Porter is a dark style of beer developed in London from well-hopped beers made from brown malt. The name was first recorded in the 18th century, and is thought to come from its popularity with street, the history and development of stout and porter are intertwined. The name stout as used for a beer is believed to have come about because strong porters were marketed under such names as Extra Porter, Double Porter. The term Stout Porter would be shortened to just Stout, for example, Guinness Extra Stout was originally called Extra Superior Porter and was only given the name Extra Stout in 1840. In 1802 John Feltham wrote a version of the history of porter that has used as the basis for most writings on the topic. Very little of Felthams story is backed up by contemporary evidence, Feltham badly misinterpreted parts of the text, mainly due to his unfamiliarity with 18th-century brewing terminology. Feltham claimed that in 18th-century London a popular beverage called three threads was made consisting of a third of a pint each of ale and twopenny.
About 1730, Feltham said, a brewer called Harwood made a beer called Entire or Entire butt. Porter is mentioned as early as 1721, but no writer before Feltham says it was made to replicate three threads, instead, it seems to be a more-aged development of the brown beers already being made in London. Before 1700, London brewers sent out their very young. Porter was the first beer to be aged at the brewery and it was the first beer that could be made on any large scale, and the London porter brewers, such as Whitbread, Truman and Thrale, achieved great success financially. Early London porters were strong beers by modern standards, early trials with the hydrometer in the 1770s recorded porter as having an OG of 1.071 and 6. 6% ABV. Increased taxation during the Napoleonic Wars pushed its gravity down to around 1.055, the popularity of the style prompted brewers to produce porters in a wide variety of strengths. These started with Single Stout Porter at around 1.066, Double Stout Porter at 1.072, Triple Stout Porter at 1.078 and Imperial Stout Porter at 1.095, as the 19th century progressed the porter suffix was gradually dropped.
The large London porter breweries pioneered many advances, such as the use of the thermometer. The use of the latter transformed the nature of porter, the first porters were brewed from 100% brown malt. Now brewers were able to measure the yield of the malt they used. When the malt tax was increased to pay for the Napoleonic War
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Ceres Brewery was a brewery company located in Aarhus, Denmark. It was part of Royal Unibrew, the factories in central Aarhus, was closed in 2008 and the grounds are now being redeveloped into a new neighbourhood of the city, known as CeresByen. Ceres Brewery was founded by a grocer named Malthe Conrad Lottrup, with help from the chemists A. S. Aagard and Knud Redelien and it was named after the Roman goddess Ceres, and its opening was announced in the local newspaper, Stiftstidende, in 1856. The brewery was successful, and Lottrup became one of the most prominent people of Aarhus, after ten years, he expanded the brewery, adding a grand new building as his own private residence, where he entertained other local figures. Lottrups son-in-law, Laurits Christian Meulengracht, took over the running of the brewery after that and he sold it to another brewery, Østjyske Bryggerier A/S. The brewery gained more esteem in 1914, when it was made Purveyor to the Royal Danish Court, in 2008 the factory closed because the brewery could not live up to the expectations from its owner Royal Unibrew
Brown ale is a style of beer with a dark amber or brown colour. The term was first used by London brewers in the late 17th century to describe their products, such as mild ale, 18th-century brown ales were lightly hopped and brewed from 100% brown malt. Today there are brown ales made in regions, most notably England, Belgium. In the 18th century, British brown ales were brewed to a variety of strengths and these beers died out around 1800 as brewers moved away from using brown malt as a base. Pale malt, being cheaper because of its yield, was used as a base for all beers, including Porter. The term brown ale was revived at the end of the 19th century when London brewer Mann introduced a beer with that name, the style only became widely brewed in the 1920s. The brown ales of this period were considerably stronger than most modern English versions, in 1926, Manns Brown Ale had an original gravity of 1.043 and an ABV of around 4%. Whitbread Double Brown was even stronger, an OG of 1.054, the introduction of these beers coincided with a big increase in demand for bottled beer in the UK.
