal; the Saunders Roe company set up a factory at Fryars when it was feared that the company's main base on the Isle of Wight would be a target for World War II Luftwaffe bombers. The factory converted American-built PBY Catalina flying boats and, after the war, produced fast patrol boats and buses for London Transport and single deck buses for Cuba. Amongst the fast patrol boats made by Saunders Roe at Beaumaris was "Dark Protagonist"; the first recorded rescue of people in difficulty at sea was in 1830 when 375 people were rescued from a foundered emigrant ship. A lifeboat station was established in 1891 and closed four years when a neighbouring station was provided with a more powerful lifeboat; the station was reopened in 1914 and is operated by the RNLI

Cowpea mosaic virus

Cowpea mosaic virus is a non-enveloped plant virus of the comovirus group. Infection of a susceptible cowpea leaf causes a "mosaic" pattern in the leaf, results in high virus yields, its genome consists of 2 molecules of positive-sense RNA. Both RNA1 and RNA2 have a VPg at the 5'end, polyadenylation at the 3' end. Genomic RNA1 and RNA2 are expressed by a polyprotein processing strategy. RNA1 encodes VPg, protease and RdRp. RNA2 encodes coat protein; the virus particles are 28 nm in diameter and contain 60 copies each of a Large and Small coat protein. The structure is well characterised to atomic resolution, the viral particles are thermostable. CPMV displays a number of features, its genetic and physical properties are well characterised, it can be isolated from plants. There are many stable mutants prepared that allow specific modification of the capsid surface, it is possible to attach a number of different chemicals to the virus surface and to construct multilayer arrays of such nanoparticles on solid surfaces.

This gives the natural or genetically engineered nanoparticles a range of properties which could be useful in nanotechnological applications such as biosensors and nanoelectronic devices. One example use of CPMV particles is to amplify signals in microarray based sensors. In this application, the virus particles separate the fluorescent dyes used for signaling in order to prevent the formation of non-fluorescent dimers that act as quenchers. Another example is the use of CPMV as a nanoscale breadboard for molecular electronics. CPMV particles have shown potential for in-situ vaccination in cancer immunotherapy Separation and recovery of intact gold-virus complex by agarose electrophoresis and electroelution: Application to the purification of cowpea mosaic virus and colloidal gold complex ICTVdB—The Universal Virus Database: Cowpea mosaic virus Family Groups—The Baltimore Method ICTV Virus Taxonomy 2009 UniProt Taxonomy

Gerrards Cross Tunnel

Gerrards Cross Tunnel is a railway tunnel in Gerrards Cross, Buckinghamshire, on the Chiltern Main Line. The purpose of the tunnel was to enable a new Tesco supermarket to be built over the railway line. Plans were met with anger by local residents, the council refused planning permission but this decision was overturned by John Prescott. During construction of the tunnel, it collapsed on 30 June 2005. No-one was injured in the accident, although a train heading towards the tunnel when it collapsed had to perform an emergency stop. Early reports suspected. Despite the incident, the construction continued in 2007 with different contractors building the tunnel; the store opened in November 2010. Tesco, the third largest retailer in the world measured by revenues and the second largest measured by profits first proposed a store on the site in 1996; the local council objected to the development and a public inquiry endorsed this decision. In July 1998, Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott overturned the council's ruling on the basis of the recommendations of an independent planning inspector.

Due to a lack of space in the area, Tesco had proposed building over the railway line, which would free up a large area of land suitable for the development. The work was let under a design and build contract to Jackson Civil Engineering, who announced the store would be designed by White Young Green, specialist supplier Reinforced Earth Company. Work started on site in early 2003. At the time Jackson Civil Engineering were part of the Peterhouse Group, subsequently bought by Babcock International Group in 2004, after the Jackson Civil Engineering division had been sold in a management buyout. Babcock were still subject to the parent company guarantee that Peterhouse Group had entered into when the contract to build the tunnel was let; the design used precast concrete sections. These segments were connected to each other at the middle of the arch, material built back up over the arch, known as backfilling; the method of construction was not unique. "There are eight tunnels like this in Britain," said James Ford of Chiltern Railways, "and something like a thousand worldwide."

