United States Marine Corps Reserve
The Marine Forces Reserve known as the United States Marine Corps Reserve and the U. S. Marine Corps Forces Reserve, is the reserve force of the United States Marine Corps, it is the largest command in the U. S. Marine Corps. Marines in the Reserve go through the same training and work in the same Military Occupational Specialties as their active-duty counterparts. Marine Forces Reserve is the headquarters command for 40,000 Reserve Marines and 184 Reserve Training Centers located throughout the United States; the mission of Marine Forces Reserve is to augment and reinforce active Marine forces in time of war, national emergency, or contingency operations. The United States Marine Corps Reserve was established when Congress passed the Naval Appropriations Act of 29 August 1916 and is responsible for providing trained units and qualified individuals to be mobilized for active duty in time of war, national emergency or contingency operations. Marine forces Reserve provides personnel and operational tempo relief for active component forces in peacetime.
MARFORRES comprises two groups of Sailors. The first, known as the Selected Marine Corps Reserve, are Marines who belong to reserve units and drill one weekend a month and two weeks a year; the second group is known as the Individual Ready Reserve. The IRR is composed of Marines who have finished their active duty or USMCR obligations, however their names remain on record to be called up in case of a war or other emergency – the Individual Ready Reserve is administered by the Marine Corps Individual Reserve Support Activity. IRR Marines participate in annual musters to check in with the Corps. Ground combat element: 4th Marine Division Aviation combat element: 4th Marine Aircraft Wing Logistics combat element: 4th Marine Logistics Group Force Headquarters Group Command element: Deployment Processing Command West Environmental Services Division Marine Corps Band New Orleans Reserve Support Unit Environmental Services DetachmentReserve units utilize infrastructure when mobilized through Reserve Support Units located at various bases throughout the U.
S.. Enlistment in the Marine Forces Reserve occurs through a process similar to that for enlistment in the regular active Marine Corps. Recruits must take the ASVAB, pass a comprehensive physical exam, be sworn in, they may enter through a billet in the Delayed Entry Program. Reserve Recruits attend recruit training along with active duty recruits, earning the title United States Marine upon successful completion of the training, they have a mandatory leave of 10 days before further training at the School of Infantry and their designated Military Occupational Specialty. Only after completing the training program does a Reserve Marine's enlistment begin to differ from that of an active duty Marine. There is a program called the Select Reserve Incentive Program, which provides enlistment bonuses for Reservists enlisting for needed MOSs. Half is payable upon completion of training and the other half is spread out over the term of enlistment. For those who have earned a college degree, the Reserve Officer Commissioning Program provides a path into the Marine Corps Reserve leading to a commission as an Officer of Marines.
Upon selection from a regional Officer Selection Office, applicants attend Officer Candidate School. Upon successful completion of OCS, candidates are commissioned Second Lieutenant and subsequently attend The Basic School. Following graduation of TBS and follow-on MOS training, officers report to their reserve unit where they will serve their Reserve drills and Annual Training requirements. Reserve Marines enlist for eight-year terms. There are three options on how these terms may be served, one of, designated upon enlistment. 6x2 – Under this option the Reservist spends 6 years in active drill and fulfills the remaining two in Individual Ready Reserve. This is the only option which makes Reservists eligible for the benefits of the Montgomery GI Bill, is the most common. 5x3 – Under this option the Reservist spends 5 years in active drill and fulfills the remaining three in Individual Ready Reserve. 4x4 – Under this option the Reservist spends 4 years in active drill and fulfills the remaining four in Individual Ready Reserve.