In the 1930s some breweries, such as Whitbread, introduced a second weaker and cheaper brown ale that was sometimes just a version of dark Mild. These beers had a gravity of around 1.037. After World War II, stronger brown ales, with the exception of a handful of examples from the northeast of England, the majority had an OG in the range 1. 030–1.035, or around 3% ABV, much like Manns Brown Ale today. North American brown ales trace their heritage to American home brewing adaptations of certain northern English beers, north American examples include Sam Adams Brown Ale and Brooklyn Brown Ale. They range from deep amber to brown in colour and chocolate flavours are evident. Brown ales from northeastern England tend to be strong and malty, often nutty, north American brown ales are usually drier than their English counterparts, with a slight citrus accent and an aroma and medium body due to American hop varieties. When chilled to cold temperatures, some haziness may be noticed
Pale lager is a very pale-to-golden-coloured lager beer with a well attenuated body and a varying degree of noble hop bitterness. This approach was picked up by brewers, most notably Josef Groll of Bavaria who produced Pilsner Urquell in the city of Pilsen in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The resulting Pilsner beers – pale-coloured and stable beers – were very successful, Bavarian brewers in the sixteenth century were required by law to brew beer only during the cooler months of the year. In order to have beer available during the hot months, beers would be stored in caves and stone cellars. In the period 1820–1830, a brewer named Gabriel Sedlmayr II the Younger, whose family was running the Spaten Brewery in Bavaria, when he returned, he used what he had learned to get a more stable and consistent lager beer. The new recipe of the lager beer spread quickly over Europe. Pale lagers tend to be dry, clean-tasting and crisp, flavours may be subtle, with no traditional beer ingredient dominating the others.
Hop character ranges from negligible to a dry bitterness from noble hops, the main ingredients are water, Pilsner malt and noble hops, though some brewers use adjuncts such as rice or corn to lighten the body of the beer. There tends to be no butterscotch flavour from diacetyl, due to the slow, cold fermentation process. In 1842 Josef Groll of Pilsen, a city in western Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic, used some of these methods to produce Pilsner Urquell and this beer proved so successful that other breweries followed the trend, using the name Pilsner. With the success of Pilsens golden beer, the town of Dortmund in Germany started brewing pale lager in 1873, as Dortmund was a major brewing centre, and the town breweries grouped together to export the beer beyond the town, the brand name Dortmunder Export became known. Today, breweries in Denmark, the Netherlands, and North America brew pale lagers labelled as Dortmunder Export, the earliest known brewing of pale lager in America was in the Old City section of Philadelphia by John Wagner in 1840 using yeast from his native Bavaria.
Modern American lagers are usually made by large breweries such as Anheuser-Busch, lightness of body is a cardinal virtue, both by design and since it allows the use of a high percentage of rice or corn. Though all lagers are well attenuated, a fully fermented pale lager in Germany goes by the name Diät-Pils or Diätbier. Because the available sugars are fully fermented, dry beers often have an alcohol content. The first dry beer, Gablingers Diet Beer, was released in 1967, Owades developed an enzyme that could further break down starches, so that the finished product contained fewer residual carbohydrates and was lower in food energy. Since the 2012 revisions to the Diätverordnung, it is no longer permitted to label beer as Diät in Germany, but it may be advertised as suitable for diabetics. Prior to this change, a Diätbier could contain no more than 7.5 g of unfermented carbohydrates per liter, and this was followed by other dry beer brands such as Bud Dry, though the marketing concept was not considered a success
Bryggeriet Skands is a microbrewery founded in 2003 by Morten and Birthe Skands in Brøndby, Denmark. Birthe Skands came from a position as head of the products, egtvedpigens Bryg has been developed in collaboration with the National Museum of Denmark and is an attemopt to recreate the beer remains of which has been found in the grave of the Egtved Girl. Esrum Kloster is Bryggeriet Skands interpretation of an abbey ale and it is brewed with herbs from the garden of Esrum Abbey in North Zealand. Skands Porter List of microbreweries Official website
A nisse, tomte, or tomtenisse, nisse or tonttu is a mythological creature from Scandinavian folklore today typically associated with the winter solstice and the Christmas season. It is generally described as being no taller than 90 cm, having a white beard. They often have a somewhat similar to that of a garden gnome. The nisse is one of the most familiar creatures of Scandinavian folklore, with the romanticisation and collection of folklore during the 19th century, the nisse would gain popularity. In the English editions of the tales of H. C. Andersen the word nisse has been translated as goblin. The nisse/tomte is an echo of ancient ancestral cult and he was sometimes seen as the farmer who cleared the forest to build the farm and who in pre-Christian times would have been buried on the farm in a mound. He was sometimes referred to as the haugkall or haugebonde, from the Old Norse haugr meaning mound, other names are tuftekall, all names connecting the being to the origins of the farm or a burial mound.
