Sanam Luang is a 74.5 rai open field and public square in front of Wat Phra Kaew and the Grand Palace, Thailand. Sanam Luang is in the historic center of Bangkok. In the Royal Chronicle it was written that, "In front of Wat Mahathat, Sanam Luang lies between the Royal Palace and the Front Palace; when royal cremation was held at the Phra Men Ground, the pyre set up in the centre with the Royal Palace Pavilion to the south and the one of the Prince of the Front Palace to the north. The music from the Royal Palace and from the Palace to the Front would be played on opposite sides of Sanam Luang". Sanam Luang was known as "Thung Phra Men", it has been used as a site for the cremation of kings and high-ranking princes since the reign of King Rama I. In 1855, King Rama IV changed its name from "Thung Phra Men" to "Thong Sanam Luang", in common usage now shortened to "Sanam Luang". Sanam Luang has been used since the time of King Rama I, it was the site of royal ceremonies and functions, including the cremation of the Prince of the Palace to the Front, Rama I's brother.
King Rama II followed this example of performing royal ceremonies there, including the cremation of the Prince of the Palace to the Front of his reign, his beloved brother. The Royal Chronicles mention the close link between the two brothers as follows: "At the beginning of the season of the tradewind, the king flew a Chula kite in front of the Temple of the Emerald Buddha and the Prince of the Palace to the Front flew a Pakpao kite at Sanam Luang". During the reign of King Rama III, when Thailand was engaged in a conflict with Vietnam over the Cambodian border, the king wished to demonstrate to other nations that Thailand was such a fertile, flourishing country that the area in front of the Grand Palace was cultivated. Sanam Luang was a normal plot of land, used for growing rice; when there was a royal funeral, it would be smoothed over to prepare for the event. King Rama IV set up a place for performing the Royal Ploughing Ceremony and the Ceremony of Calling the Rain where low walls were put up and a small hall was built to place the Buddha image for the ceremony.
Pavilions and towers were built near the king's seat. Next to the king's pavilion there was a stage where plays were performed as part of the ritual of propitiating the gods. Outside the wall there was a barn. King Rama V enlarged Sanam Luang and pulled down all the buildings which were used for the ceremonies of former kings and it was no longer necessary to grow rice near the Royal Palace; the space was needed for the preparation of the Centennial Celebration of Bangkok in 1897 which took place soon after King Rama V's return from Europe. It was a grand celebration corresponding to the king's fiftieth birthday. Following a visit to the Javanese court, where he was impressed by the gardens surrounding the sultan's place, Rama V ordered that two rows of tamarind trees be planted encircling Sanam Luang. Two additional rows were planted about 1967. Sanam Luang was still the place for kite flying. King Rama VI again used the place in the same manner as former kings to perform various ceremonies, it was used as a racetrack, golf course as more foreigners came to visit and stay in the country.
King Rama IX used Sanam Luang annually in May, for the Ploughing Ceremony and the Ceremony of Calling the Rain. There were various ceremonies performed at Sanam Luang, including the Bi-Centennial Celebration of Bangkok, in 1982, the grand celebration of the golden jubilee royal ceremony in 1996 and the cremation of King Ananda Mahidol in 1950, Queen Savang Vadhana in 1956, Queen Rambhai Barni of King Rama VII in 1986, Princess Mother Srinagarindra in 1996, Princess Galyani Vadhana in 2008, Princess Bejaratana Rajasuda in 2012. Following the 13 October 2016 death of King Bhumibol Adulyadej, massive crowds flooded Sanam Luang to pay their respects to the late-king,His cremation took place here on 26 October 2017; the Fine Arts Department listed Sanam Luang as a historical site in 1977, announced on 13 December 1977, according to Royal Decree. The area of Sanam Luang is about 30 acres
Order of the White Elephant
