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Belize dollar

The Belize dollar is the official currency in Belize. It is abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively BZ$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies, it is divided into 100 cents. The official value is pegged at 2 BZ$ = 1 US$; the first dollars to circulate in British Honduras were Spanish dollars, some of which were counterstamped with the monogram of a crowned –G-R– They circulated between 1765 and 1825 at a value of 6 shillings 8 pence. I.e. one third of a pound sterling. In 1825, an imperial order-in-council was passed for the purpose of introducing the British sterling coinage into all the British colonies; this order-in-council made sterling coinage legal tender. This exchange rate was supposed to be based on the value of the silver in the Spanish dollars as compared to the value of the gold in the British sovereigns; the realistic exchange rate would have been $4.80 = £1, so the unrealistic exchange rate, contained in the 1825 order-in-council led to the initiative being a failure.

Remedial legislation came about in 1838 with a new order-in-council, which did not apply to the British North American colonies due to minor rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada. The 1838 legislation introduced the correct rating of $1 = 4s 2d; when the original order-in-council of 1825 was introduced in Jamaica and British Honduras, the local authorities set aside the mistaken rating of $1 = 4s 4d, they unofficially used the alternative rating of $1 = 4s. The Bahamas would adopt this same approach; when the 1838 remedial legislation came into force, sterling was well established in these territories, the Spanish dollar had been barred from circulation, the authorities had no desire to adopt the devaluation that would have been associated with the correct rating of $1 = 4s 2d. The British shilling, referred to locally as a'Maccaroni', was equal to one quarter of a dollar, the system was working satisfactorily. For a period in the middle of the nineteenth century British Honduras operated the British sterling monetary system just like Jamaica and Bermuda.

In the wake of the international silver crisis of 1873 the silver peso of neighbouring Guatemala drove the British currency out of circulation. In an attempt to return British Honduras to the gold standard, influenced by the fact that most imports were coming from New Orleans in the United States, a new currency was introduced into British Honduras based on the US dollar, bringing British Honduras into line with Canada. At that time, the Canadian dollar was on the gold standard, one Canadian dollar was equal to one American dollar; this is the point where the currency history of British Honduras diverges from that of the rest of the British West Indies. In 1885, 1 cent coins were issued, followed by higher denominations in 1894; this year saw the first issue of banknotes by the government and a switch from the silver Guatemalan peso to the gold U. S. dollar as the base for the currency, with $4.866 = 1 pound. The rate of $4.866 as opposed to $4.80 is explained by the fact that when the US dollar was first created in 1792, it was based on the average weight of a selection of worn Spanish dollars.

Hence, the US dollar was at a slight discount in relation to the Spanish dollar. Following the introduction of the US dollar gold standard to British Honduras, the 25 cent coins were referred to as shillings due to their closeness in value to shilling sterling; when the United Kingdom abandoned the gold standard in 1931 the British Honduras dollar continued with its attachment to the US dollar and as such it did not become part of the sterling bloc. At the outbreak of the second world war, unlike in the case of Canada and Hong Kong, British Honduras did join the sterling area though it maintained its fixed exchange rate with respect to the US dollar; the sterling bloc should not be confused with the sterling area. The former was a group of countries who pegged their local currencies to sterling when the United Kingdom abandoned the gold standard in 1931, whereas the latter was an exchange control arrangement introduced as an emergency measure at the outbreak of the second world war. In 1949 the British pound was devalued from US$4.03 to US$2.80.

Since the British Honduras dollar was pegged to the US dollar, this caused a sudden increase in the value of the British Honduran dollar relative to the pound. Protests ensued which led to a devaluation of the British Honduran dollar to a value of 70 U. S. cents. Following Harold Wilson's devaluation of sterling in November 1967, the British Honduran dollar again devalued in sympathy with the British pound to 60 US cents. In 1978, the link to the British pound of BZ$4 = £1 was abandoned and once again the Belize unit was pegged to the US dollar at a fixed rate of BZ$2 = US$1; this new rate which still continues today, reflects the devaluation of 50% in relation to the original parity with the US dollar in 1885, which last applied in 1949. In 1885, bronze 1 cent coins were introduced, followed by silver 5, 10, 25 and 50 cents in 1894; these coins were minted at the Royal Mint and their style was similar to that of other British colonial dollar fractional coinage used in Hong Kong and Canada. Cupronickel replaced silver in the 5 cents in 1907.

