Bechuanaland Protectorate

The Bechuanaland Protectorate was a protectorate established on 31 March 1885, by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in Southern Africa. It became the Republic of Botswana on 30 September 1966. Scottish missionary John Mackenzie, a Congregationalist of the London Missionary Society, who lived at Shoshong from 1862–76, "believed that the Ngwato and other African peoples with whom he worked were threatened by Boer freebooters encroaching on their territory from the south." He campaigned for the establishment of what became the Bechuanaland Protectorate, to be ruled directly from Britain. Austral Africa: Losing It or Ruling It is Mackenzie's account of events leading to the establishment of the protectorate. Influenced by Mackenzie, in January 1885 the British cabinet decided to send a military expedition to South Africa to assert British sovereignty over the contested territory. Sir Charles Warren led a force of 4,000 imperial troops north from Cape Town. After making treaties with several African chiefs, Warren announced the establishment of the protectorate in March 1885.

In September that year the Tswana country south of the Molopo River was proclaimed the Crown colony of British Bechuanaland. Mackenzie accompanied Warren, Austral Africa contains a detailed account of the expedition. Bechuanaland meant the country of the Tswana and for administrative purposes was divided into two political entities; the northern part was administered as the Bechuanaland Protectorate and the southern part was administered as the crown colony of British Bechuanaland. British Bechuanaland was incorporated into the Cape Colony in 1895 and now forms part of South Africa; the northern part, the Bechuanaland Protectorate, had an area of 225,000 square miles, a population of 120,776. The British government expected to turn over administration of the protectorate to Rhodesia or South Africa, but Tswana opposition left the protectorate under British rule until its independence in 1966; the Bechuanaland Protectorate was technically a protectorate rather than a colony. The local Tswana rulers were left in power, British administration was limited to a police force to protect Bechuanaland's borders against other European colonial ventures.

But on 9 May 1891 the British Government gave the administration of the protectorate to the High Commissioner for South Africa, who started to appoint officials in Bechuanaland, the de facto independence of Bechuanaland ended. The protectorate was administered from Mafeking, creating an unusual situation, the capital of the territory being located outside of the territory; the area of Mafeking, was called'The Imperial Reserve'. In 1885, when the protectorate was declared, Bechuanaland was bounded to the north by the latitude of 22° south; the northern boundary of the protectorate was formally extended northward by the British to include Ngamiland, dominated by the Tawana state, on 30 June 1890. This claim was formally recognised by Germany the following day by Article III of the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty, which confirmed the western boundary of the British protectorate of Bechuanaland and the German protectorate of South-West Africa and created the Caprivi strip inherited by modern Namibia: In Southwest Africa, Germany's sphere of influence is demarcated thus: To the south by the line that commences at the mouth of the Orange River and continues up its northern bank to its intersection point with the 20° east longitude.

To the east by the line that commences at the aforementioned point and follows the 20th degree of east longitude to its intersection point with the 22° south latitude. The line traces this degree of latitude eastward to its intersection with the 21° east longitude, follows this degree of longitude northward to its intersection with the 18° south latitude, runs along this degree of latitude eastward to its intersection with the Chobe River. Here it descends the thalweg of the main channel, it is understood that under this arrangement Germany shall be granted free access from its protectorate to the Zambezi by means of a strip of land not less than twenty English miles wide at any point. Great Britain's sphere of influence is bounded to the west and northwest by the described line and includes Lake Ngami. British officials did not arrive in the Ngamiland region until 1894; the Tati Concessions Land Act of 21 January 1911 transferred new eastern territory to the protectorate: From the place where the Shashe River rises to its junction with the Tati and Ramokgwebana Rivers, thence along the Ramokgwebana River to where it rises and thence along the watershed of those rivers, This territory was claimed by Matabeleland.

In 1887 Samuel Edwards, working for Cecil Rhodes, obtained a mining concession, in 1895 the British South Africa Company attempted to acquire the area, but three Tswana chiefs visited London to protest and were successful in fending off the BSAC. This territory forms the modern North-East District of Botswana; the most powerful ruler was King Khama III, who had strong support from the British government, was popular among evangelicals in Britain. He collaborated with the British military, kept his vast, but underpopulated lands independent from intruders from South Africa. Khama's eldest son, Sekgoma II, became chief of the Bamangwato upon Khama's death in 1923. Sekgoma II's eldest son was named Seretse. Throughout his life Khama remarried several times. One wife, birthed a son named Tshekedi. Sekgoma II's reign lasted only a year or so, leaving his son Seretse, who at the time was an infant, as the rightful heir to the chieftainshi

Forced conversion

Forced conversion is adoption of a different religion or irreligion under duress. Someone, forced to convert may continue, with the beliefs and practices held, while outwardly behaving as a convert. Crypto-Jews, crypto-Christians, crypto-Muslims and crypto-Pagans are historical examples of the latter. In general, anthropologists have shown that the relationship between religion and politics is complex when viewed over the expanse of human history. While religious leaders and the state have different aims, both are concerned with power and order. Throughout history, leaders of religious and political institutions have cooperated, opposed one another, or attempted to co-opt each other, for purposes which are both noble and base, they have implemented programs with a wide range of driving values, from compassion, aimed at alleviating current suffering to brutal change, aimed at achieving long-term goals, for the benefit of groups ranging from small cliques to all of humanity; the relationship is far from simple.

