Mötley Crüe is an American heavy metal band formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1981. The group was founded by bassist Nikki Sixx and drummer Tommy Lee, with guitarist Mick Mars and lead singer Vince Neil joining. Mötley Crüe has sold 100 million albums worldwide, making them one of the best-selling bands of all time; the members of the band have been noted for their hedonistic lifestyles and the persona they maintained. Following its hard rock and heavy metal origins, the release of their third album Theatre of Pain saw the band joining the first wave of glam metal. Motley Crue’s most recent studio album, Saints of Los Angeles, was released on June 24, 2008; the band’s final show took place on New Year's Eve, December 31, 2015. The concert was filmed for a theatrical and Blu-ray release in 2016. On September 13, 2018, Mötley Crüe announced that they had reunited and were working on new music, though Neil said that they will not tour. Mötley Crüe was formed on January 17, 1981, when bassist Nikki Sixx left the band London and began rehearsing with drummer Tommy Lee and vocalist/guitarist Greg Leon.
Lee had worked with Leon in a band called Suite 19 and the trio practiced together for some time. Sixx and Lee began a search for new members and soon met guitarist Bob Deal, better known as Mick Mars, after answering an advertisement that he placed in The Recycler that read: "Loud and aggressive guitar player available". Mars auditioned for Sixx and Lee, was subsequently hired. Although a lead vocalist named O'Dean was auditioned, Lee had known Vince Neil from their high school days at Charter Oak High School in Covina and the two had performed in different bands on the garage band circuit. Upon seeing him perform with the band Rock Candy at the Starwood in Hollywood, Mars suggested they have Neil join the band. At first Neil refused the offer, but as the other members of Rock Candy became involved in outside projects, Neil grew anxious to try something else. Lee asked another time, Neil was hired April 1, 1981; the newly formed band did not yet have a name. Sixx has said that he told his bandmates that he was "thinking about calling the band Christmas".
The other members were not receptive to that idea. While trying to find a suitable name, Mars remembered an incident that occurred when he was playing with a band called White Horse, when one of the other band members called the group "a motley looking crew", he had remembered the phrase and copied it down as'Mottley Cru'. After modifying the spelling "Mötley Crüe" was selected as the band's name, with the stylistic decision suggested by Neil to add the two sets of metal umlauts inspired by the German beer Löwenbräu, which the members were drinking at the time. Other than the periods of February 1992 to 1997 and to 1999 to September 2004, the line up of Neil, Sixx and Mars remained the same; the band soon met its first manager, Allan Coffman, the thirty-eight-year-old brother-in-law of a friend of Mars's driver. The band's first release was the single "Stick to Your Guns/Toast of the Town", released on its own record label, Leathür Records, which had a pressing and distribution deal with Greenworld Distribution in Torrance, California.
In November 1981, its debut album Too Fast for Love was self-produced and released on Leathür, selling 20,000 copies. Coffman's assistant Eric Greif set up a tour of Canada, while Coffman and Greif used Mötley Crüe's success in the Los Angeles club scene to negotiate with several record labels signing a recording contract with Elektra Records in early 1982; the debut album was re-mixed by producer Roy Thomas Baker and re-released on August 20, 1982—two months after its Canadian Warner Music Group release using the original Leathür mixes—to coincide with the tour. During the "Crüesing Through Canada Tour'82", there were several publicized incidents. First, the band was arrested and released at Edmonton International Airport for wearing their spiked stage wardrobe through customs, for Neil arriving with a small carry-on filled with porn magazines. Customs had the confiscated items destroyed. Second, while playing Scandals Disco in Edmonton, a spurious "bomb threat" against the band made the front page of the Edmonton Journal on June 9, 1982.