After serving several years in the Reserves and attaining leadership rank it is possible for an enlisted Reservist to receive a commission through the Reserve Enlisted Commissioning Program. Marines who have served on active duty, whether officer or enlisted, can join the Select Marine Corps Reserve directly. Veteran Marines wishing to do this go through a Marine Corps Prior Service Recruiter; the mission of the Prior Service Recruiter is to join members from the Individual Ready Reserve to SMCR units close to their home. Marine reservists are allowed to serve in the United States Marine Corps Reserve and in the naval militia of their state of residence. Comparable organizations Army National Guard United States Army Reserve United States Navy Reserve United States Coast Guard Reserve Air National Guard Air Force Reserve Command Official website
Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana
Plaquemines Parish is a parish located in the U. S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census the population is 23,042; the parish seat is Pointe à la Hache. The parish was formed in 1807. Plaquemines Parish is part of the New Orleans -- LA Metropolitan Statistical Area, it was damaged in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, in hurricane events in 2011. The name "Plaquemines," in French Creole, was derived from the Atakapa word, meaning the local fruit persimmon; the French used it to name a military post they built on the banks of the Mississippi River, as the site was surrounded by numerous persimmon trees. The name was applied to the entire parish and to a nearby bayou; the oldest European settlement in the parish was La Balize, where the French built and inhabited a crude fort by 1699 near the mouth of the Mississippi River. The name in French meant "seamark", a tall structure of wood built as a guide for ships. By 1721 the French built one 62 feet high. A surviving map from about 1720 shows the island and fort, the mouth of the river.
As traffic and trade on the river increased, so did the importance of river pilots who were knowledgeable about the complicated, ever-changing currents and sandbars in the river. They lived at La Balize with their families; the village was destroyed and rebuilt numerous times, but it was abandoned for good after being destroyed by a September 1860 hurricane. The pilots moved upriver and built the settlement they named Pilottown, which reached its peak of population in the 19th century; the river pilots' expertise continues to be critical, but now they live with their families in more populated areas. They stay at Pilottown temporarily for work. An important historical site is Fort Jackson, built in 1822 as recommended by General Andrew Jackson, hero of the Battle of New Orleans in the War of 1812. In 1861, Fort Jackson served as an important Confederate defense for the city of New Orleans during the Civil War because it was at the mouth of the Mississippi River; the US Army used it as a training base during World War I, 1917-1918.
Plaquemines is one of only two parishes that have kept their same boundaries from the beginning of Louisiana's parishes in 1807 to today, the other being St. Bernard Parish; because Plaquemines Parish encompasses the last 70 miles of the Mississippi River before it reaches the Gulf of Mexico, it is the site of several oil refineries, which rely on the shipping lanes for moving their product. The Mississippi River Delta of Plaquemines is a base for assistance to offshore oil rigs. Plaquemines Parish was the first place in the United States where shippers used a container for cargo in foreign trade; the area is known for having the southernmost point in Louisiana, at just under 29 degrees north. The August 1901 Hurricane caused damage, including 4 feet of water in Buras; the Great Hurricane of 1915 devastated much of the parish, with multiple levee breaches on both sides of the Mississippi, a 12-foot storm surge, hundreds of deaths. Homelessness was widespread, many people were reduced to starvation until charitable aid arrived.
The old Parish Courthouse in Pointe à la Hache was among the many buildings destroyed in the storm, but a new one was completed within the year. In the early 1900s, Plaquemines was an exporter of citrus. Farmers used the Mississippi to ship the large annual harvest to markets. Commercial fisheries for oysters, have been important in the parish economy. From 1924 to 1969, Plaquemines and St. Bernard parishes were the domain of the political boss Leander Perez, who established a strong hold over the area, he was notorious for enforcing strict racial segregation. Upon his death, his sons Leander Perez, Jr. and Chalin O. Perez were elected as the dominant political figures of the parish as district attorney and parish president, respectively. Interpersonal feuding weakened the family's hold on power. After another decade, by 1980 political opponents had begun to win local elections. In 1969, Hurricane Camille devastated portions of Plaquemines Parish. Storm surge over 10 feet, winds over 100 miles per hour, peak pressure at 941 hPa devastated Buras, Venice and many more towns and cities.
