Stock is a flavored liquid preparation. It forms the basis of many dishes soups and sauces. Making stocks involves simmering animal bones or meat, seafood, or vegetables in water or wine, adding mirepoix or other aromatics for more flavor. Traditionally, stock is made by simmering various ingredients in water. A newer approach is to use a pressure cooker; the ingredients may include some or all of the following: Meat Leftover cooked meat, such as that remaining on poultry carcasses, is used along with the bones of the bird or joint. Fresh meat makes a superior stock, cuts rich in connective tissue such as shin or shoulder of beef or veal are recommended, either alone or added in lower proportions to the remains of cooked poultry, to provide a richer and fresher-tasting stock. Quantities recommended are in the ratio of 1 part fresh meat to 2 parts water. Pork, although a popular base for stock in Chinese cuisine, is considered unsuitable for stock in European cooking due to its greasiness, mutton was traditionally avoided due to the difficulty of avoiding the strong tallowy taint imparted from the fat.
Bones Veal and chicken bones are most used. The flavour of the stock comes like the bone. Connective tissue has collagen in it. Stock made from bones needs to be simmered for longer than stock made from meat. Pressure cooking methods shorten the time necessary to extract the flavour from the bones. Mirepoix Mirepoix is a combination of onions, carrots and sometimes other vegetables; the less desirable parts of the vegetables that may not otherwise be eaten are used. The use of these parts is dependent upon the chef, as many do not appreciate the flavours that these portions impart. Herbs and spices The herbs and spices used depend on availability and local traditions. In classical cuisine, the use of a bouquet garni consisting of parsley, bay leaves, a sprig of thyme, other herbs, is common; this is placed in a sachet to make it easier to remove once the stock is cooked. Today, ready-made stock and stock cubes consisting of dried, compressed stock ingredients are available; these are known as bouillon cubes, as cooking base in the US, or as Oxo cubes in Britain, after a common brand of stock cube sold there.
Many cooks and food writers use the terms stock interchangeably. In 1974, James Beard wrote emphatically that stock and bouillon "are all the same thing". While many draw a distinction between stock and broth, the details of the distinction differ. One possibility is that stocks are made from animal bones, as opposed to meat, therefore contain more gelatin, giving them a thicker texture. Another distinction, sometimes made is that stock is cooked longer than broth and therefore has a more intense flavor. A third possible distinction is that stock is left unseasoned for use in other recipes, while broth is salted and otherwise seasoned and can be eaten alone. In Britain, "broth" can refer to a soup which includes solid pieces of meat, fish, or vegetables, whereas "stock" would refer to the purely liquid base. Traditionally, according to this definition, broth contained some form of fish. Bouillon is the French word for "broth", is used as a synonym for it. Chicken stock is cooked for 6 to 8 hours if the traditional method is followed.
Fish stock is made with finely chopped mirepoix. Fish stock should be cooked for 20 -- 25 minutes -- cooking any longer. Concentrated fish stock is called "fish fumet." In Japanese cooking, a fish and kelp stock called dashi is made by cooking skipjack tuna flakes called katsuobushi in nearly boiling water. Fond blanc, or white stock, is made by using white mirepoix. Chicken bones are the most common for fond blanc. Fond brun, or brown stock; the brown color is achieved by roasting the mirepoix. This adds a rich, full flavour. Veal bones are the most common type used in a fond brun. Tomato paste is added; the acid in the paste helps break down the connective tissue helping accelerating the formation of gelatin, as well as giving color to the stock. Glace viande is stock made from bones from veal, concentrated by reduction. Ham stock, common in Cajun cooking, is made from ham hocks. Jus is a rich reduced stock used as a sauce for roasted meats. Many of these are started by deglazing the roasting pan reducing to achieve the rich flavour desired.