This too ended up being a staged PR stunt perpetrated by Greif. Lastly, Lee threw a television set from an upper story window of the Sheraton Caravan Hotel. Canadian rock magazine Music Express noted. Despite the tour ending prematurely in financial disaster, it was the basis for the band's first international press. In 1983, the band changed management from Coffman to Doc McGhee. McGhee is best known for managing Bon Jovi and Kiss, starting with their reunion tour in 1996. Greif subsequently sued all parties in a Los Angeles Superior Court action that dragged on for several years, coincidentally re-surfaced as manager of Sixx's former band, London. Coffman himself was sued by several investors to whom he had sold "stock in the band", including Michigan-based Bill Larson. Coffman declared bankruptcy, as he had mortgaged his home at least three times to cover band expenses; the band became successful in the United States after playing at the US Festival and with the aid of the new medium of MTV.
They gained the attention of heavy metal star Ozzy Osbourne and found themselves as the opening act for Osbourne on his 1984 world tour. The band members were well known for
A casino is a facility which houses and accommodates certain types of gambling activities. The industry that deals in casinos is called the gaming industry. Casinos are most built near or combined with hotels, retail shopping, cruise ships or other tourist attractions. There is much debate over whether the social and economic consequences of casino gambling outweigh the initial revenue that may be generated; some casinos are known for hosting live entertainment events, such as stand-up comedy and sporting events. The term "casino" is a confusing linguistic false friend for translators. Casino is of Italian origin; the term casino may mean summerhouse, or social club. During the 19th century, the term casino came to include other public buildings where pleasurable activities took place. In modern-day Italian a casino is either a brothel, a mess, or a noisy environment, while a gaming house is spelt casinò, with an accent. Not all casinos were used for gaming; the Catalina Casino, a famous landmark overlooking Avalon Harbor on Santa Catalina Island, has never been used for traditional games of chance, which were outlawed in California by the time it was built.
The Copenhagen Casino was a theatre, known for the mass public meetings held in its hall during the 1848 Revolution, which made Denmark a constitutional monarchy. Until 1937, it was a well-known Danish theatre; the Hanko Casino in Hanko, Finland—one of that town's most conspicuous landmarks—was never used for gambling. Rather, it was a banquet hall for the Russian nobility which frequented this spa resort in the late 19th century and is now used as a restaurant. In military and non-military usage in German and Spanish, a casino or kasino is an officers' mess; the precise origin of gambling is unknown. It is believed that gambling in some form or another has been seen in every society in history. From the Ancient Greeks and Romans to Napoleon's France and Elizabethan England, much of history is filled with stories of entertainment based on games of chance; the first known European gambling house, not called a casino although meeting the modern definition, was the Ridotto, established in Venice, Italy in 1638 by the Great Council of Venice to provide controlled gambling during the carnival season.
It was closed in 1774. In American history, early gambling establishments were known as saloons; the creation and importance of saloons was influenced by four major cities: New Orleans, St. Louis and San Francisco, it was in the saloons that travelers could find people to talk to, drink with, gamble with. During the early 20th century in America, gambling became outlawed and banned by state legislation and social reformers of the time. However, in 1931, gambling was legalized throughout the state of Nevada. America's first legalized casinos were set up in those places. In 1976 New Jersey allowed gambling in Atlantic City, now America's second largest gambling city. Most jurisdictions worldwide have a minimum gambling age. Customers gamble by playing games of chance, in some cases with an element of skill, such as craps, baccarat and video poker. Most games played have mathematically determined odds that ensure the house has at all times an overall advantage over the players; this can be expressed more by the notion of expected value, uniformly negative.
This advantage is called the house edge. In games such as poker where players play against each other, the house takes a commission called the rake. Casinos sometimes give out complimentary comps to gamblers. Payout is the percentage of funds returned to players. Casinos in the United States say that a player staking money won from the casino is playing with the house's money. Video Lottery Machines have become one of the most popular forms of gambling in casinos; as of 2011 investigative reports have started calling into question whether the modern-day slot-machine is addictive. Casino design—regarded as a psychological exercise—is an intricate process that involves optimising floor plan, décor and atmospherics to encourage gambling. Factors influencing gambling tendencies include sound and lighting. Natasha Dow Schüll, an anthropologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, highlights the decision of the audio directors at Silicon Gaming to make its slot machines resonate in "the universally pleasant tone of C, sampling existing casino soundscapes to create a sound that would please but not clash".