At the time of collapse, construction work on the tunnel segments had finished, the backfilling operation was taking place. The foundations had been built and the steel frame of the supermarket erected. At 7.34pm on 30 June 2005, 30 metres of the 320 metre tunnel collapsed. At the time, there were no trains passing through the tunnel, although one train, heading west towards High Wycombe, had to make an emergency stop; the train had passed through Denham Golf Club station, the last stop before Gerrards Cross, before the driver was warned by radio. He reversed the train to Denham Golf Club. Additionally, a London-bound train was standing at the eastbound platform at Gerrards Cross waiting to depart; the driver of this train had just set the train in motion when he saw the collapse, stopped his train using the emergency brake, informed the railway signallers by radio. There were no casualties as a result of the incident. One witness told a news channel that he was parking his car when he heard "what sounded like a clap of thunder - I thought it was an earthquake.

I saw the tunnel falling on to the rail track." Reg Whittome, chairman of the Marylebone Travellers' Association and the Chiltern Railway Passenger Board, said after the incident that, had a train been going through the tunnel when it collapsed, there would have been an "almighty tragedy". He added: "Had it been during the rush hour, hundreds could have been killed." Service was disrupted for two months after the collapse, until 22 August 2005, so material could be removed from site. The line was closed and rail replacement bus services were operated; the 29 precast concrete segments that had collapsed were removed, together with another 16 segments that were damaged. Extensive design checks were carried out to ensure that the sections of tunnel lining that had not collapsed were safe. 15,000 tonnes of material were removed from the area which had suffered the collapse, 12,000 tonnes of backfill was removed from the undamaged sections. Despite the railway line reopening, approval was not given to carry on with the work as proposed.

Network Rail and Chiltern Railways advised that further checks were required to confirm the safety of the design."The tunnel has collapsed. We've now got to assess today why that happened," said Robin Gisby, head of operations for Network Rail. "Experts are in there right now and they will work through the tunnel and decide what was the cause of the delay. We're going to make it safe we're going to work out how we're going to clear up the considerable problem we've got. There's a couple of thousand tonnes of material in there. We've got to get the concrete structure. We've got to do all of that by road. Although we brought the material in by rail, we don't think we can get it out by rail, but we won't assess that until on today and through the night. I think that's going to be at least a week's work longer, before we can restore rail services on this route. Passengers are being advised to travel via alternative routes and buses have been ordered. We are putting arrangements in place to minimise disruption."At the time of the accident, James Ford added that no further work would be carried out on the tunnel unless it had been certified as safe.

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The Grands Boulevards

The Grands Boulevards is an oil painting, painted in 1875 by Pierre-Auguste Renoir. The painting illustrates a busy Paris boulevard showing the effects of industrialization and Haussmannization; the image is today housed at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Pierre-Auguste Renoir’s The Grands Boulevards illustrates the Haussmannization of Paris through the wide, paved street, the large concrete building to the right of the painting; the Boulevard is teeming with life. Renoir's emphasis moves away towards how lighting affects the image; the painting shows the clothes worn by the people on the boulevard in detail, from which their social class can be inferred, but their individuality is hidden because Renoir chooses not to show any details of their faces. His focus is on the effect of sunshine on the trees; the painting shows great detail in the shadows created by the sun shining on the trees, the shadows created by the people as well as the horse-drawn carriage. Throughout the painting it is evident.

The characteristics of impressionism that can be seen in Renoir’s work are short brush strokes and a out of focus view. The Grands Boulevards at the Philadelphia Museum of Art

Weeds (season 6)

The sixth season of Weeds premiered on August 16, 2010, on the television cable network Showtime, consisted of 13 episodes. After Shane kills Pilar, the Botwin family flees north. Andy joins them. Unable to enter Canada without the baby's birth certificate, Andy, Silas and Stevie assume new identities as "The Newmans" and settle in Seattle, Washington. Silas and Shane remain the same age this season. Nancy and Silas take menial jobs as scab labor at a local hotel, where Nancy discovers the resident drug dealer is on strike. Sensing an opportunity, Nancy seeks out a local distributor and, lacking enough money to buy much marijuana, instead buys the seller's trimmings and produces hashish using the hotel's laundry equipment. While the rest of the family works, Shane babysits Stevie. Back in southern California, Esteban tasks Cesar and Ignacio with finding Nancy and bringing back his son. While looking for clues at the Ren Mar house, they encounter Doug and coerce him into helping find the Botwins.

