Botswana the Republic of Botswana, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. The British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its name after becoming independent within the Commonwealth on 30 September 1966. Since it has been a representative republic, with a consistent record of uninterrupted democratic elections and the lowest perceived corruption ranking in Africa since at least 1998, it is Africa's oldest continuous democracy. Botswana is topographically flat, with up to 70 percent of its territory being the Kalahari Desert, it is bordered by South Africa to the south and southeast, Namibia to the west and north, Zimbabwe to the northeast. Its border with Zambia to the north near Kazungula is poorly defined but is, at most, a few hundred metres long. A mid-sized country of just over 2.3 million people, Botswana is one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. Around 10 percent of the population lives in the capital and largest city, Gaborone. One of the poorest countries in the world—with a GDP per capita of about US$70 per year in the late 1960s—Botswana has since transformed itself into one of the world's fastest-growing economies.
The economy is dominated by mining and tourism. Botswana boasts a GDP per capita of about $18,825 per year as of 2015, one of the highest in Africa, its high gross national income gives the country a high standard of living and one of the highest Human Development Index of continental Sub-Saharan Africa. Botswana is a member of the African Union, the Southern African Development Community, the Commonwealth of Nations, the United Nations; the country has been among the hardest hit by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Despite the success in programmes to make treatments available to those infected, to educate the populace in general about how to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, the number of people with AIDS rose from 290,000 in 2005 to 320,000 in 2013; as of 2014, Botswana has the third-highest prevalence rate for HIV/AIDS, with 20% of the population infected. The country's name means "land of the tswana", referring to the dominant ethnic group in Botswana; the term Batswana was applied to the Tswana, still the case.
However, it has come to be used as a demonym for all citizens of Botswana. Many English dictionaries recommend the term Botswanan to refer to people of Botswana. Archaeological digs have shown. Stone tools and fauna remains have shown that all areas of the country were inhabited at least 400,000 years ago. In October 2019, researchers reported that Botswana was the birthplace of all modern humans about 200,000 years ago. Evidence left by modern humans such as cave paintings are about 73,000 years old; the original inhabitants of southern Africa were the Khoi peoples. Both speak Khoisan languages and hunted and traded over long distances; when cattle were first introduced about 2000 years ago into southern Africa, pastoralism became a major feature of the economy, since the region had large grasslands free of tsetse fly. It is unclear when Bantu-speaking peoples first moved into the country from the north, although AD 600 seems to be a consensus estimate. In that era, the ancestors of the modern-day Kalanga moved into what is now the north-eastern areas of the country.
These proto-Kalanga were connected to states in Zimbabwe as well as to the Mapungubwe state. These states, located outside of current Botswana's borders, appear to have kept massive cattle herds in what is now the Central District—apparently at numbers approaching modern cattle density; this massive cattle-raising complex prospered until 1300 AD or so, seems to have regressed following the collapse of Mapungubwe. During this era, the first Tswana-speaking groups, the Bakgalagadi, moved into the southern areas of the Kalahari. All these various peoples were connected to trade routes that ran via the Limpopo River to the Indian Ocean, trade goods from Asia such as beads made their way to Botswana most in exchange for ivory and rhinoceros horn; the arrival of the ancestors of the Tswana-speakers who came to control the region has yet to be dated precisely. Members of the Bakwena, a chieftaincy under a legendary leader named Kgabo II, made their way into the southern Kalahari by AD 1500, at the latest, his people drove the Bakgalagadi inhabitants west into the desert.
Over the years, several offshoots of the Bakwena moved into adjoining territories. The Bangwaketse occupied areas to the west, while the Bangwato moved northeast into Kalanga areas. Not long afterwards, a Bangwato offshoot known as the Batawana migrated into the Okavango Delta in the 1790s; the first written records relating to modern-day Botswana appear in 1824. What these records show is that the Bangwaketse had become the predominant power in the region. Under the rule of Makaba II, the Bangwaketse kept vast herds of cattle in well-protected desert areas, used their military prowess to raid their neighbors. Other chiefdoms in the area, by this time, had capitals of 10,000 or so and were prosperous; this equilibrium came to end during the Mfecane period, 1823–1843, when a succession of invading peoples from South Africa entered the country. Although the Bangwaketse were able to defeat the invading Bakololo in 1826, over time all the major chiefdoms in Botswana were attacked and impoverished.
The Bakololo and Amandebele raided and took large numbers of cattle and children from the Batswana—most of whom were driven into the desert or sanctuary areas such as hilltop
Apeejay School Nerul, Mumbai is one of a number of private schools run K-12 by Apeejay Education Society. The School is affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi and is a member of the National Progressive Schools Conference; the school started in 1987. This is part of the Svarn education group. Apeejay School is listed amongst the top schools in Mumbai city in annual survey published by Hindustan Times fore survey for past 8 years; the school was awarded with Best School in Navi Mumbai by Nagrik Seva Samiti in 2000, 2001, 2003 and by CIDCO in 2000. Principal Mr. N. N. Nayyar was honoured with the CBSE Award to Teacher in Maharashtra State on 4 September 2004. Principal Mr. Rakesh Joshi was conferred with the prestigious'Best Teacher' Award by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India in 2015; the institution was commended and awarded at the World Education Awards 2019 in the category ‘Innovation in Pedagogical Practices’ at the two-day'15th World Education Summit 2019' organised by ELETS in Mumbai from November 21–22, 2019.