Dr Alan Hirsch, founder of the Smell & Taste Treatment and Research Foundation in Chicago, studied the impact of certain scents on gamblers, discerning that a pleasant albeit unidentifiable odour released by Las Vegas slot machines generated about 50% more in daily revenue. He suggested. Casino designer Roger Thomas is credited with implementing a successful, disruptive design for the Las Vegas Wynn Resorts casinos in 2008, he broke casino design convention by introducing natural sunlight and flora to appeal to women. Thomas put in skylights and antique clocks, defying the commonplace notion that a casino should be a timeless space; the following li
The Moscow–Washington hotline is a system that allows direct communication between the leaders of the United States and Russia. This hotline links the Pentagon with the Kremlin. Although in popular culture it is known as the "red telephone", the hotline was never a telephone line, no red phones were used; the first implementation used Teletype equipment, shifted to fax machines in 1986. Since 2008, the Moscow–Washington hotline has been a secure computer link over which messages are exchanged by a secure form of email. Several people came up with the idea for a hotline, they included Harvard professor Thomas Schelling, who had worked on nuclear war policy for the Defense Department previously. Schelling credited the pop fiction novel Red Alert with making governments more aware of the benefit of direct communication between the superpowers. In addition, Parade magazine editor Jess Gorkin badgered 1960 presidential candidates John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon, buttonholed the Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev during a U.
S. visit to adopt the idea. During this period Gerard C. Smith, as head of the State Department Policy Planning Staff, proposed direct communication links between Moscow and Washington. Objections from others in the State Department, the U. S. military, the Kremlin delayed introduction. The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis made the hotline a priority. During the standoff, official diplomatic messages took six hours to deliver. During the crisis, the United States took nearly twelve hours to receive and decode Nikita Khrushchev's 3,000-word initial settlement message – a dangerously long time. By the time Washington had drafted a reply, a tougher message from Moscow had been received, demanding that U. S. missiles be removed from Turkey. White House advisers thought faster communications could have averted the crisis, resolved it quicker; the two countries signed the Hot Line Agreement in June 1963 – the first time they formally took action to cut the risk of starting a nuclear war unintentionally. The "hotline", as it would come to be known, was established after the signing of a "Memorandum of Understanding Regarding the Establishment of a Direct Communications Line" on June 20, 1963, in Geneva, Switzerland, by representatives of the Soviet Union and the United States.
At the Pentagon, the hotline system is located at the National Military Command Center. Each MOLINK team worked an eight-hour shift: a non-commissioned officer looked after the equipment, a commissioned officer, fluent in Russian and well-briefed on world affairs was translator. Messages received in Washington automatically carry the U. S. government's highest security classification, "Eyes Only - The President". The hotline was tested hourly. U. S. test messages have included excerpts of William Shakespeare, Mark Twain, a first-aid manual. MOLINK staffers take special care not to include innuendo or literary imagery that could be misinterpreted, such as passages from Winnie the Pooh, given that a bear is considered the national symbol of Russia; the Soviets asked, during the Carter administration, that Washington not send routine communications through the hotline. On New Year's Eve and on August 30, the hotline's anniversary, greetings replace the test messages. Upon receipt of the message at the NMCC, the message is translated into English, both the original Russian and the translated English texts are transmitted to the White House Situation Room.
However, if the message were to indicate "an imminent disaster, such as an accidental nuclear strike," the MOLINK team would telephone the gist of the message to the Situation Room duty officer who would brief the president before a formal translation was complete. The Republican Party criticized the hotline in its 1964 national platform, it has alienated proven allies by opening a'hot line' first with a sworn enemy rather than with a proven friend, in general pursued a risky path such as it began at Munich a quarter century ago." The Moscow–Washington hotline was intended for text only. Leaders wrote in their native language and messages were translated at the receiving end; the first generation of the hotline used two full-time duplex telegraph circuits. The primary circuit was routed from Washington, D. C. via London, Copenhagen and Helsinki to Moscow. TAT-1, the first submarine transatlantic telephone cable carried messages from Washington to London. A secondary radio line for back-up and service messages linked Moscow via Tangier.
