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Beaux-Arts architecture

Beaux-Arts architecture was the academic architectural style taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from the 1830s to the end of the 19th century. It drew upon the principles of French neoclassicism, but incorporated Gothic and Renaissance elements, used modern materials, such as iron and glass, it was an important style in France until the end of the 19th century. It had a strong influence on architecture in the United States, because of the many prominent American architects who studied at the École des Beaux-Arts, including Henry Hobson Richardson, John Galen Howard, Daniel Burnham, Louis Sullivan; the Beaux Arts style evolved from the French classicism of the Style Louis XIV, French neoclassicism beginning with Louis XV and Louis XVI. French architectural styles before the French Revolution were governed by Académie royale d'architecture following the French Revolution, by the Architecture section of the Académie des Beaux-Arts; the Academy held the competition for the Grand Prix de Rome in architecture, which offered prize winners a chance to study the classical architecture of antiquity in Rome.

The formal neoclassicism of the old regime was challenged by four teachers at the Academy, Joseph-Louis Duc, Félix Duban, Henri Labrouste and Léon Vaudoyer, who had studied at the French Academy in Rome at the end of the 1820s, They wanted to break away from the strict formality of the old style by introducing new models of architecture from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Their goal was to create an authentic French style based on French models, their work was aided beginning in 1837 by the creation of the Commission of Historic Monuments, headed by the writer and historian Prosper Mérimée, by the great interest in the Middle Ages caused by the publication in 1831 of The Hunchback of Notre-Dame by Victor Hugo. Their declared intention was to "imprint upon our architecture a national character."The style referred to as Beaux-Arts in English reached the apex of its development during the Second Empire and the Third Republic that followed. The style of instruction that produced Beaux-Arts architecture continued without major interruption until 1968.

The Beaux-Arts style influenced the architecture of the United States in the period from 1880 to 1920. In contrast, many European architects of the period 1860–1914 outside France gravitated away from Beaux-Arts and towards their own national academic centers. Owing to the cultural politics of the late 19th century, British architects of Imperial classicism followed a somewhat more independent course, a development culminating in Sir Edwin Lutyens's New Delhi government buildings; the Beaux-Arts training emphasized the mainstream examples of Imperial Roman architecture between Augustus and the Severan emperors, Italian Renaissance, French and Italian Baroque models but the training could be applied to a broader range of models: Quattrocento Florentine palace fronts or French late Gothic. American architects of the Beaux-Arts generation returned to Greek models, which had a strong local history in the American Greek Revival of the early 19th century. For the first time, repertories of photographs supplemented meticulous scale drawings and on-site renderings of details.

Beaux-Arts training made great use of clasps that link one architectural detail to another. Beaux-Arts training emphasized the production of quick conceptual sketches finished perspective presentation drawings, close attention to the program, knowledgeable detailing. Site considerations included the urban context. All architects-in-training passed through the obligatory stages—studying antique models, constructing analos, analyses reproducing Greek or Roman models, "pocket" studies and other conventional steps—in the long competition for the few desirable places at the Académie de France à Rome with traditional requirements of sending at intervals the presentation drawings called envois de Rome. Beaux-Arts architecture depended on sculptural decoration along conservative modern lines, employing French and Italian Baroque and Rococo formulas combined with an impressionistic finish and realism. In the façade shown above, Diana grasps the cornice she sits on in a natural action typical of Beaux-Arts integration of sculpture with architecture.

Overscaled details, bold sculptural supporting consoles, rich deep cornices and sculptural enrichments in the most bravura finish the client could afford gave employment to several generations of architectural modellers and carvers of Italian and Central European backgrounds. A sense of appropriate idiom at the craftsman level supported the design teams of the first modern architectural offices. Characteristics of Beaux-Arts architecture included: Flat roof Rusticated and raised first story Hierarchy of spaces, from "noble spaces"—grand entrances and staircases—to utilitarian ones Arched windows Arched and pedimented doors Classical details: references to a synthesis of historicist styles and a tendency to eclecticism.

Seuthopolis

Seuthopolis was an ancient hellenistic-type city founded by the Thracian king Seuthes III between 325–315 BC and the capital of the Odrysian kingdom. Its ruins are now located at the bottom of the Koprinka Reservoir near Kazanlak, Stara Zagora Province, in central Bulgaria. Several kilometres north of the city is the Valley of the Thracian Rulers where many magnificent royal tombs are located. Seuthopolis was not a true polis, but rather the seat of his court, his palace had a dual role, functioning as a sanctuary of the Cabeiri, the gods of Samothrace. Most of the space within the city was occupied not by homes but by official structures, the majority of the people living outside the city, it had Greek populace. In 281 BC it was sacked by Celts; the dual role of Seuthes' palace indicates that Seuthes was a priest–king: the high priest of the Cabeiri among the Odrysian Thracians. According to Seuthopolis’ sign, the sanctuary of Dionysius/Sabazios was situated on the square; the cemetery of Seuthopolis included a number of brick tholos tombs, some covered by tumuli, in which the upper-class were interred, sometimes along with their horses.

The less affluent were cremated, with modest grave goods laid alongside. The ruins of the city were discovered and excavated in 1948 by Bulgarian archeologists during the construction of the Georgi Dimitrov Reservoir. However, it was decided to continue with the construction and flood the dam, leaving Seuthopolis at its bottom. Despite the importance of the discovery, the Communist Government back gave the archaeologists 6 years to research and preserve as much of the city as they can. One of the most important archaeological finds is the so-called "Great inscription" found in 1953 in the palace-citadel, it is written in Greek, which indicates that Thracians were hellenised in the 3rd century BC. In 2005, Bulgarian architect Zheko Tilev proposed a project to uncover and reconstruct the city of Seuthopolis by means of a dam wall surrounding the ruins in the middle of the dam, enabling the site's inscription as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and making it a tourist destination of world importance.

Tourists would be transported to the site by boats. The round wall, 420 metres in diameter, would enable visitors to see the city from 20 metres above and would feature "hanging gardens", glass lifts, a quay, cafés, ateliers, etc, it would be illuminated at night. The project was donated by the architect to Kazanlak municipality and funds are being raised to begin construction. According to Tilev, it would cost minimum €50 million. Sevtopolis Peak on Greenwich Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named for Seuthopolis. List of ancient Thracian cities Zheko Tilev's project to uncover Seuthopolis Site about the international initiative of National Unity "Treasure the Bulgarian Heritage" about Zheko Tilev's project to uncover Seuthopolis Greek inscription from Seuthopolis, in English translation

2nd/4th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment

The 2nd/4th Battalion Royal Australian Regiment was an Australian Army infantry battalion. 2/4 RAR was formed on 15 August 1973 by linking 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment and 4th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment. 2/4 RAR was unlinked to re-form 2 RAR and 4 RAR on 1 February 1995. Throughout its existence 2/4 RAR was based at Lavarack Barracks in Townsville and formed part of the 3rd Brigade. Elements of 2/4 RAR served in Malaysia as Rifle Company Butterworth from 1975 until 1989, Cambodia in 1993 and Rwanda in 1994. In addition, 53 personnel were attached to 1 RAR during Operation Solace which saw a battalion group based around 1 RAR deploy to Somalia in 1993. 2/4 RAR maintained the following alliances: Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards Irish Regiment of Foot Guards Horner, David. Duty First: A History of the Royal Australian Regiment. Crows Nest: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-74175-374-5. 2/4 RAR Association of Australia