During the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927, city and state leaders used dynamite to breach a levee at Caernarvon, thirteen miles below Canal Street, in order to save the city of New Orleans from flooding. This action resulted in the flooding of much of the less-populated St. Bernard and Plaquemines parishes, causing widespread destruction to agriculture and housing; the Civil Rights struggle for African-Americans to become registered voters in Plaquemines Parish begin in October 1946, under the guidance of Dr. Rev. Percy Murphy Griffin. With the aid of Attorneys Earl Amedee and Louis Berry from New Orleans and twenty-six African-Americans from Plaquemines Parish organized the Plaquemines Parish Civil and Political Organization, Inc. to fight racial barriers established by Perez. In the summer of 1953, the group organized a voter registration drive for African Americans. In 1954, Irene Griffin became the first black woman to register to vote in the parish; the organization filed class-action suits against Leander Perez and in 1953, several African-Americans became registered voters in Plaquemines Parish.
In 1966, the organization led the fight to integrate public schools. The movement worked to get Seymourville and another small community included within the parish boundaries; the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended legal segregation, and
William Harold Nungesser, is an American politician serving since January 11, 2016, as the 54th Lieutenant Governor of Louisiana. A Republican, Nungesser is the former president of the Plaquemines Parish Commission, having been re-elected to a second four-year term in the 2010 general election in which he topped two opponents with more than 71 percent of the vote, his second term as parish president began on January 1, 2011, ended four years later. Nungesser is the son of the former Ruth Amelia Marks. From 1980 to 1984, the senior Nungesser was the chief of staff during David C. Treen's term as governor of Louisiana, he was the state chairman of the Louisiana Republican Party, in which capacity he unexpectedly supported Patrick J. Buchanan for the party's 1992 presidential nomination. Ruth Nungesser was active in Republican politics as a charter member of Republican Women of Louisiana and a delegate to state and national GOP conventions. Billy Nungesser has a younger brother, Eric H. Nungesser and wife Carole, two sisters, Nancy A. Nungesser and Heidi N. Landry and husband Marlon.
In 1983, Governor Treen appointed the younger Nungesser to the Lake Pontchartrain and Maurepaus Study Commission. The senior Nungesser was named in 1985 to the Orleans Levee Board. While working in his family's offshore catering business, Nungesser found an alternative use for metal ship containers. In 1991, he established General Marine Leasing Company, a business which provides portable living quarters for offshore workers; the company grew reaching $20 million in sales. In 2004, he was the chairman for the Plaquemines Parish United Way. In 2004 and 2005, Nungesser worked with local business leaders to form the Plaquemines Association of Business and Industry or PABI, separate from the statewide Louisiana Association of Business and Industry, he served on the PABI board during its early years. Since vacating the parish presidency, Nungesser has relocated to River Ranch in Lafayette Parish, he announced his second bid for the office of lieutenant governor. He lost the race in 2011 to incumbent Jay Dardenne, who subsequently ran unsuccessfully in 2015 for governor of Louisiana, a post subsequently won in the general election by a Democrat, John Bel Edwards of Livingston Parish.
In 2006, Nungesser narrowly won the position of parish president by defeating the Democrat Amos Cormier, Jr. Nungesser polled 4,096 votes to Cormier's 3,920 ballots; the incumbent parish president and a former state representative, Democrat Benny Rousselle, was term-limited. In February 2009, Governor Bobby Jindal appointed Nungesser to the Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority, a 20-member panel assigned to develop a master plan on coastal protection for the state. Much of his work in the first two years has been on hurricane recovery; the eye of Katrina passed over Buras-Triumph, now the town of Buras has a new water tower. The old tower was knocked to the ground during the hurricane; the Federal Emergency Management Agency obligated $400,000 to rebuild the Port Eads Marina after Katrina. President Nungesser went to Washington, D. C. and appealed the amount. FEMA authorized $12 million for the project, he was involved in the response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Before Hurricane Gustav made landfall, President Nungesser took a proactive approach to protect the parish.