This network was built by Harris Corporation. In July 1963 the United States sent four sets of teleprinters with the Latin alphabet to Moscow for the terminal there. A month the Soviet equipment, four sets of East German teleprinters with the Cyrillic alphabet made by Siemens, arrived in Washington; the hotline started operations on August 30, 1963. A Norwegian-built device called Electronic Teleprinter Cryptographic Regenerative Repeater Mixer II encrypted the teletype messages; this used the unbreakable one-time pad cryptosystem. Each country delivered keying tapes used to encode its messages via its embassy ab
A biological agent—also called bio-agent, biological threat agent, biological warfare agent, biological weapon, or bioweapon—is a bacterium, protozoan, parasite, or fungus that can be used purposefully as a weapon in bioterrorism or biological warfare. In addition to these living and/or replicating pathogens and biotoxins are included among the bio-agents. More than 1,200 different kinds of weaponizable bio-agents have been described and studied to date. Biological agents have the ability to adversely affect human health in a variety of ways, ranging from mild allergic reactions to serious medical conditions, including serious injury, as well as serious or permanent disability or death. Many of these organisms are ubiquitous in the natural environment where they are found in water, plants, or animals. Bio-agents may be amenable to "weaponization" to render them easier to disseminate. Genetic modification may enhance their incapacitating or lethal properties, or render them impervious to conventional treatments or preventives.
Since many bio-agents reproduce and require minimal resources for propagation, they are a potential danger in a wide variety of occupational settings. The Biological Weapons Convention is an international treaty banning the use or stockpiling of bio-agents. Bio-agents are, however studied for both defensive and general medical purposes under various biosafety levels and within biocontainment facilities throughout the world. In 2008, according to a U. S. Congressional Research Service report, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Russia and Taiwan were considered, with varying degrees of certainty, to be maintaining bio-agents in an offensive BW program capacity; the former US biological warfare program categorized its weaponized anti-personnel bio-agents as either Lethal Agents or Incapacitating Agents. In the next section the military symbols for various weaponized agents are given. Since 1997, United States law has declared a list of bio-agents designated by the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services or the U.
S. Department of Agriculture that have the "potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety" to be defined as "select agents" and possession or transportation of them are controlled as such. Select agents are divided into "HHS select agents and toxins", "USDA select agents and toxins" and "Overlap select agents and toxins"; the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention breaks biological agents into three categories: Category A, Category B, Category C. Category A agents pose the greatest threat to the U. S. Criteria for being a Category "A" agent include high rates of mortality. Category A agents include anthrax, plague, smallpox and viral hemorrhagic fevers; the following pathogens and toxins were weaponized by another at some time. NATO abbreviations are included. Additionally, the Soviet Union is known to have weaponized Marburg virus in the'80s. Simulants are organisms or substances which mimic physical or biological properties of real biological agents, without being pathogenic.
They are used to study the efficiency of various dissemination techniques or the risks caused by the use of biological agents in bioterrorism. To simulate dispersal, attachment or the penetration depth in human or animal lungs, simulants must have particle sizes, specific weight and surface properties, similar to the simulated biological agent; the typical size of simulants enables it to enter buildings with closed windows and doors and penetrate deep into the lungs. This bears a significant health risk if the biological agent is not pathogenic. Bacillus globigii Serratia marcescens Aspergillus fumigatus mutant C-2 Escherichia coli Bacillus thuringiensis Erwinia herbicola Fluorescent particles such as Zinc cadmium sulfide, ZnCdS Biological hazard Biological contamination Laboratory Response Network Pulsed ultraviolet light Toxin Rafał L. Górny, Biological agents, OSHwiki U. S. Department of Labor - Biological Agents U. S. Department of Health and Human Services - Select Agents and Toxins
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D. C. and has been the residence of every U. S. President since John Adams in 1800; the term "White House" is used as a metonym for the president and his advisers. The residence was designed by Irish-born architect James Hoban in the neoclassical style. Hoban modelled the building on Leinster House in Dublin, a building which today houses the Oireachtas, the Irish legislature. Construction took place between 1800 using Aquia Creek sandstone painted white; when Thomas Jefferson moved into the house in 1801, he added low colonnades on each wing that concealed stables and storage. In 1814, during the War of 1812, the mansion was set ablaze by the British Army in the Burning of Washington, destroying the interior and charring much of the exterior. Reconstruction began immediately, President James Monroe moved into the reconstructed Executive Residence in October 1817.