Lamb stock is cooked for several hours. To make a lamb jus, start with a chicken stock and roasted lamb necks and bones. Master stock is a special Chinese stock used for poaching meats, flavoured with soy sauce, ginger and other aromatics. Prawn stock is made from boiling prawn shells, it is used in Southeast Asian dishes such as laksa. Veal stock is cooked for several hours. Vegetable stock is made only of vegetables. Remouillage is a second stock made from the same set of bones. A few basic rules are prescribed for preparing stock: The stock ingredients are simmered starting with cold water; the collagen from connective tissue and skin is denatured into gelatin through gentle, long simmering, thickening the stock somewhat. Stocks are simmered with bubbles just breaking the surface, not boiled
Sauce bourguignonne, Bourguignonne sauce, is a French sauce with a base of red wine with onions or shallots, a bouquet garni, reduced and mixed with some espagnole sauce. Just before serving it is mounted with butter and seasoned with cayenne pepper. Like all red wine sauces, it may have some mushrooms added during cooking to enrich the flavour; when the sauce is used to accompany sautéed meat or poultry, it is made directly in the sauté pan in which these items were cooked. The onions or shallots are sautéed in the pan and the red wine is added, used to dissolve and incorporate the residue from the cooking of the meat; the onions may be cooked at the same time as the meat. List of sauces Food portal
Braising is a combination-cooking method that uses both wet and dry heats: the food is first sautéed or seared at a high temperature finished in a covered pot at a lower temperature while sitting in some amount of liquid. Braising of “meat” is referred to as pot roasting, though some authors make a distinction between the two methods, based on whether additional liquid is added. Braising relies on heat and moisture to break down the tough connective tissue that binds together the muscle fibers collectively called "meat", making it an ideal way to cook tougher, more affordable cuts. Many classic braised dishes are evolved methods of cooking tough and otherwise unpalatable foods. Both pressure cooking and slow cooking are forms of braising. Most braises follow the same basic steps; the food to be braised is first pan-seared to enhance its flavor. If the food will not produce enough liquid of its own, a certain amount of cooking liquid that includes an acidic element is added to the pot with stock.
A classic braise is done with a whole cut of “meat”, the braising liquid will cover two-thirds of the food in the pan. The dish is covered and cooked at a low simmer until the “meat” becomes so tender that it can be "cut" with just the gentlest of pressure from a fork; the cooking liquid is finished to create a sauce or gravy as well. Sometimes foods with high water content can be cooked in their own juices, making the addition of liquid unnecessary. A successful braise intermingles the flavors of the foods being cooked with those of the cooking liquid; this cooking method dissolves the “meat”'s collagen into gelatin, which can enrich and thicken the liquid. Braising is economical, efficient. Familiar braised dishes include pot roast, Swiss steak, chicken cacciatore, Carbonade Flamande, coq au vin, beef bourguignon, beef brisket, tajines, among others. Braising is used extensively in the cuisines of Asia Chinese cuisine and Vietnamese cuisine, where soy sauce is the braising liquid. Adobo Hot pot Jorim Jugging Kho Lancashire hotpot Pot roast Red cooking Stew
Red wine is a type of wine made from dark-colored grape varieties. The actual color of the wine can range from intense violet, typical of young wines, through to brick red for mature wines and brown for older red wines; the juice from most purple grapes is greenish-white, the red color coming from anthocyan pigments present in the skin of the grape. Much of the red-wine production process therefore involves extraction of color and flavor components from the grape skin; the first step in red wine production, after picking, involves physical processing of the grapes. Hand-picked or machine-harvested grapes are tipped into a receival bin when they arrive at the winery and conveyed by a screw mechanism to the grape-processing equipment. On arrival at the winery there is a mixture of individual berries, whole bunches and leaves; the presence of stems during fermentation can lead to a bitter taste in the wine, the purpose of destemming is to separate grapes from the stems and leaves. Mechanical de-stemmers consist of a rotating cage perforated with grape-sized holes.
Within this cage is a concentric axle with arms radiating towards the inner surface of the cage. Grapes pass through the holes in the cage, while stems and leaves are expelled through the open end of the cage. After destemming, the grapes are lightly crushed. Crushers consist of a pair of rollers, the gap between them can be regulated to allow for light, hard or no crushing, according to the winemaker's preference; the mixture of grapes, skins and seeds is now referred to as must. The must is pumped to a vessel a tank made of stainless steel or concrete, or an oak vat, for fermentation. In common with most modern winemaking equipment and crushers are made of stainless steel; the preservative sulfur dioxide is added when grapes arrive at the winery. The addition rate varies from zero, for healthy grapes, to up to 70 mg/litre, for grapes with a high percentage of rot; the purpose is to prevent oxidation and sometimes to delay the onset of fermentation. Macerating enzymes may be added at this stage, to aid extraction of color and fruit flavours from the skins and to facilitate pressing.