It was thought that the nisse was a more generalized spirits of previous generations at the homestead, and there are references to them following the family/clan, the Swedish tomte is derived from the term for a place of residence and area of influence, the house lot or tomt. According to tradition, the lives in the houses and barns of the farmstead. If treated well, they protect the family and animals from evil and misfortune, they are known to be short tempered, especially when offended. Once insulted, they usually play tricks, steal items. This was still the common male dress in rural Scandinavia in the 17th century, in modern Denmark, nisser are often seen as beardless, wearing grey and red woolens with a red cap. Since nisser are thought to be skilled in illusions and sometimes able to make themselves invisible, Norwegian folklore states that he has four fingers, and sometimes with pointed ears and eyes reflecting light in the dark, like those of a cat. Despite his small size, the possessed a immense strength.
He was easily offended by careless lack of respect and lazy farmers. Observance of traditions was thought important to the nisse as he did not like changes in the way things were done at the farm. He was offended by rudeness, farm workers swearing, urinating in the barns
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. The yeast lineage originated hundreds of millions of years ago, and 1,500 species are currently identified and they are estimated to constitute 1% of all described fungal species. Yeast sizes vary greatly, depending on species and environment, typically measuring 3–4 µm in diameter, most yeasts reproduce asexually by mitosis, and many do so by the asymmetric division process known as budding. Yeasts, with their growth habit, can be contrasted with molds. Fungal species that can take both forms are called dimorphic fungi and it is a centrally important model organism in modern cell biology research, and is one of the most thoroughly researched eukaryotic microorganisms. Researchers have used it to information about the biology of the eukaryotic cell. Other species of yeasts, such as Candida albicans, are opportunistic pathogens, yeasts have recently been used to generate electricity in microbial fuel cells, and produce ethanol for the biofuel industry.
Yeasts do not form a taxonomic or phylogenetic grouping. The budding yeasts are classified in the order Saccharomycetales, within the phylum Ascomycota, the word yeast comes from Old English gist and from the Indo-European root yes-, meaning boil, foam, or bubble. Yeast microbes are probably one of the earliest domesticated organisms, archaeologists digging in Egyptian ruins found early grinding stones and baking chambers for yeast-raised bread, as well as drawings of 4, 000-year-old bakeries and breweries. In 1680, Dutch naturalist Anton van Leeuwenhoek first microscopically observed yeast, but at the time did not consider them to be living organisms, researchers were doubtful whether yeasts were algae or fungi, but in 1837 Theodor Schwann recognized them as fungi. In 1857, French microbiologist Louis Pasteur proved in the paper Mémoire sur la fermentation alcoolique that alcoholic fermentation was conducted by living yeasts and not by a chemical catalyst. Pasteur showed that by bubbling oxygen into the yeast broth, cell growth could be increased, by the late 18th century, two yeast strains used in brewing had been identified, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. carlsbergensis. S.
cerevisiae has been sold commercially by the Dutch for bread-making since 1780, around 1800, in 1825, a method was developed to remove the liquid so the yeast could be prepared as solid blocks. The industrial production of yeast blocks was enhanced by the introduction of the press in 1867. In 1872, Baron Max de Springer developed a process to create granulated yeast. Yeasts are chemoorganotrophs, as they use organic compounds as a source of energy, carbon is obtained mostly from hexose sugars, such as glucose and fructose, or disaccharides such as sucrose and maltose. Some species can metabolize pentose sugars such as ribose, Yeast species either require oxygen for aerobic cellular respiration or are anaerobic, but have aerobic methods of energy production
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network