Exterior construction continued with the addition of the semi-circular South portico in 1824 and the North portico in 1829. Because of crowding within the executive mansion itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had all work offices relocated to the newly constructed West Wing in 1901. Eight years in 1909, President William Howard Taft expanded the West Wing and created the first Oval Office, moved as the section was expanded. In the main mansion, the third-floor attic was converted to living quarters in 1927 by augmenting the existing hip roof with long shed dormers. A newly constructed East Wing was used as a reception area for social events. East Wing alterations were completed in 1946. By 1948, the residence's load-bearing exterior walls and internal wood beams were found to be close to failure. Under Harry S. Truman, the interior rooms were dismantled and a new internal load-bearing steel frame constructed inside the walls. Once this work was completed, the interior rooms were rebuilt; the modern-day White House complex includes the Executive Residence, West Wing, East Wing, the Eisenhower Executive Office Building—the former State Department, which now houses offices for the President's staff and the Vice President—and Blair House, a guest residence.
The Executive Residence is made up of six stories—the Ground Floor, State Floor, Second Floor, Third Floor, as well as a two-story basement. The property is a National Heritage Site owned by the National Park Service and is part of the President's Park. In 2007, it was ranked second on the American Institute of Architects list of "America's Favorite Architecture". Following his April 1789 inauguration, President George Washington occupied two executive mansions in New York City: the Samuel Osgood House at 3 Cherry Street, the Alexander Macomb House at 39–41 Broadway. In May 1790, New York began construction of Government House for his official residence, but he never occupied it; the national capital moved to Philadelphia in December 1790. The July 1790 Residence Act named Philadelphia, Pennsylvania the temporary national capital for a 10-year period while the Federal City was under construction; the City of Philadelphia rented Robert Morris's city house at 190 High Street for Washington's presidential residence.
The first U. S. President occupied the Market Street mansion from November 1790 to March 1797 and altered it in ways that may have influenced the design of the White House; as part of a futile effort to have Philadelphia named the permanent national capital, Pennsylvania built a much grander presidential mansion several blocks away, but Washington declined to occupy it. President John Adams occupied the Market Street mansion from March 1797 to May 1800. On Saturday, November 1, 1800, he became the first president to occupy the White House; the President's House in Philadelphia became a hotel and was demolished in 1832, while the unused presidential mansion became home to the University of Pennsylvania. The President's House was a major feature of Pierre Charles L'Enfant's' plan for the newly established federal city, Washington, D. C.. The architect of the White House was chosen in a design competition which received nine proposals, including one submitted anonymously by Thomas Jefferson. President Washington visited Charleston, South Carolina in May 1791 on his "Southern Tour", saw the under-construction Charleston County Courthouse designed by Irish architect James Hoban.
He is reputed to have met with Hoban then. The following year, he summoned the architect to Philadelphia and met with him in June 1792. On July 16, 1792, the President met with the commissioners of the federal city to make his judgment in the architectural competition, his review is recorded as being brief, he selected Hoban's submission. The building has classical inspiration sources, that could be found directly or indirectly in the Roman architect Vitruvius or in Andrea Palladio styles; the building Hoban designed is verifiably influenced by the upper floors of Leinster House, in Dublin, which became the seat of the Oireachtas. Several other Georgian-era Irish country houses have been suggested as sources of inspiration for the overall floor plan, details like the bow-fronted south front, interior details like the former niches in the present Blue Room; these influences, though undocumented, are cited in the official White House guide, in White
Rob Zombie is an American musician and filmmaker. He is a founding member of the heavy metal band White Zombie, releasing four studio albums with the band, he is the older brother of Spider One, lead vocalist for American rock band Powerman 5000. Zombie's first solo effort was a song titled "Hands of Death" with Alice Cooper, which went on to receive a nomination for Best Metal Performance at the 39th Annual Grammy Awards. In 1997, he began working on his debut solo studio album, Hellbilly Deluxe, released in August 1998. A month Zombie disbanded White Zombie. Hellbilly Deluxe spawned three singles, he released a remix album, American Made Music to Strip By, the following year that contained songs from Hellbilly Deluxe. Zombie directed the horror film House of 1000 Corpses in 2000, though the controversial project was not released until 2003, his second studio album, The Sinister Urge, became his second platinum album in the United States. In 2003, Zombie released the Future. Zombie directed a direct sequel to his prior film House of 1000 Corpses.