As Nancy and Andy leave the weed dealer's house, they are confronted by two police officers and questioned about unpaid parking tickets linked to the license plates on Andy's minivan. The family flees again. Cesar and Ignacio receive. Cesar and Doug travel to Seattle and search for clues in the van. Nancy convinces Silas to steal his girlfriend's car, she spots. Nancy panics and attempts to gather the family, a series of events transpires, culminating with Shane calling his mother to tell her he has been kidnapped by Cesar and Ignacio. Cesar negotiates a trade with Nancy: Shane for Stevie. Despite agreeing, Nancy meets Cesar with Gayle's crossbow hidden in a bassinet shoots Cesar in the leg, she receives a phone call from Ignacio, who unintentionally tells her about his run in with her three sons and Doug at the local diner. When Nancy arrives there, she joins the group at the table and attempts to negotiate with Ignacio by holding a gun under the table. Ignacio calls her bluff – Shane takes the gun.

Ignacio reluctantly folds to Shane. Now the Botwin family and Doug continue. During their flight, they stop despite Andy's disapproval, they are unable to claim it without proper identification. Liking the idea of RV travel, they purchase an older used RV and travel to an out-of-the-way trailer park. Andy and Doug pose as a assistant, taking appropriate donations. A frustrated Nancy has sex with the bartender; the next day she finds out the bartender has a wife, her neighbor and they are subsequently chased out of town. As the Botwins continue their nomadic lifestyle on the lam in their RV, they stop in Colorado, they continue to bargain for the trimmings of other dealers' weed. In Aspen, Colorado and Andy drop off Silas and Shane to sell hash at a concert; when Stevie's feces are an abnormal color, Nancy decides. Shane discovers Silas wants to apply for college, Silas in turn learns Shane doesn't have any of his own back up plans. At the pediatrician's office, Nancy sees herself on TV listed as a missing person.

The doctor says Stevie is fine, but suggests the baby may not be bonding with her, that the baby's lifestyle could be a factor, making her rethink their way of life. Andy suggests moving to Denmark. Nancy agrees; the group travels to Nancy's hometown, Michigan, where they stay with Nancy's former high school teacher Mr. Schiff, with whom she had a sexual relationship from the age of 14. Silas discovers; the Botwins are found by an investigative journalist named Vaughn, writing an article about Nancy. She gives him the information. Doug returns to Agrestic, retitled Regrestic after the fire. Mr. Schiff steals money from a post office for plane tickets to Copenhagen for the family, himself included. Silas says goodbye to Nancy. Nancy goes to meet Vaughn a final time before leaving, only to find his room has been ransacked, Esteban and Guillermo are waiting for her. Esteban and Guillermo take Nancy to the airport to find Stevie. Nancy manages to contact Andy, telling him to use "Plan C". Esteban takes Stevie.

Andy, Shane and Mr. Schiff board the plane to Copenhagen, but Mr. Schiff is arrested for robbing the post office; as Nancy leaves the airport, the FBI confront her outside. As part of "Plan C", she confesses to the murder of Pilar saving her own life, ensuring the safety of her family, covering for Shane. Mary-Louise Parker as Nancy Botwin Hunter Parrish as Silas Botwin Alexander Gould as Shane Botwin Justin Kirk as Andy Botwin Kevin Nealon as Doug Wilson Jennifer Jason Leigh as Jill Price-Grey Demián Bichir as Esteban Reyes Guillermo Díaz as Guillermo García Gómez Alanis Morissette as Dr. Audra Kitson Linda Hamilton as Linda Mark-Paul Gosselaar as Jack Andy Milder as Dean Hodes Renée Victor as Lupita Enrique Castillo as Cesar de la Cruz Hemky Madera as Ignacio Morero, Jr. Jama Williamson as Allison Kiva Jump as Gloria Linda Hamilton as Linda Weeds – list of episodes o