The institution has been ranked amongst top 500 schools of India by the Brainfeed School Excellence Awards 2019. The School received the Award in the categories of Best CBSE Schools, Innovative Practices, Academic Excellence Schools, Co-Curricular Activities and Life Skills Education for enriching the standards in imparting excellence to the GenNext Learners on December 7, 2019; the institution has been ranked 61st by the Education World India School Rankings 2019, among the Best Day-Schools Category in India, #19th in the State of Maharashtra and #3rd in the city. British Council International School Award The School has become the proud recipient of the prestigious British Council International School Award for the period 2014-17 and the ISA kite mark instituted by the British Council. Education World: The School has been place at 45th position for the year 2015–2016 in a National Survey conducted by the prestigious magazine ‘Education World’. Education World: The prestigious magazine ‘Education World’ has placed the school in 9th position for Academic Reputation in a National Survey.
The school has received the Hindustan Times Top School Award for being the Best CBSE School of Mumbai on multiple occasions. The School has been ranked the 13th position in the Top Schools in West India by Digital Learning. Mridula Subramaniam, a student of Apeejay School, was chosen as the Times NIE Star Correspondent and was awarded with the Times NIE Star Correspondents' badge and a Certificate of Honour at the TIMES NIE NEWS MAKERS' MEET in 20.15 The institution was commended and received awards at the World Education Awards 2019 in the category ‘Innovation in Pedagogical Practices’ at the two-day'15th World Education Summit 2019' organised by ELETS in Mumbai from November 21–22, 2019. Apeejay School website
Kami-Fukuoka Station is a railway station on the Tobu Tojo Line in Fujimino, Japan, operated by the private railway operator Tobu Railway. Kami-Fukuoka Station is served by the Tobu Tojo Line from Ikebukuro in Tokyo, with some services inter-running via the Tokyo Metro Yurakucho Line to Shin-Kiba and the Tokyo Metro Fukutoshin Line to Shibuya and onward via the Tokyu Toyoko Line and Minato Mirai Line to Motomachi-Chukagai. Located between Fujimino and Shingashi, it is 25.9 km from the Ikebukuro terminus. Only Semi express and Local services stop at this station; the station consists of a single island platform serving two tracks. The elevated station building is located over the platform with exits on both east and west sides. Lifts were added to either side in 2009 and 2010; this station has a season ticket sales office. A storage siding is located to the west of the station between the up and down tracks, this is used to stable trains during the daytime off peak; the station opened on 1 May 1914 coinciding with the opening of the Tojo Railway line from Ikebukuro.
In September 1967, the platforms were extended to accommodate eight-car trains, the platforms were again extended in November 1976 to accommodate ten-car trains. Through-running to and from Shibuya via the Tokyo Metro Fukutoshin Line commenced on 14 June 2008. From 17 March 2012, station numbering was introduced on the Tobu Tojo Line, with Kami-Fukuoka Station becoming "TJ-19". Through-running to and from Yokohama and Motomachi-Chukagai via the Tokyu Toyoko Line and Minatomirai Line commenced on 16 March 2013. In fiscal 2014, the station was used by an average of 54,731 passengers daily. Passenger figures for previous years are as shown below. On 14 January 2003 at 20:38, an unidentified passenger fell from the platform under the influence of alcohol and was killed by a passing train. On 23 January 2006 at 12:55, a man jumped from the down platform in front of an approaching non-stop train travelling at 90 km/h and was killed instantly. On 18 October 2006 at 10:09, an unidentified person entered the No. 135 level crossing close to the station and was killed by an approaching train travelling at 85 km/h.
On 11 May 2007 at 11:29, a woman jumped from the platform in front of an approaching non-stop train travelling at 95 km/h and was killed instantly. On 30 July 2007 at 20:02, a man in his twenties sat down on the track in front of an approaching non-stop train travelling at 80 km/h and was killed instantly. On 1 November 2007 at 20:29, a 53-year-old woman jumped from the down platform in front of an approaching non-stop train travelling at 90 km/h and was killed instantly. On 7 July 2008 at 00:47, a 22-year-old woman sat down on the down track close to the No. 135 level crossing near the station and was killed by an approaching train travelling at 80 km/h. On 4 September 2008 at 10:42, a 28-year-old woman was injured after jumping from the platform 5 metres in front of an approaching train travelling at 40 km/h; the windscreen of the train was damaged. Fujimino City Office Cocone Kamifukuoka Shopping Centre Chuo Park List of railway stations in Japan Kamifukuoka, the former name of the city in which the station is located Tobu station information