The project received a more positive reception than its predecessor. His third studio album, Educated Horses, was a departure from his earlier recordings; the album became his third to enter the top ten of the Billboard 200, though saw a decrease in sales when compared to his previous releases. Deciding to focus on his directing career, Zombie directed the horror film Halloween, a remake of the 1978 horror classic of the same name; the film became Zombie's highest-grossing film to date, though was met with a negative critical reception. He directed Halloween II, which failed to match the success of its predecessor, he released the animated film The Haunted World of El Superbeasto that same year. Zombie returned to music with the release of his fourth studio album, Hellbilly Deluxe 2; the album sold over 200,000 copies in the country. In 2012, Zombie released a second remix album and directed the horror film The Lords of Salem, released the following year, he released his fifth studio album Venomous Rat Regeneration Vendor the following year.
He directed the horror film 31 and has purchased the rights to a film about the NHL team Philadelphia Flyers, titled The Broad Street Bullies. Since the beginning of his music career, Zombie's music and lyrics have featured notable horror and sci-fi themes, his live shows have been praised for their elaborate shock rock theatricality. Since beginning his solo career, Zombie has sold an estimated fifteen million albums worldwide. Robert Bartleh Cummings was born in Haverhill, Massachusetts on January 12, 1965, he is the oldest son of Louise Cummings. His younger brother, Michael David Cummings, is the lead singer of the band Powerman 5000. Growing up, Cummings had a fascination with horror films and has stated that he always "wanted to be Alice Cooper, Steven Spielberg, Bela Lugosi and Stan Lee." His parents worked in a carnival, but they chose to leave after a riot broke out and tents were set on fire. Cummings recalled the experience in an interview, stating, "Everybody's pulling out guns, you could hear guns going off.
I remember this one guy we knew, he was telling us where to go, some guy just ran up to him and hit him in the face with a hammer – just busted his face wide open. My parents packed up real quick, we took off." Cummings graduated from Haverhill High School in 1983. He moved to New York City and began attending Parsons School of Design, where he met eventual girlfriend Sean Yseult. Before the success of White Zombie, he was a production assistant for the television series Pee-wee's Playhouse. Cummings and Yseult co-founded the band, they continued to work in the band together. The band released three extended plays to little success, with their debut studio album Soul-Crusher following in 1987 through the band's own record label, Silent Explosion, they released their second studio album two years to little commercial reaction. Yseult and Zombie ended their relationship in 1991 and Zombie began dating Sheri Moon shortly afterwards; the band caught the attention of Geffen Records following the release of their fourth extended play.