Values scale

Values scales are psychological inventories used to determine the values that people endorse in their lives. They facilitate the understanding of general values that individuals uphold. In addition, they assess the importance of each value in people's lives and how the individual strives toward fulfillment through work and other life roles, such as parenting. Most scales have been normalized and can therefore be used cross-culturally for vocational and counseling purposes, yielding unbiased results. Psychologists, political scientists and others interested in defining values, use values scales to determine what people value, to evaluate the ultimate function or purpose of values. Values scales were first developed by an international group of psychologists whose goal was to create a unique self-report instrument that measured intrinsic and extrinsic values for use in the lab and in the clinic; the psychologists called their project the Work Importance Study. The original values scale measured the following values, listed in alphabetical order: ability utilization, advancement, altruism, autonomy, cultural identity, economic rewards, economic security, life style, personal development, physical activity, physical prowess, risk, social interaction, social relations and working conditions.

Some of the listed values were intended to be conceptually differentiable. Since the original Work Importance Study, several scientists have supplemented the study by creating their own scale or by deriving and improving the original format. Theorists and psychologists study values, values scales, the field surrounding values, otherwise known as axiology. New studies have been published updating the work in the field. Dr. Eda Gurel-Atay published an article in the Journal of Advertising Research in March 2010, providing a glimpse into how social values have changed between 1976 and 2007; the paper explained how “self-respect” has been on the upswing, while “a sense of belonging” has become less important to individuals. According to social psychologist Milton Rokeach, human values are defined as “core conceptions of the desirable within every individual and society, they serve as standards or criteria to guide not only action but judgment, attitude, argument, rationalization, and…attribution of causality.”

In his 1973 publication, Rokeach stated that the consequences of human values would be manifested in all phenomena that social scientists might consider worth investigating. In order for any type of research to be successful, regardless of the field of study, people's underlying values needed to be understood. To allow for this, Rokeach created the Rokeach Value Survey, in use for more than 30 years, it provides a theoretical perspective on the nature of values in a cognitive framework and consists of two sets of values – 18 instrumental and 18 terminal. Instrumental values are beliefs or conceptions about desirable modes of behavior that are instrumental to the attainment of desirable end points, such as honesty and capability. Terminal values are beliefs or conceptions about ultimate goals of existence that are worth surviving for, such as happiness, self-respect, freedom; the value survey asks subjects to rank the values in order of importance to them. The actual directions are. Study the list and think of how much each value may act as a guiding principle in your life.”

The Rokeach Value Survey has been criticized because people are not able to rank each value clearly. Some values may be important, while some values may be unimportant, so on. People are more certain of their most extreme values and are not so certain of the ones “in between.” Further, C. J. Clawson and Donald E. Vinson showed that the Rokeach Value Survey omitted a number of values that a large portion of the population holds. Shalom H. Schwartz, social psychologist and author of The Structure of Human Values: Origins and Implications and Theory of Basic Human Values, has done research on universal values and how they exist in a wide variety of contexts. Most of his work addressed broad questions about values, such as: how are individuals’ priorities affected by social experiences? How do individuals’ priorities influence their behavior and choices? And, how do value priorities influence ideologies and actions in political, religious and other domains? Through his studies, Schwartz concluded that ten types of universal values exist: achievement, conformity, power, self-direction, stimulation and universalism.

Schwartz tested the possibility of spirituality as an eleventh universal value, but found that it did not exist in all cultures. Schwartz's value theory and instruments are part of the biennial European Social Survey. Gordon Allport, a student of American philosopher and psychologist Eduard Spranger, believed that an individual's philosophy is founded upon the values or basic convictions that a person holds about what is and is not important in life. Based on Spranger's view that understanding the individual's value philosophy best captures the essence of a person and his colleagues and Lindzey, created the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values; the values scale outlined six major value types: theoretical, aesthetic, social and religious. Forty years after the study's publishing in 1960, it