He flew in a helicopter counting the number of vessels and barges that would be a safety issue to people and the levee system during a hurricane. His team called the owners of about 150 vessels and told them to move the vessels or the parish would sink them. Seventy of the 150 were sunk, some by the parish, some by the owners. There is no way to measure. Hurricane Ike passed hundreds of miles south of Plaquemines, but its tide surge did affect the parish; the water began rising against the levees on the east bank of Plaquemines near the Caernarvon freshwater diversion at Braithwaite. The structure allows fresh water from the Mississippi River to flow into the marsh on the east side of the river. Parish officials noticed. After consulting the Army Corps of Engineers, a quick decision was made to open the floodgates to permit the rising water flow into the Mississippi, hence relieving pressure on the levees. Nungesser made countless media appearances in the wake of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including nightly guest appearances on the Cable News Network alongside journalist Anderson Cooper.
Nungesser was recognized as the Face of the Oil Spill by major media outlets such as the New Orleans Times-Picayune, The New York Times, Associated Press, CNN, ABC News. Plaquemines Parish consists of the final stretch of the Mississippi River before it flows into the Gulf of Mexico. Hurricane Katrina first made landfall in the southern end of Plaquemines Parish in the town of Empire, Louisiana. In 2010, Nungesser won re-election to parish president, having defeated former parish presidents Amos Cormier and Benny Rousselle. Nungesser polled 5,632 votes to Cormier's 1,772 and Rousselle's 499, he began his second term with a public cry for help in removing oil from eroded land at Bay Jimmy. Nungesser offered a long-term plan to protect residents and the parish from future storms, he collaborated with the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers in Vicksburg, Mississippi, to create the Plaquemines Restoration and Protection Plan, released in 2009; the plan uses multiple lines of defense along with the levee system to protect the parish from future tropical systems.
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was dependent upon agriculture cotton, a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves; each state declared its secession from the United States, which became known as the Union during the ensuing civil war, following the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U. S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Before Lincoln took office in March, a new Confederate government was established in February 1861, considered illegal by the government of the United States. States volunteered militia units and the new government hastened to form its own Confederate States Army from scratch overnight.
After the American Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South—Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina—also declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The Confederacy accepted Missouri and Kentucky as members, although neither declared secession nor were they largely controlled by Confederate forces; the government of the United States rejected the claims of secession and considered the Confederacy illegally founded. The War began with the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. No foreign government recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, although Great Britain and France granted it belligerent status, which allowed Confederate agents to contract with private concerns for arms and other supplies. In early 1865, after four years of heavy fighting which led to 620,000–850,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered and the Confederacy vanished; the war lacked a formal end.
By 1865 Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States of America for the duration of the civil war, lamented that the Confederacy had "disappeared". On February 22, 1862, the Confederate Constitution of seven state signatories – Mississippi, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Texas – replaced the Provisional Constitution of February 8, 1861, with one stating in its preamble a desire for a "permanent federal government". Four additional slave-holding states – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy following a call by U. S. President Abraham Lincoln for troops from each state to recapture Sumter and other seized federal properties in the South. Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions adopting the forms of state governments without control of substantial territory or population in either case; the antebellum state governments in both maintained their representation in the Union. Fighting for the Confederacy were two of the "Five Civilized Tribes" – the Choctaw and the Chickasaw – in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona.
Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of martial law. A Unionist government was formed in opposition to the secessionist state government in Richmond and administered the western parts of Virginia, occupied by Federal troops; the Restored Government recognized the new state of West Virginia, admitted to the Union during the war on June 20, 1863, re-located to Alexandria for the rest of the war. Confederate control over its claimed territory and population in congressional districts shrank from 73% to 34% during the course of the American Civil War due to the Union's successful overland campaigns, its control of the inland waterways into the South, its blockade of the southern coast. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal; as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers; the most notable advance was Sherman's "March to the Sea" in late 1864.