The Most Exalted Order of the White Elephant is an order of Thailand. It was established in 1861 by King Rama IV of the Kingdom of Siam. Along with the Order of the Crown of Thailand, it is awarded to government officials for each five years of service, making it Thailand's most-awarded order; the order consists of eight classes: Plaek Phibunsongkhram - Knight Grand Cordon Sultan Ibrahim of Johor - Knight Grand Cordon Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah of Kedah - Knight Grand Cordon Chavalit Yongchaiyudh - Knight Grand Cordon Alexander I of Yugoslavia - Knight Grand Cordon Albert du Roy de Blicquy Norodom of Cambodia - Knight Grand Cross Pakubuwono X - Knight Grand Cross Miklós Horthy - Knight Grand Cross The Earl Mountbatten of Burma - Knight Grand Cross Foster C. LaHue Sir Samuel Robinson, 1923. Graves B. Erskine - Knight Grand Cross Arne Skaug. Pierra Vejjabul Joseph J. Cappucci - Knight Commander David John Collins Awarded by King Rama V in 1897 Frederick William Verney - Commander Queen Victoria General William Westmoreland - Knight Grand Cross Vice Admiral Józef Unrug Major General Richard Secord Jiri Sitler - Knight Grand Cross Lieutenant Commander Saman Kunan - Knight Grand Cross White elephant § Thailand The Most Exalted Order of the White Elephant, Secretariat to the Cabinet of Thailand
Norodom Sihanouk was a Cambodian royal, politician and filmmaker, twice King and numerous times Prime Minister of Cambodia. In Cambodia, he is known as Samdech Euv; until the early years of his rule, his family ruled over the French Protectorate of Cambodia. Born to the King Norodom Suramarit and Queen Sisowath Kossamak, Sihanouk became king upon the death of his maternal grandfather King Sisowath Monivong in 1941. After the Japanese occupation of Cambodia during the Second World War, Sihanouk secured Cambodian independence from France in 1953. In 1955, he abdicated the throne and formed the political organization Sangkum, which won the 1955 general election; as Prime Minister, he governed Cambodia under one-party rule, suppressed political dissent, declared himself Head of State in 1960. Neutral in foreign relations, in practice he was closer to the communist bloc. A 1970 military coup ousted him and paved the way for the U. S.-backed Khmer Republic. Sihanouk fled to North Korea, there forming a government-in-exile and resistance movement.
After the Cambodian Civil War resulted in victory for the Khmer Rouge in 1975, Sihanouk returned to Cambodia, renamed Democratic Kampuchea, as its figurehead head of state. Although supportive of Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge, his relations with them declined and in 1976 he resigned, he was placed under house arrest until 1979. Sihanouk went into exile again, in 1981, he formed FUNCINPEC, a resistance party; the following year, Sihanouk became President of the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea, a broad coalition of anti-Vietnamese resistance factions. This coalition retained Cambodia's seat at the United Nations, making Sihanouk Cambodia's internationally recognized head of state. In the late 1980s, informal talks were carried out to end hostilities between the Vietnam-supported People's Republic of Kampuchea and the CGDK. In 1990, the Supreme National Council of Cambodia was formed as a transitional body to oversee Cambodia's sovereign matters, with Sihanouk as its president. In 1991, peace accords were signed and the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia was established the following year.
The UNTAC organised general elections in 1993, a coalition government, jointly led by his son Norodom Ranariddh and Hun Sen, was subsequently formed. In 1993, Sihanouk was reinstated as Cambodia's Head of King. In 2004, he abdicated again with Norodom Sihamoni, elected as his successor, he died in 2012. Norodom Sihanouk was the only child born of the union between Norodom Suramarit and Sisowath Kossamak, his parents, who heeded the Royal Court Astrologer's advice that he risked dying at a young age if he was raised under parental care, placed him under the care of Kossamak's grandmother, Pat. When Pat died, Kossamak brought Sihanouk to live with Norodom Sutharot. Sutharot delegated parenting responsibilities to Norodom Ket Kanyamom. Sihanouk received his primary education at the François Baudoin school and Nuon Moniram school in Phnom Penh. During this time, he received financial support from his maternal grandfather, Sisowath Monivong, to head an amateur performance troupe and soccer team. In 1936, Sihanouk was sent to Saigon, where he pursued his secondary education at Lycée Chasseloup Laubat, a boarding school.
