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Beijing cuisine

Beijing cuisine known as Jing cuisine, Mandarin cuisine and Peking cuisine, as Beiping cuisine, is the local cuisine of Beijing, the national capital of China. As Beijing has been the capital of China for centuries, its cuisine is influenced by culinary traditions from all over China, but the style that has the greatest influence on Beijing cuisine is that of the eastern coastal province of Shandong. Beijing cuisine has itself, in turn greatly influenced other Chinese cuisines the cuisine of Liaoning, the Chinese imperial cuisine, the Chinese aristocrat cuisine. Another tradition that influenced Beijing cuisine is the Chinese imperial cuisine that originated from the "Emperor's Kitchen", which referred to the cooking facilities inside the Forbidden City, where thousands of cooks from different parts of China showed their best culinary skills to please the imperial family and officials. Therefore, it is sometimes difficult to determine the actual origin of a dish as the term "Mandarin" is generalised and refers not only to Beijing, but other provinces as well.

However, some generalisation of Beijing cuisine can be characterised as follows: Foods that originated in Beijing are snacks rather than main courses, they are sold by small shops or street vendors. There is emphasis on dark soy paste, sesame paste, sesame oil and scallions, fermented tofu is served as a condiment. In terms of cooking techniques, methods relating to different ways of frying are used. There is less emphasis on rice as an accompaniment as compared to many other regions in China, as local rice production in Beijing is limited by the dry climate. Many dishes in Beijing cuisine that are served as main courses are derived from a variety of Chinese Halal foods lamb and beef dishes, as well as from Huaiyang cuisine. Huaiyang cuisine has been praised since ancient times in China, it was a general practice for an official travelling to Beijing to take up a new post to bring along with him a chef specialising in Huaiyang cuisine; when these officials had completed their terms in the capital and returned to their native provinces, most of the chefs they brought along remained in Beijing.

They were hired by wealthy locals. The imperial clan of the Ming dynasty, the House of Zhu, who had ancestry from Jiangsu Province contributed in introducing Huaiyang cuisine to Beijing when the capital was moved from Nanjing to Beijing in the 15th century, because the imperial kitchen was Huaiyang style; the element of traditional Beijing culinary and gastronomical cultures of enjoying artistic performances such as Beijing opera while dining directly developed from the similar practice in the culture of Jiangsu and Huaiyang cuisines. Chinese Islamic cuisine is another important component of Beijing cuisine, was first prominently introduced when Beijing became the capital of the Yuan dynasty. However, the most significant contribution to the formation of Beijing cuisine came from Shandong cuisine, as most chefs from Shandong Province came to Beijing en masse during the Qing dynasty. Unlike the earlier two cuisines, which were brought by the ruling class such as nobles and bureaucrats, spread to the general populace, the introduction of Shandong cuisine begun with serving the general populace, with much wider market segment, from wealthy merchants to the working class.

The Qing dynasty was a major period in the formation of Beijing cuisine. Before the Boxer Rebellion, the foodservice establishments in Beijing were stratified by the foodservice guild; each category of the establishment was based on its ability to provide for a particular segment of the market. The top ranking foodservice establishments served nobles and wealthy merchants and landlords, while lower ranking foodservice establishments served the populace of lower financial and social status, it was during this period when Beijing cuisine gained fame and became recognised by the Chinese culinary society, the stratification of the foodservice was one of its most obvious characteristics as part of its culinary and gastronomic cultures during this first peak of its formation. The official stratification was an integral part of the local culture of Beijing and it was not abolished after the end of the Qing dynasty, which resulted in the second peak in the formation of Beijing cuisine. Meals offered to nobles and aristocrats were made available to anyone who could afford them instead of being restricted only to the upper class.

As chefs switched between jobs offered by different foodservice establishments, they brought their skills that further enriched and developed Beijing cuisine. Though the stratification of food services in Beijing was no longer effected by imperial laws, the structure more or less remained despite continuous weakening due to the financial background of the local clientele; the different classes are listed in the following subsections. Foodservice establishments with names ending with the Chinese character zhuang, or zhuang zihao, were the top-ranking foodservice establishments, not only in providing foods, but entertainment as well; the form of entertainment provided was Beijing opera, foodservice establishments of this class always had long-term contracts with a Beijing opera troupe to perform onsite. Moreover, foodservice establishments of this class would always have long-term contracts with famous performers, such as national-treasure-class performers, to perform onsite, though not on a daily basis.