Much of the Confederacy's infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs and bridges. Plantations in the path of Sherman's forces were damaged. Internal movement became difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and limiting army mobility; these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance. Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Davis's administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, allegations of autocratic government. After four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. A few days General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant signalling the collapse of the Confederacy. President Davis was captured on May 10, 1865, jailed in preparation for a treason trial, never held; the initial Confederacy was established in the Montgomery Convention in February 1861 by seven states (South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana
Naval air station
A naval air station is a military air base, consists of a permanent land-based operations locations for the military aviation division of the relevant branch of a navy. These bases are populated by squadrons, groups or wings, their various support commands, other tenant commands; the term "Naval Air Station" is used by many countries' navies, such as the United States Navy, the Royal Australian Navy, the British Royal Navy, the Indian Navy. In the case of the U. S. Navy, similar facilities in the U. S. Marine Corps are known as Marine Corps Air Stations and facilities in the U. S. Coast Guard are known as Coast Guard Air Stations; the Argentine Naval Aviation operates four Base Aeronaval: from BAN Punta Indio in Buenos Aires Province through BAN Comandante Espora and BAN Almirante Zar in Patagonia to BAN Almirante Quijada at Tierra del Fuego. Runways serve domestic airlines at all Argentine military air bases; the Navy operates Estacion Aeronaval which have smaller crews and are not assigned aircraft.
These include Rio Gallegos and Ushuaia. The Argentine Naval Prefecture, serving as the Coast Guard operates air stations at Posadas, Buenos Aires, Mar del Plata, Comodoro Rivadavia. Aircraft operating out of these bases are involved in air/sea rescues. In Australia, there is one Naval Air Station, "NAS Nowra", HMAS Albatross, the formal Naval Aircraft Repair Yard and apprentice training establishment at HMAS Nirimba in Schofields, Sydney. In 2017, the French Naval Aviation has four naval air stations, all located in metropolitan territory. BAN Lann-Bihoué BAN Lanvéoc-Poulmic BAN Landivisiau BAN Hyères Le Palyvestre, The BAN Tontouta was reassigned the French Air Force; the United Kingdom has RNAS Yeovilton and RNAS Culdrose. Until 2006, the former served as the main operating base for the Royal Navy's Sea Harriers, which were based upon the three Invincible class aircraft carriers. However, upon the withdrawal of the BAe Sea Harrier in that year, no strike aircraft have operated from there, it is believed.
The site contains the Fleet Air Arm Museum, that showcases a variety of aircraft from the Royal Naval Air Service until the present day. RNAS Yeovilton has RNAS Merryfield as its training and satellite station. RNAS Culdrose serves a variety of helicopter and fixed-wing squadrons, such as the Sea King and the Jetstream respectively. Among the features at RNAS Culdrose is the "Dummy deck", used to train pilots to land on ships, the Merlin training facility, the Fleet Requirements Air Direction Unit, its satellite airfield is RNAS Predannack. In the United States, a "Naval Air Station" is an air base of the United States Navy; when located in foreign countries, they are more named US Naval Air Stations, to avoid confusion with naval air stations used by the navies of the host countries. A lower level of air base in the U. S. Navy is the Naval Air Facility; these facilities support smaller numbers of naval aircraft. Permanently based naval aircraft are minimal, with the principal focus being on supporting naval aircraft deployed from other installations.
Examples are Japan. S. Air Force's Misawa AB in Japan. S. Air Force's RAF Mildenhall installation in the United Kingdom. Base Realigment and Closure actions have resulted in closure of Naval Air Facilities such as NAF Detroit at Selfridge ANGB, Michigan. S. Air Force's Lajes AB facility in the Azores. S. Air Force's Japan. There are a number of former Naval Air Stations that have been realiged as part of larger Naval Stations or redesignated to other functions in the Navy; this includes the former NAS Norfolk, the former NAF Mayport, the former NAS Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. In the case of NAS Memphis, the airfield and flight line was turned over to local civilian authorities, while the Navy retained the remainder of the installation. There are larger facilities that are similar to Naval Air Stations and possess large airfield facilities, but were constructed as part of much larger facilities or were dedicated to research and development activities; this includes Spain. The first naval air station in the United States was located at Greenbury Point, at the mouth of the Severn River near Annapolis, Maryland.