This was itself replaced by nickel-brass in 1942. In 1952, cupro-nickel replaced silver in the 25 cent coins, with the same happening for the 50 and 10 cents in 1954 and 1956, respectively. Following a reduction in size in 1954, the 1 cent coin switched to a scalloped shape in 1956. In 1976, aluminium 1 and 5 cent coins were introduced. A nickel-brass, decagonal 1 dollar c

Chief Bearhart

Chief Bearhart was a Canadian Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. A turf specialist, he won six Sovereign Awards and was voted American Champion Male Turf Horse for 1997. Chief Bearheart was bred by Richard D. Maynard and sired by Chief's Crown out of the mare Amelia Bearhart by Bold Hour, his grandsire was Danzig. He was owned by Sam-Son Farm of Milton and was trained by Mark Frostad. In 1995, at age two, injuries kept Chief Bearhart out of all but one race. At age 3, he had only modest success until his trainer switched him from racing on dirt tracks to racing on turf, he won the 1996 Breeders' Stakes, the final and only leg on grass of the Canadian Triple Crown. Popular with racing fans because he always came from well back in the field, in 1997 Chief Bearhart blossomed into a star. Ridden by Jose Santos he won five of seven races with two second-place finishes. Among his wins were the prestigious Canadian International Stakes at Woodbine Racetrack and at Hollywood Park Racetrack in the United States he won the Breeders' Cup Turf by a half length.

For his 1997 performances, Chief Bearhart earned more than $2 million in purses and was voted the Sovereign Award for Horse of the Year and the Eclipse Award for Outstanding Male Turf Horse. Racing at age five, in 1998 Chief Bearhart won his second Canadian "Horse of the Year" title after winning the Niagara Breeders' Cup Handicap, the Sky Classic Handicap and setting a course record in winning the Grade I Manhattan Handicap, he was retired after the 1998 racing season and in 2002 was inducted into the Canadian Horse Racing Hall of Fame. Chief Bearhart stood at stud at the Shizunai Stallion Station in Japan, he sired. He died of heart failure on September 18, 2012. HORSE RACING; the New York Times, August 16, 1998. Accessed October 4, 2008. Chief Bearhart's pedigree and racing stats Video at YouTube of Chief Bearhart's win in the 1997 Breeders' Cup Turf

Scherpenzeel, Gelderland

Scherpenzeel is a municipality and a town in the Dutch province of Gelderland. As of 2019, it has a population of 9,873, with 6,000 adults; the community of Scherpenzeel contains a part of the hamlet of Moorst. Dutch topographic map of the municipality of Scherpenzeel, June 2015 Centuries ago, what is now the Netherlands was still a collection of small states, ruled by bishops, earls and lords; these rulers were at war over territory, causing fortifications and defenses to be built in border areas. This was the case in the Veluwe hills, which lay along the border of what is now Utrecht and Gelderland, where many castles and fortresses were constructed as safe havens. Hence, the name "Scherpenzeel" known as "Scarpenzele", allows us to infer that there was a settlement built around a house with sharpened poles, the prototype of an old castle; the possession of Scherpenzeel was at various times claimed by either Gelderland or Utrecht, but it has now been a part of Gelderland since 1830. The town's most notable landmark, Scherpenzeel House began as a 14th-century tower house.

In the following centuries, it underwent several modifications. In 1652, it was expanded by Lady Aleyd of Scherpenzeel. In the years 1857–1858, it acquired its present Neogothic form, designed by S. A. van Lunteren, who designed the surrounding park. At the time it belonged to the Royaard family, who maintained residence there until 1956. In 1975, Scherpenzeel House was declared a national monument and entrusted to the municipality; the building was used as the town hall until 2003. In 2005, it was let to the Friends of Geldersche Castles Foundation, who keep it open to the public and allow wedding ceremonies to be held there. Media related to Scherpenzeel, Gelderland at Wikimedia Commons Official website