Tannin may be added now in the winemaking process, or not at all. Tannin can be added to help stabilize colour, to prevent oxidation, to help combat the effects of rot; some winemakers prefer to chill the must to around 10°C, to allow a period of pre-fermentation maceration, of between one and four days. The idea is that color and fruit flavours are extracted into the aqueous solution, without extraction of tannins which takes place in post-fermentation maceration when alcohol is present; this practice is by no means universal and is more common in New World winemaking countries. Once the must is in a fermentation vessel, yeast present on the skins of the grapes, or in the environment, will sooner or start the alcoholic fermentation, in which sugars present in the must are converted into alcohol with carbon dioxide and heat as by-products. Many winemakers, prefer to control the fermentation process more by adding specially selected yeasts of the species Saccharomyces ellipsoideous. Several hundred different strains of wine yeast are available commercially, many winemakers believe that particular strains are more or less suitable for the vinification of different grape varieties and different styles of wine.
It is common to add yeast nutrient at this stage in the form of diammonium phosphate. Soon after the must is placed in the fermentation vessel, a separation of solid and liquid phases occurs. Skins float to the surface. In order to encourage efficient extraction of colour and flavour components, it is important to maximize contact between the cap of skins and the liquid phase; this can be achieved by: pumping over punching down the cap submerging the cap drain and return Fermentation produces heat and if left uncontrolled the temperature of the fermenting may exceed 40°C, which can impair flavour and kill the yeast. The temperature is therefore controlled using different refrigeration systems. Winemakers have different opinions about the ideal temperature for fermentation, but in general cooler temperatures produce fruitier red wines for early drinking while higher temperatures produce more tannic wines designed for long aging. Winemakers will check the density and temperature of the fermenting must once or twice per day.
The density is proportional to the sugar content and will be expected to fall each day as the sugar is converted into alcohol by fermentation. Pressing in winemaking is the process where juice is extracted from grapes; this can be done with the aid of a wine press, by hand, or by the weight of the grape berries and clusters themselves. Intact grape clusters were trodden by feet but in most wineries today the grapes are sent through a crusher/destem
Beef is a key component of traditional Argentine cuisine. Cattle were first brought to Argentina in 1536 by Spanish conquistadors. Due to the geography of the Pampas and a small national market, the cattle multiplied rapidly. Railway building within Argentina and the invention of refrigerated trains and ships in the late 19th century made an export market and Argentina's beef export industry started to thrive; the flipped seasons between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres meant that Argentine beef came onto the market at a time of year when beef was less at hand in the Northern Hemisphere, which further lifted the potential export market in the United States and European markets. Following the rising demand for high-quality beef, new breeds and selective crossbreeding have been developed. Argentine beef and its production have played a major part in the culture of Argentina, from the asado to the history of the gauchos of the Pampas. Landowners became wealthy from beef production and export, estancia owners built large houses, important buildings in Buenos Aires and elsewhere, contributed to politics and society.
The agricultural show La Rural each winter in Buenos Aires became a major part of the social season since it started in 1886. In Chile, heightened taxes for the import of Argentine cattle in 1905 led to the meat riots, one of the first massive protests in Santiago; the price of meat was kept artificially high by the government, by means of the combination of a special tariff applied to cattle imports from Argentina, to protect the domestic producers, a runaway inflation. The riots lasted from October 22 until October 27, between 200 and 250 people were killed over this period, while more than 500 were injured; the financial losses were staggering. This revolt emphasized that the social problems were far more serious than what the authorities believed. Argentina has the world's second-highest consumption rate of beef, with yearly consumption at 55 kg per person. In 2006, livestock farmers kept between 50 and 55 million head of cattle in the fertile pastures of the Pampas; the country is the third-largest beef exporter in the world after Brazil and Australia.
The national government applies a 15% tax on beef exports and has applied further restrictions since March 2006 to keep domestic prices low. On 8 March 2006, after unsuccessfully trying to control the rising prices of beef in the internal market, the Argentine government banned beef exports for 180 days. On 26 May, the ban was replaced by a quota, to be in force between June and November, equivalent to 40% of the amount of beef exported in the same period of 2005; these measures met harsh criticism from livestock farmers, the meat processing industry, the export sector. Other analysts have said it is the only adequate measure that deals with inflation and that the industry is the only one in Argentina profitable enough to sustain such a policy. Argentina's cattle industry had become a key growth driver in the economy, with Argentina ranking fourth in cow meat exports. Thus, it was crushing news when new cases of foot-and-mouth disease were found in 2001, for the first time in 60 years. Although FMD is harmless to people, the virus is spread between animals, making the slaughter of sick animals necessary.