The Navy operates a number of austere unmanned or minimally manned airfields known as Naval Auxiliary Landing Fields, Naval Outlying Landing Fields, or more Outlying Fields (OL
New Orleans metropolitan area
New Orleans–Metairie Metropolitan Statistical Area, or the Greater New Orleans Region, is a metropolitan area designated by the United States Census encompassing eight parishes in the state of Louisiana, centering on the city of New Orleans. The U. S. Census Bureau estimates 1,275,762 people were living in the New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical area in July 2017, up 7.2 percent from 2010. According to 2017 census estimates, the New Orleans–Metairie–Hammond combined statistical area had a population of 1,510,562; the metropolitan area was hit by Hurricane Katrina – once a Category 5 hurricane, but a Category 3 storm at landfall – in August 2005. Within the city of New Orleans proper, multiple breaches and structural failures occurred in the system of levees and flood walls designed under Federal government auspices; the resulting decline in the city's population negatively impacted population numbers for the entire metro area, for which a population of 1.3 million was recorded in the 2000 Census.
Most of the decline in population is accounted for by the decline experienced in the city of New Orleans proper. The New Orleans–Metairie–Bogalusa Combined Statistical Area is made up of ten parishes; the CSA includes two metropolitan area and one micropolitan areas. Metropolitan Statistical Areas Hammond New Orleans–Metairie–Kenner MSA: Micropolitan Statistical Areas Bogalusa For U. S. Census purposes, the New Orleans-Metairie-Kenner MSA includes eight parishes: Jefferson, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Tammany, St. Charles, St. John the Baptist, St. James; the Census Bureau's CSA adds Tangipahoa Parishes, to make ten parishes. According to the New Orleans region's chamber of commerce, GNO, Inc.. The Louisiana state legislature created a commission, the Regional Planning Commission, to be responsible for the planning and development of the New Orleans metropolitan area; the eight parishes covered by the commission are: Jefferson, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Tammany, St. Charles, Tangipahoa and St. John the Baptist.
The New Orleans metropolitan area was first defined in 1950. Known as the New Orleans Standard Metropolitan Area, it consisted of three parishes – Orleans, St. Bernard – and had a population of 685,405. Following a term change by the Bureau of the Budget, the New Orleans SMA was called the New Orleans Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area. By the census of 1960, the population had grown to a 27 % increase over the previous census. St. Tammany Parish was added the New Orleans SMSA in 1963; the four-parish area had a combined population of 899,123 in 1960 and 1,045,809 in 1970. By the 1980 census, the population had increased by 14% to 1,187,073. In 1983, the official name was shortened to the New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area. Two more parishes, St. Charles and St. John the Baptist, were added to the MSA the same year, making a six-parish MSA; the newly defined area had a total of 1,256,256 residents in 1980, but that number had declined to 1,238,816 in 1990. The New Orleans MSA expanded to eight parishes in 1993 with the inclusion of Plaquemines and St. James.
The eight-parish area had a combined population of 1,285,270 at the 1990 census and 1,337,726 in 2000. The MSA was renamed the New Orleans–Metairie–Kenner Metropolitan Statistical Area in 2003. St. James Parish was removed, in 2015, re-aded to the defined metropolitan area; the City of Kenner is the largest incorporated city located in Jefferson Parish, just west of the City of New Orleans. With a population at the 2010 census of 138,481, Metairie is the largest community in Jefferson Parish and the fifth-largest Census-designated place in the United States, it is an unincorporated area. In the New Orleans metropolitan area, the following geographic terms are used: Eastbank, Westbank and River Parishes; the Mississippi River, running from north to south, divides the United States into eastern and western halves. In southeast Louisiana, newcomers are confused by the terms "East Bank" and "West Bank" since, due to the curves of the Mississippi River, what is called the "East Bank" is sometimes located geographically to the west of what is called the "West Bank" and vice versa.
The banks lie to the north and south of the river throughout most of the region. In southeast Louisiana, the term "East Bank" is used to refer to any area that lies within the eastern half of the United States, as established by its location on the eastern bank of the Mississippi River, while the term "West Bank" is used to refer to areas along the opposite side of the river; these terms are used in urban and rural parishes that are bisected by the Mississippi River, which include St. John the Baptist, St. Charles, St. James, Jefferson and Plaquemines. In the New Orleans metropolitan area