Foodservice establishments of this category did not accept an

Titanic museum (Pigeon Forge, Tennessee)

The Titanic Museum is a two-story museum shaped like the RMS Titanic. It is located in Pigeon Forge and opened on April 8, 2010, it is built half-scale to the original ship. Similar to the one in Branson, the museum holds 400 pre-discovery artifacts in twenty galleries, it is the largest permanent Titanic museum in the world. The structure is built in a pool to create the illusion of the Titanic at sea, the 2-hour, self-guided tour is designed to give guests the sensation of being an original passenger on the Titanic's 1912 maiden voyage; as guests enter, they are given a passenger boarding ticket. On this ticket is the name of an actual Titanic passenger and the class they were traveling. Guests will learn the individual stories of several passengers. In the Titanic Memorial Room, they will find out; the structure cost $25 million to build. Titanic Pigeon Forge - official site

Mari Motohashi

Mari Motohashi is a Japanese curler. Motohashi was a member of Team Aomori, she threw second stones for Ayumi Onodera at the 2006 Winter Olympics, finishing 7th, played second for Moe Meguro at the 2010 Winter Olympics, finishing 8th. She skipped the Japan team at the 2002 World Junior Curling Championships, she has played for Japan at five World Curling Championships: 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008 & 2010. After playing for the Meguro rink from 2007 to 2010, Motohashi began skipping her own team, she has yet to represent Japan internationally as a skip on the senior level. On the World Curling Tour, Motohashi won the 2007 Meyers Norris Penny Charity Classic and the 2009 Twin Anchors Invitational while playing for Meguro, skipped her own rink to win the 2014 Avonair Cash Spiel. Founded own rink "Loco Solare", a.k.a. "LS Kitami" in her hometown Tokoro, Kitami in Aug. 2010. The team members are all local members but achieved international success as the 2nd place in the 2016 World Women's Curling Championship in Swift Current.

Motohashi was part of the Japanese team that won the 2018 Olympics women curling bronze medal. In June 2018, Motohashi announced that she would rest for a while from a top curling player and concentrate on training young players. Motohashi graduated from Nippon Sport Science University, her nickname is ` Marilyn'. Holding Teacher's License for Junior High School - Grade 2 in Japan, she was awarded as an honorary citizen of Kitami City. Mari Motohashi on the World Curling Federation database Mari Motohashi on the World Curling Tour database Mari Motohashi on the CurlingZone database Curling | Athlete Profile: Mari MOTOHASHI - Pyeongchang 2018 MariLog: Official blog by Mari Motohashi Loco Solare, a.k.a. LS Kitami: Official site

Nancy Yasecko

Nancy Yasecko is a media artist and educator who grew up and is still living on the Space Coast of Florida. She graduated from Cocoa Beach High School in 1972 and received her B. A. from the University of South Florida in 1975, her M. A. in Instructional Technology from the University of Central Florida 1997. Nancy Yasecko is the proprietor of Vanguard Productions, located on Merritt Island, FL, a producer of film and video for PBS broadcast and non-profit and governmental organizations, her film Growing Up with Rockets was included with the first group of US documentaries to be screened in the former Soviet Union in the American Documentary Showcase, Glastnost Tour 1990. The source materials used in the film are held by the Smithsonian National Space Museum. Arts Mentor - Space Coast FIRST Robotics Team 233 Launchpad to Learning - Interactive web-based engineering environment for middle school students Vanguard Productions—Development of film and video media for PBS, non-profit and governmental organizations Instructional Designer for online corporate training and assessment Mapping, 1978, producer and director Missiles, 1978, producer and director Composition, 1979, producer and director Soft Sand, 1980, producer and director Dancing Lessons, 1981, producer and director Nebraska Avenue, 1981, producer and director Growing Up with Rockets, 1986, director, editor Living in America: A Hundred Years of Ybor City, 1985, editor Journey Into Wilderness: Florida's Indian River Lagoon, 1990, producer and director "History In Song, 1992, producer and director "Encounters in a New World", "Florida Stories: History and Legend", "Changing Florida: Dreams and Realities" producer and director Moon Shot, 1994, Associate Producer and Line producer Brevard County Oral History Video Project, 1992–1995, producer and director Ellis Marsalis: Jazz is Spoken Here, 2000, producer and director Entre Act, 2004, producer and director Making Movies with Bud, 2005, producer and director The FIRST Robot Rock Opera, 2007, producer and director ""Growing Up With Rockets" Collection 1950s-1990s".

National Air and Space Museum. Retrieved 2015-04-06. Nancy Yasecko on IMDb "Growing Up with Rockets" cover "Jazz is Spoken Here" synopsis

Marine 1 (Savannah fireboat)

Marine One is a $1.5 million fireboat, retired as a cost saving measure, by Savannah, Georgia, in November, 2018. Savannah acquired the boat in 2014, with $1.2 million of its cost paid for through a FEMA Port Security Grant. Like all fireboats paid for through FEMA grants, the fireboat is equipped to work during disasters where it has to cope with dangerous chemical spills, or when the air is contaminated with nuclear, chemical or germ warfare agents; the fireboat rescued dozens of passengers. Fire Chief Charles G. Middleton, who played a key role in the Fire Department's acquisition of the fireboat, announced his retirement on October 31, 2018; the city closed down its central fire-station, where Marine One was moored, together with Engine 16, telling local businesses and residents that they would receive adequate firefighting services from nearby fire stations. Savannah Alderman Julian Miller justified the retirement by asserting the boat cost $500,000 to operate, had never been employed fighting fires, that smaller boats available to the fire department could be used to perform marine rescues.