When the reigning king Monivong died on 23 April 1941, the Governor-General of French Indochina, Jean Decoux chose Sihanouk to succeed him. Sihanouk's appointment as king was formalised the following day by the Cambodian Crown Council, his coronation ceremony took place on 3 May 1941. During the Japanese occupation of Cambodia, he dedicated most of his time to sports and the occasional tour to the countryside. In March 1945, the Japanese military, which had occupied Cambodia since August 1941, dissolved the nominal French colonial administration. Under pressure from the Japanese, Sihanouk proclaimed Cambodia's independence and assumed the position of prime minister while serving as king at the same time; as prime minister, Sihanouk revoked a decree issued by the last resident superior of Cambodia, Georges Gautier, to romanise the Khmer alphabet. Following the Surrender of Japan in August 1945, nationalist forces loyal to Son Ngoc Thanh launched a coup, which led to Thanh becoming prime minister.
When the French returned to Cambodia in October 1945, Thanh was dismissed and replaced by Sihanouk's uncle Sisowath Monireth. Monireth negotiated for greater autonomy in managing Cambodia's internal affairs. A modus vivendi was signed in January 1946 whereby Cambodia was granted full autonomy within the French Union. A joint French-Cambodian commission was set up after that to draft Cambodia's constitution, in April 1946, Sihanouk introduced clauses which provided for an elected parliament on the basis of universal male suffrage as well as press freedom; the first constitution was signed into effect by Sihanouk in May 1947. Around this time, Sihanouk made two trips to Saumur, France where he attended military training at the Armoured Cavalry Branch Training School in 1946, again in 1948, he was made a reserve captain for the French army. In early 1949, Sihanouk traveled to Paris with his parents to negotiate with the French government for more autonomy over Cambodia; the modus vivendi was replaced by a new Franco-Khmer treaty, which recognised Cambodia as "independent" within the French Union.
In practice, the treaty granted only limited self-rule to Cambodia. While Cambodia was given free rein in managing its foreign ministry and to a lesser extent, its defence, most of the other ministries remained under French control. Meanwhile, dissenting legisl
Queen Debsirindra of Siam Queen Ramphoei Phamaraphirom, born Princess Ramphoei Siriwong, was the second consort of King Mongkut, mother of King Chulalongkorn. Princess Ramphoei was born in 1834 to Prince Mattayaphithak and Lady Noi, she was of Mon descent. When her father died at only 27 years, her grandfather—the king—took her and her sister Phannarai to the Grand Palace and they were said to be his favourite grandchildren. In 1853, Ramphoei was raised to a Phra Ong Chao. In the same year she gave birth to Prince Chulalongkorn, she became Queen Ramphoei. She had 4 children with King Mongkut. Prince Chulalongkorn King Chulalongkorn Princess Chandrmondol / Chanthonmonthon the Princess Wisutkrasat Prince Chaturonrasmi / Chaturon Ratsami the Prince Chakrabardibongse Prince Bhanurangsi Savangwongse the Prince Bhanubandhuwongse Voradej Queen Ramphoei died in 1861, her sister, Princess Phannarai, acted as Mongkut's consort for the remainder of his reign. When Chulalongkorn was crowned in 1867, she was posthumously given the title Debsirindramataya, the Queen Mother.
Her grandson, gave her the name Queen Debsirindra. Her Serene Highness Princess Ramphoei Siriwong Her Royal Highness Princess Ramphoei Phamaraphirom, the Princess Consort of King Mongkut Her Majesty Queen Debsirindramataya, the Queen Mother Her Majesty Queen Debsirindra Debsirin school
Mongkut known as King Rama IV, reigning title Phra Chom Klao Chao Yu Hua, was the fourth monarch of Siam under the House of Chakri, ruling from 1851 to 1868. Outside Thailand, he is best known as the king in the 1951 musical and 1956 film The King and I, based on the 1946 film Anna and the King of Siam – in turn based on a 1944 novel by an American missionary about Anna Leonowens' years at his court, from 1862 to 1867. During his reign, the pressure of Western expansionism was felt for the first time in Siam. Mongkut embraced Western innovations and initiated the modernization of his country, both in technology and culture—earning him the nickname "The Father of Science and Technology" in Siam. Mongkut was known for his appointing his brother, Prince Chutamani, as Second King, crowned in 1851 as King Pinklao. Mongkut himself assured the country that Pinklao should be respected with equal honor to himself. Mongkut's reign was the time when the power of the House of Bunnag reached its zenith and became the most powerful noble family of Siam.