The album became the band's breakout hit, going on to sell over two million copies in the United States. Their first single, "Thunder Kiss'65", was released through the label in 1993. White Zombie's fourth and final studio album, Astro-Creep: 2000 – Songs of Love and Other Synthetic Delusions of the Electric Head, became their first to enter the top ten of the Billboard 200. Cummings directed the music video for the album's single "More Human than Human" and would go on to direct all subsequent videos for the band. In 1996, Cummings changed his name to Rob Zombie. White Zombie released a remix album that year, marking their final release before their eventual disbandment. Zombie collaborated with Alice Cooper on the song "Hands of Death" for Songs in the Key of X: Music from and Inspired by the X-Files; the song was nominated in the category of Best Metal Performance at the 39th Annual Grammy Awards, though lost to Rage Against the Machine. White Zombie broke up in September 1998, with Zombie stating, "Sometimes a band just breaks up because the band has run its course a
Body cavity search
A body cavity search known as a cavity search, is either a visual search or a manual internal inspection of body cavities for prohibited materials, such as illegal drugs, jewelry, or weapons. Body cavities used for concealment include nostrils, mouth, penis or vagina, rectum, it is far more invasive than the standard strip search, performed on individuals taken into custody, either upon police arrest or incarceration at a jail, prison, or psychiatric hospital. The procedure is repeated when the person leaves the institution. Body cavity searches may be conducted at some international border crossings such as the U. S. Customs and Border Protection when they suspect international travelers of hiding contraband—such as drugs—in their alimentary canal. Many articles of contraband are concealable in the body's cavities, via means such as insertion into the rectum. Illegal drugs are found in condoms and temporarily stowed in the colon, cylinders such as cigar tubes are used to hide money, intravenous syringes, knives.
Duplicate handcuff keys could be concealed in many body orifices, such as in the nasal passages or underneath the tongue. In a thorough visual body cavity search, a flashlight is used to illuminate common bodily areas, including the nostrils, mouth, penis or vulva, buttocks; the detainee is required to cooperate with manipulating these body parts as they are examined. Squatting is sometimes instructed during the visual search, prolonged holding of a squat can be demanded; the person may be asked to “squat and cough,” with the aim of dislodging an object stored in the rectum or vagina. During manual body cavity searches, an inmate is temporarily transferred to an offsite clinic to be examined by a licensed physician of the same gender; the circumstances in which these inspections may be done are restricted, such as on individuals refusing to offer to consent to a visual body cavity search for reasons other than anxiety or in situations where there is a strong evidence to suspect the presence of contraband, require a court order.
As cavity searches have proven as an ineffective strategy in the total prevention of smuggling objects as it cannot detect objects in the intestines or stomach, as well as taking into consideration the intrusive nature and inherently humiliating or degrading procedure, it has become normal for authorities to instead isolate individuals in a monitored environment until they pass excreta and/or x-ray the individual's pelvic area as it is less invasive and psychologically damaging. Some inmates and human rights activists argue that body cavity searches are done not so much to stop the flow of contraband but rather to harass and humiliate detainees. A visual inspection of the rectum will not reveal objects concealed inside, it is possible to circumvent detection during manual body cavity searches. In some instances, suspects swallow packages of drugs protected by condoms and allow them to pass through their digestive tract. Only diagnostic imaging will reveal the concealed contraband; because these searches are invasive and compromise an individual’s right of privacy, the legality of visual and manual body cavity searches is contested.
In the United States, Bell v. Wolfish is the benchmark case on this issue. In its judgment of the case, the U. S. Supreme Court established a standard of reasonable grounds for performing cavity searches. Among these are security concerns at prisons; such searches are governed by the Fourth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which prohibits searches without probable cause. In the UK, cavity searches are not carried out upon entry to prisons, although new prisoners are required to perform squats as part of their strip-search. Though said prisoners may be visually searched, prison staff do not have the power to carry out cavity searches. Law enforcement officers are not allowed to conduct cavity searches or strip searches in Pakistan. Any officer who conducts a cavity search or strip search can be sentenced up to 4 years in prison and given a Rs.7500 fine. The body cavity search is used as a joke in comedies such as the movie Beavis and Butt-head Do America and Seinfeld, due to its humiliating and invasive nature.
It adds to the suffering of a comedic foil. It is not depicted explicitly, but implied by the donning of a lubricated glove by a searcher, it is similar to the use of the rectal examination in this regard. Bell v. Wolfish, 441 U. S. 520, 559 Gochnauer, Myron. "Necessity and Prisoners' Rights."". New England Journal on Criminal and Civil Confinement. 10: 27–43. Kalinich, David B.. "Contraband: The Basis for Legitimate Power in a Prison Social System". Criminal Justice and Behavior. 12: 435–451. Doi:10.1177/0093854885012004003. Lerner, Jimmy. You Got Nothing Coming: Notes From a Prison Fish. New York: Broadway Books