But religion has been used coercively, it has used coercion. Christianity was a minority religion during much of the middle Roman Classical Period, the early Christians were persecuted during that time; when Constantine I converted to Christianity, it became the dominant religion of the Roman Empire. Under the reign of Constantine I, Christian heretics were being persecuted. In the view of many historians, the Constantinian shift turned Christianity from a persecuted religion into one capable of persecution and sometimes eager to persecute. On 27 February 380, together with Gratian and Valentinian II, Theodosius I issued the decree Cunctos populos, the so-called Edict of Thessalonica, recorded in the Codex Theodosianus xvi.1.2. This declared Trinitarian Nicene Christianity to be the only legitimate imperial religion and the only one entitled to call itself Catholic. Other Christians he described as "foolish madmen", he ended official state support for the traditional polytheist religions and customs.

The Codex Theodosianus was a compilation of the laws of the Roman Empire under the Christian emperors since 312. A commission was established by Theodosius II and his co-emperor Valentinian III on 26 March 429 and the compilation was published by a constitution of 15 February 438, it went into force in the eastern and western parts of the empire on 1 January 439. It is Our will that all the peoples who are ruled by the administration of Our Clemency shall practice that religion which the divine Peter the Apostle transmitted to the Romans.... The rest, whom We adjudge demented and insane, shall sustain the infamy of heretical dogmas, their meeting places shall not receive the name of churches, they shall be smitten first by divine vengeance and secondly by the retribution of Our own initiative. Forced conversions of Jews were carried out with the support of rulers during Late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages in Gaul, the Iberian peninsula and in the Byzantine empire. During the Saxon Wars, King of the Franks, forcibly converted the Saxons from their native Germanic paganism by way of warfare, law upon conquest.

Examples are the Massacre of Verden in 782, when Charlemagne had 4,500 captive Saxons massacred for rebelling, the Capitulatio de partibus Saxoniae, a law imposed on conquered Saxons in 785, after another rebellion and destruction of churches and killing of missionary priests and monks, that prescribed death to those who refused to convert to Christianity. Forced conversion that occurred after the seventh century took place during riots and massacres carried out by mobs and clergy without support of the rulers. In contrast, royal persecutions of Jews from the late eleventh century onward took the form of expulsions, with some exceptions, such as conversions of Jews in southern Italy of the 13th century, which were carried out by Dominican Inquisitors but instigated by King Charles II of Naples. Jews were forced to convert to Christianity by the Crusaders in Lorraine, on the Lower Rhine, in Bavaria and Bohemia, in Mainz and in Worms. Pope Innocent III pronounced in 1201 that if one agreed to be baptized to avoid torture and intimidation, one could be compelled to outwardly observe Christianity: hose who are immersed though reluctant, do belong to ecclesiastical jurisdiction at least by reason of the sacrament, might therefore be reasonably compelled to observe the rules of the Christian Faith.

It is, to be sure, contrary to the Christian Faith that anyone, unwilling and wholly opposed to it should be compelled to adopt and observe Christianity. For this reason a valid distinction is made by some between kinds of unwilling ones and kinds of compelled ones, thus one, drawn to Christianity by violence, through fear and through torture, receives the sacrament of Baptism in order to avoid loss, he does receive the impress of Christianity, may be forced to observe the Christian Faith as one who expressed a conditional willingness though speaking, he was unwilling... During the Northern Crusades against the pagan Balts and Slavs of northern Europe, forced conversions were a used tactic, which received papal sanction; these tactics were first adopted during the Wendish Crusade, but became more widespread during the Livonian Crusade and Prussian Crusade, in which tactics included the killing of hostages and the devastation of the lands of tribes that had not yet subm

Bilge Demirköz

Bilge Demirköz is a professor of high energy physics at Middle East Technical University. She coordinates the Particle Radiation Tests Creation Laboratory, the first collaboration between Turkey and CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. Demirköz is from Istanbul, she attended Robert College for her high school studies. She wanted to take part in research during her undergraduate degree, so moved to Massachusetts Institute of Technology, she won Joel Matthew Orloff Award in 2000. She earned a Bachelor of Science in Physics and Music from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2001, she started working on the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer. She was offered PhD positions in California Institute of Technology, MIT, Stanford University and Harvard University. Despite starting her PhD at MIT, the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster resulted in her moving to the University of Oxford, she was a Science and Technology Facilities Council Dorothy Hodgkin Scholar under the supervision of Antony Weidberg.

She completed her postgraduate studies at the University of Oxford, was a member of Balliol College. Here she worked on the ATLAS experiment; when the Large Hadron Collider was delayed, Demirköz tested her detector using cosmic rays. She completed her thesis and Performance of the ATLAS SCT Barrels and Cosmic Tests, in 2007. From 2007 to 2009 Demirköz worked as a Trigger Expert for the ATLAS experiment, she was a postdoctoral scholar at the University of Cambridge and IFAE in 2009. At IFAE, Demirköz worked on the jet shapes of 7 TeV data from the ATLAS experiment, she joined Middle East Technical University in 2001, joining the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment on the International Space Station. She founded the Engin Arik Fellowship in 2008, a fund which supports Turkish students at CERN, she was selected as a TED fellow in 2011. She was appointed to the CERN User Advisory Committee in 2011, she 2014 Demirköz has served on the Board of the Arts at CERN. In 2015 she spoke at the Turkish Women's Network.

She was elected to the Turkish Academy of Sciences in June 2015. She leads the Particle Radiation Tests Creation Laboratory, the first collaboration between Turkey and CERN; this allows her to study the radiation environment of the earth as well as monitoring the impact of radiation on electronic devices. Demirköz was named a L'Oréal-UNESCO International Rising Talent in 2017, she was promoted to Professor at Middle East Technical University in 2017. She serves as the Principal Investigator of the astroparticle physics group; that year she was nominated to the Global Young Academy. She was featured in the 2018 Science Magazine celebration of women in science