Mongkut was the second son of Prince Isarasundhorn, son of Phutthayotfa Chulalok, the first Chakri king of Siam and Princess Bunreod. Mongkut was born in the Old Palace in 1804, where the first son had died shortly after birth in 1801, he was followed by Prince Chutamani in 1808. In 1809, Prince Isarasundhorn was crowned as Buddha Loetla Nabhalai The royal family moved to the Grand Palace. Thenceforth until their own accessions as kings, the brothers were called Chao Fa Yai and Chao Fa Noi. In 1824, Mongkut became a Buddhist monk, following a Siamese tradition that men aged 20 should become monks for a time; the same year, his father died. By tradition, Mongkut should have been crowned the next king, but the nobility instead chose the older, more influential and experienced Prince Jessadabodindra, son of a royal concubine rather than a queen. Perceiving the throne was irredeemable and to avoid political intrigues, Mongkut retained his monastic status. Vajirayan became one of the members of the royal family.
He travelled around the country as a monk and saw the relaxation of the rules of Pali Canon among the Siamese monks he met, which he considered inappropriate. In 1829, at Phetchaburi, he met a monk named Buddhawangso, who followed the monastic rules of discipline, the vinaya. Vajirayan admired Buddhawangso for his obedience to the vinaya, was inspired to pursue religious reforms. In 1833 he began a reform movement reinforcing the vinaya law that evolved into the Dhammayuttika Nikaya, or Thammayut sect. A strong theme in Mongkut's movement was that, "…true Buddhism was supposed to refrain from worldly matters and confine itself to spiritual and moral affairs." Mongkut came to power in 1851, as did his colleagues who had the same progressive mission. From that point on, Siam more embraced modernization. Vajirayan initiated two major revolutionary changes. Firstly, he fought for the people to embrace modern geography, among other sciences considered "Western." Secondly he sought reform in Buddhism and, as a result, a new sect was created in Siamese Theravada Buddhism.
Both revolutions challenged the purity and validity of the Buddhist order as it was practiced in Siam at the time. In 1836, Vajirayan arrived at Wat Bowonniwet in what is now Bangkok's central district, but was the city proper, became the wat's first abbot. During this time, he pursued a Western education, studying Latin and astronomy with missionaries and sailors. Vicar Pallegoix of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bangkok lived nearby. Vajirayan admired Christian morals and achievements as presented by the vicar, but could make nothing of Christian doctrine, it was he made the comment attributed to him as king: "What you teach people to do is admirable, but what you teach them to believe is foolish."King Mongkut would be noted for his excellent command of English, although it is said that his younger brother, Vice-King Pinklao, could speak it better. Mongkut's first son and heir, granted the Thammayut sect royal recognition in 1902 through the Ecclesiastical Polity Act. Chulalongkorn persuaded his father's 47th child, Vajirañana, to enter the order and he rose to become the 10th Supreme Patriarch of Thailand from 1910 to 1921.
Accounts vary about Nangklao's intentions regarding the succession. It is recorded that Nangklao verbally dismissed the royal princes from succession for various reasons; some said, that Nangklao wished his throne to be passed to his son, Prince Annop, that he gave his bracelet, passed down from Phutthayotfa Chulalok to the prince. However, Dis Bunnak switched the bracelet for a forged one, thus preventing Annop from inheriting the throne. Prince Mongkut was indeed supported by the pro-British Dis Bunnak, the Samuha Kalahom, or Armed Force Department's president, the most powerful noble during the reign of Rama III, he had the support of British merchants who feared the growing anti-Western sentiment of the previous reign and saw the'prince monk' Mongkut as the'champion' of European civilization among the royal elite. Bunnak, with the supporting promise of British agents, sent his men to the leaving-from-monk-status cer
Order of the Direkgunabhorn
The Most Admirable Order of the Direkgunabhorn was established by King Bhumibol Adulyadej on 22 July 1991 to be bestowed upon those who have rendered devotional services to the Kingdom of Thailand. The title Direkgunabhorn translates as "Noble order of abundance and quality." The Order consists of seven classes. The ribbon for each class was the same, with no device to distinguish the different level. On 31 January 2538 B. E. the regulations were amended to include a device on the ribbon distinguishing the class. Knight Grand Cross of the Most Admirable Order of DirekgunabhornInsignia: A pendant and sash Pendant: The pendant consists of a circular disc enamelled red, superimposed by a representation of a Garuda in gold; the central piece is surrounded by a silver band with eight gold rays. The whole piece is topped with a starburst; the reverse is with the Royal Cyphers of King Rama IX enamelled in white. Sash: The pendant is suspended from a green sash 10 cm wide, with red and yellow trims, to wear over the right shoulder to the left hip.