Argentine beef was banned by more than 60 countries, including Canada. After an aggressive vaccination programme, the Office International des Epizooties said in 2003 that Argentina had regained "foot-and-mouth free with vaccination" status. A few years new cases of FMD were discovered in a herd of cattle in a northern province of Argentina; as a result, Chile banned the import of Argentine meat. Food safety or quality labels are used in Argentina, a major initiative has been called for on this issue. There is no label certified by the government; the unsatisfactory situation concerning food safety becomes clear by looking at the fact that the Argentine National Inspection Services audited and approved only 35 slaughterhouses in 2003 on Good Manufacturing Practices and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point. However, farmers as well as the export industry started to realize that there is a increasing demand for safer and more reliable brands. To meet customer expectations, several initiatives have been taken.
There are certificates handed out by private organizations, such as breed associations. For instance, the Argentine Angus Association established a Carne Angus Certificada to ensure that only meat coming from an Angus is described as Angus. Furthermore, the association supports other certificates like the Ternero Angus Certificado. Besides the breed associations, different pilot projects have been initiated; the Pampas Del Salado project is an example of these. However, most of those projects have only scant participation. To increase sales in foreign countries and to improve the production and reliability of beef produced in Argentina, a public nongovernmental organization, the Instituto de Promoción de la Carne Vacuna Argentina— the Argentine Beef Promotion Institute was founded in December 2001. Furthermore, the IPCVA is concerned with promotional work in Argentina itself; the IPCVA is made up of a range of partners involved in Argentine beef production and export, from e
Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world; the second edition, comprising 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, was published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was only in 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. In 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989.
Since 2000, compilation of a third edition of the dictionary has been underway half of, complete. The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988; the online version has been available since 2000, as of April 2014 was receiving over two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will most only appear in electronic form: the Chief Executive of Oxford University Press has stated that it is unlikely that it will be printed; as a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary explains words by showing their development rather than their present-day usages. Therefore, it shows definitions in the order that the sense of the word began being used, including word meanings which are no longer used; each definition is shown with numerous short usage quotations. This allows the reader to get an approximate sense of the time period in which a particular word has been in use, additional quotations help the reader to ascertain information about how the word is used in context, beyond any explanation that the dictionary editors can provide.
The format of the OED's entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects. The forerunners to the OED, such as the early volumes of the Deutsches Wörterbuch, had provided few quotations from a limited number of sources, whereas the OED editors preferred larger groups of quite short quotations from a wide selection of authors and publications; this influenced volumes of this and other lexicographical works. According to the publishers, it would take a single person 120 years to "key in" the 59 million words of the OED second edition, 60 years to proofread them, 540 megabytes to store them electronically; as of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained 301,100 main entries. Supplementing the entry headwords, there are 157,000 bold-type derivatives; the dictionary's latest, complete print edition was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, which required 60,000 words to describe some 430 senses.
As entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000 put in 2007 run in 2011. Despite its considerable size, the OED is neither the world's largest nor the earliest exhaustive dictionary of a language. Another earlier large dictionary is the Grimm brothers' dictionary of the German language, begun in 1838 and completed in 1961; the first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca is the first great dictionary devoted to a modern European language and was published in 1612. The official dictionary of Spanish is the Diccionario de la lengua española, its first edition was published in 1780; the Kangxi dictionary of Chinese was published in 1716. The dictionary began as a Philological Society project of a small group of intellectuals in London: Richard Chenevix Trench, Herbert Coleridge, Frederick Furnivall, who were dissatisfied with the existing English dictionaries; the Society expressed interest in compiling a new dictionary as early as 1844, but it was not until June 1857 that they began by forming an "Unregistered Words Committee" to search for words that were unlisted or poorly defined in current dictionaries.
In November, Trench's report was not a list of unregistered words. The Society realized that the number of unlisted words would be far more than the number of words in the English dictionaries of the 19th century, shifted their idea from covering only words that were not in English diction
Oeufs en meurette
Oeufs en meurette are a traditional dish from Burgundian cuisine based on poached eggs and meurette sauce or bourguignon sauce. The dish is made with poached eggs accompanied by a meurette sauce/bourguignon sauce (made up of Burgundy red wine, bacon and shallots browned in butter and served with toasted garlic bread. Burgundy wine Egg List of brunch foods Poached egg Recipe for Eggs Meurette Vin et cuisine Cuisine bourguignonne