Kenneth Slatkovsky, a Savannah official, said the fireboat will remain moored at the closed station, will be under a minimum operational maintenance schedule, so it would be available, if needed, after the firefighters trained to use her were called from their current assignments. Elements of the United States Coast Guard would be called upon for firefighting and marine rescue services, as would commercial tugboats

Roentgen equivalent man

The roentgen equivalent man is an older, CGS unit of equivalent dose, effective dose, committed dose which are measures of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body. Quantities measured in rem are designed to represent the stochastic biological risk of ionizing radiation; these quantities are derived from absorbed dose, which in the CGS system has the unit rad, an older unit. There is no universally applicable conversion constant from rad to rem; the rem has been defined since 1976 as equal to 0.01 sievert, the more used SI unit outside the United States. A number of earlier definitions going back to 1945 were derived from the roentgen unit, named after Wilhelm Röntgen, a German scientist who discovered X-rays; the acronym is now a misleading historical artifact, since 1 roentgen deposits about 0.96 rem in soft biological tissue, when all weighting factors equal unity. Older units of rem following other definitions are up to 17% smaller than the modern rem. One rem carries with it a 0.05% chance of developing cancer.

Doses greater than 100 rem received over a short time period are to cause acute radiation syndrome leading to death within weeks if left untreated. Note that the quantities that are measured in rem were not designed to be correlated to ARS symptoms; the absorbed dose, measured in rad, is the best indicator of ARS. A rem is a large dose of radiation, so the millirem, one thousandth of a rem, is used for the dosages encountered, such as the amount of radiation received from medical x-rays and background sources; the rem and millirem are CGS units in widest use among the US public and government. SI units are the norm outside of the United States, they are encountered within the US in academic and engineering environments; the conventional units for dose rate is mrem/h. Regulatory limits and chronic doses are given in units of mrem/yr or rem/yr, where they are understood to represent the total amount of radiation allowed over the entire year. In many occupational scenarios, the hourly dose rate might fluctuate to levels thousands of times higher for a brief period of time, without infringing on the annual total exposure limits.

There is no exact conversion from hours to years because of leap years, but approximate conversions are: 1 mrem/h = 8766 mrem/yr 0.1141 mrem/h = 1000 mrem/yrThe ICRP once adopted fixed conversion for occupational exposure, although these have not appeared in recent documents: 8 h = 1 day 40 h = 1 week 50 week = 1 yrTherefore, for occupation exposures of that time period, 1 mrem/h = 2000 mrem/yr 0.5 mrem/h = 1000 mrem/yrThe US National Institute of Standards and Technology discourages Americans from expressing doses in rem, in favor of recommending the SI unit. The NIST recommends defining the rem in relation to the SI in every document where this unit is used. For US industries and US firms that do not require the sole use of SI, the unit rem is preferred. Ionizing radiation has stochastic effects on human health; the deterministic effects that can lead to acute radiation syndrome only occur in the case of high doses and high dose rates. A model of deterministic risk would require different weighting factors than are used in the calculation of equivalent and effective dose.

To avoid confusion, deterministic effects are compared to absorbed dose in units of rad, not rem. Stochastic effects are those, such as radiation-induced cancer; the consensus of the nuclear industry, nuclear regulators, governments, is that the incidence of cancers due to ionizing radiation can be modeled as increasing linearly with effective dose at a rate of 0.055% per rem. Individual studies, alternate models, earlier versions of the industry consensus have produced other risk estimates scattered around this consensus model. There is general agreement that the risk is much higher for infants and fetuses than adults, higher for the middle-aged than for seniors, higher for women than for men, though there is no quantitative consensus about this. There is much less data, much more controversy, regarding the possibility of cardiac and teratogenic effects, the modelling of internal dose; the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends limiting artificial irradiation of the public to an average of 100 mrem of effective dose per year, not including medical and occupational exposures.

For comparison, radiation levels inside the US United States Capitol are 85 mrem/yr, close to the regulatory limit, because of the uranium content of the granite structure. According to the ICRP model, someone who spent 20 years inside the capitol building would have an extra one in a thousand chance of getting cancer and above any other existing risk; that "existing risk" is much higher. The concept of the rem first appeared in the literature in 1945, was given its first definition in 1947; the definition was refined in 1950 as "that dose of any ionizing radiation which produces a relevant biological effect equal to that produced by one roentgen of high-voltage x-radiation." Using data available at the time, the rem was variously evaluated as 93, or 95 erg/gram. Along with the introduction of the rad in 1953, the International Commission on Radiol