Star: The star is similar to the pendant, with a gilded crown and insignia on the uppermost arm of the star. A gold band with eight silver rays and eight gold rays surrounds the central disc; the back of the star is similar to that of the pendant. The star is worn on the left chest. Knight Commander of the Most Admirable Order of DirekgunabhornInsignia: A pendant and silk band Pendant: The pendant consists of a circular disc enamelled red, superimposed by a representation of a Garuda in gold; the central disc is surrounded by a silver band with eight gold rays. The reverse is a gold disc, with the Royal Cyphers of King Rama IX enamelled in white; the whole piece is topped with a starburst. Silk band: The pendant is attached onto a green silk band 4 cm wide, with red and yellow trims, to wear as collar. For women, it is worn on the left chest. Star: The star is similar to the pendant, with a gilded crown and insignia on the uppermost arm of the star; the gold band with eight silver rays and eight gold rays surrounds the central disc.
Commander of the Most Admirable Order of DirekgunabhornInsignia: A pendant only Pendant: The pendant is similar to that for the Knight Commander, attached onto a silk band 4 cm wide, worn as a collar. For women, the pendant is worn on the front left shoulder. Companion of the Most Admirable Order of DirekgunabhornInsignia: A pendant only. Pendant: The pendant is similar to that for the Commander, but is a smaller size with an additional silk rosette, it is attached onto a small silk band, worn on the left chest. For women the pendant is attached to a silk ribbon with an additional rosette, worn on the front left shoulder. Member of the Most Admirable Order of DirekgunabhornInsignia: A pendant only. Pendant: The pendant is similar to that for the Companion, without the silk rosette; the Gold Medal of the DirekgunabhornInsignia: A gold medal, with a Garuda in the centre, surrounded with eight lotus leaves and topped with a gold crown and insignia. The reverse is engraved with the Royal Cyphers of King Rama IX.
The Silver Medal of the DirekgunabhornInsignia: A silver medal, of the same design as the gold medal. Membership of the order can be gained via either "Devotional Service to the Kingdom", or by donation. Devotional service to the kingdom is deemed to be met via the following criteria: Five years of devotional service to the kingdom, from the last conferment. Outstanding service to the state and the people. Act of bravery for the state and the people; the first decoration to be conferred is the silver medal or Companion, in case of extraordinary service. A deemed person may request the Silver Medal of the Direkgunabhorn be issued. Decorations of higher class can be attained through further years of excellent service, until the Knight Grand Cross class is reached. Deemed person's include: Person of Other Nationalitiescan attain Member and CompanionSportsmen can attain Silver Medal to CompanionPrivate School Personnelcan attain Member and CompanionPrivate University Personnelcan attain Silver Medal to Knight CommanderResearchers, National Artistscan attain Companion Donations for public use of cash, property or goods can earn membership of the order.
The class obtained is relative to the amount donated, as per the following table: Anwar Chowdhry Hernando de Soto Polar, economist Galyani Vadhana, Thai princess Ariya Jutanugarn, golfer Pornthip Rojanasunand, doctor Thaksin Shinawatra, politician Eiji Toyoda, industrialist 188 people involved in the Tham Luang cave rescue The Most Admirable Order of the Direkgunabhorn, Secretariat to the Cabinet of Thailand