Hugo Award for Best Professional Editor
The Hugo Awards are given every year by the World Science Fiction Society for the best science fiction or fantasy works and achievements of the previous year. The award is named after Hugo Gernsback, the founder of the pioneering science fiction magazine Amazing Stories, was once known as the Science Fiction Achievement Award; the award has been described as "a fine showcase for speculative fiction" and "the best known literary award for science fiction writing". The Hugo Award for Best Professional Editor is given each year for editors of magazines, anthologies, or other works related to science fiction or fantasy; the award supplanted a previous award for professional magazine. The award was first presented in 1973, was given annually through 2006. Beginning in 2007, the award was split into that of Best Editor and Best Editor; the Short Form award is for editors of anthologies, collections or magazines, while the Long Form award is for editors of novels. In addition to the regular Hugo awards, beginning in 1996 Retrospective Hugo Awards, or "Retro Hugos", have been available to be awarded for years 50, 75, or 100 years prior in which no awards were given.
To date, Retro Hugo awards have been awarded for 1939, 1941, 1943, 1946, 1951, 1954, in each case an award for professional editor was given. Hugo Award nominees and winners are chosen by supporting or attending members of the annual World Science Fiction Convention, or Worldcon, the presentation evening constitutes its central event; the selection process is defined in the World Science Fiction Society Constitution as instant-runoff voting with six nominees, except in the case of a tie. The works on the ballot are the six most-nominated by members that year, with no limit on the number of works that can be nominated. Initial nominations are made by members in January through March, while voting on the ballot of six nominations is performed in April through July, subject to change depending on when that year's Worldcon is held. Prior to 2017, the final ballot was five works. Worldcons are held near Labor Day, are held in a different city around the world each year. Members are permitted to vote "no award", if they feel that none of the nominees is deserving of the award that year, in the case that "no award" takes the majority the Hugo is not given in that category.
This happened in both the Short Form and Long Form categories in 2015. During the 54 nomination years, 70 editors have been nominated for the original Best Professional Editor, the Short Form, or the Long Form award, including Retro Hugos. Of these, Gardner Dozois has received the most awards, with 15 original awards out of 19 nominations for the original category and 2 for the Short Form; the only other editors to win more than three awards are Ben Bova, who won 6 of 8 nominations for the original award, Ellen Datlow, who won 7 of 17 nominations, split between the original and short form awards, John W. Campbell, Jr. with 6 out of 7 nominations for the Retro Hugo awards. The two editors who have won three times are Edward L. Ferman with 3 out of 20 original nominations and Patrick Nielsen Hayden with 3 out of 3 Long Form nominations. Stanley Schmidt has received the most nominations, at 27 original and 7 Short Form, winning one Short Form. In the following tables, the years correspond to the date of the ceremony.
Editors are eligible based on their work of the previous calendar year, each date links to the "year in literature" article corresponding with when those works were eligible. Although the Best Professional Editor award is not given explicitly for any particular editing effort and such works are not recorded by the World Science Fiction Society, works that the editor in question was involved with in the eligibility period are listed; this list includes magazines or anthologies that the editor worked on and publishing houses that he or she was employed at, is not intended to be comprehensive. Entries with a blue background and an asterisk next to the editor's name have won the award. * Winners and joint winners + No winner selected Starting with the 2007 awards, the Professional Editor award was split into two categories: Best Editor and Best Editor. The Long Form award is for "The editor of at least four novel-length works devoted to science fiction and/or fantasy published in the previous calendar year" in the official Hugo Award rules.
The Best Editor Short Form award started in 2007, is given to "the editor of at least four anthologies, collections or magazine issues devoted to science fiction and/or fantasy, at least one of, published in the previous calendar year." Beginning with the 1996 Worldcon, the World Science Fiction Society created the concept of "Retro Hugos", in which the Hugo award could be retroactively awarded for years 50, 75, or 100 years before the current year, if no awards were given that year. Retro Hugos have been awarded five times, for 1939, 1941, 1943, 1944, 1946, 1951, 1954; the 1939, 1941, 1943, 1944 Retro Hugos were awarded 75 years the other three were given 50 years later. In 1946, 1951, 1954 the award was given for Best Professional Editor, as the category had not been split, while for the others it was given for Short Form only, as Long Form did not have enough responses to make a ballot. Hugo Awards official site
David Jude Heyworth Law is an English actor. He has received nominations for two Academy Awards, two Screen Actors Guild Awards, four Golden Globe Awards, two British Academy Awards, winning one. In 2007, he received an Honorary César and was named a knight of the Order of Arts and Letters by the French government, in recognition of his contribution to World Cinema Arts. Law came to international attention for his role in Anthony Minghella's The Talented Mr. Ripley, for which he won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role and was nominated for the Golden Globe Award and the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. In 2004, he received Academy Award, Golden Globe Award and British Academy Film Award nominations for his role in Anthony Minghella's epic war film Cold Mountain. Law's other notable films include Gattaca, Enemy at the Gates, Steven Spielberg's A. I. Artificial Intelligence, Road to Perdition, Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow, Mike Nichols' Closer, I Heart Huckabees, The Holiday, Repo Men, Martin Scorsese's Hugo, Joe Wright's Anna Karenina, Steven Soderbergh's Side Effects, Wes Anderson's The Grand Budapest Hotel and Paul Feig's Spy.
He portrayed Dr. Watson in Guy Ritchie's Sherlock Holmes and Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows. In 2017, he portrayed the fictional Pope Pius XIII in the HBO drama miniseries The Young Pope and in 2018 portrayed Albus Dumbledore in the Fantastic Beasts film series, he appeared in the 2019 Marvel Studios film Captain Marvel, which has grossed over $1 billion, becoming his highest grossing release. Law has had an accomplished career on stage, has received nominations for three Laurence Olivier Awards and two Tony Awards, he has performed in several West Broadway productions. Law was born in Lewisham, South London, the second child of junior and on, comprehensive school teachers Margaret Anne and Peter Robert Law, he has Natasha. Law was named after "a bit of both" the book Jude the Obscure and the Beatles song "Hey Jude", he grew up in Blackheath, an area in the Borough of Greenwich, was educated at John Ball Primary School in Blackheath and Kidbrooke School, before attending Alleyn's School. Law had his breakthrough with the British crime drama Shopping, which featured his future wife, Sadie Frost.
In 1997, he became more known with his role in the Oscar Wilde biopic Wilde. Law won the "Most Promising Newcomer" award from the Evening Standard British Film Awards for his role as Lord Alfred "Bosie" Douglas, the glamorous young lover of Stephen Fry's Wilde. In Andrew Niccol's science fiction film Gattaca, Law played the role of a disabled former swimming star living in a eugenics-obsessed dystopia. In Clint Eastwood's Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil, he played the role of the ill-fated sex-worker murdered by an art dealer portrayed by Kevin Spacey. In 1998, Jude Law played in'The Wisdom of Crocodiles'. For The Talented Mr. Ripley in 1999, Law learned to play the saxophone and earned an MTV Movie Award nomination with Matt Damon and Fiorello for performing the song "Tu vuò fà l'americano" by Renato Carosone and Nicola Salerno; the role earned him a BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role, as well as nominations for the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture and Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor.
In 2001, Law starred as Russian sniper Vasily Zaytsev in the film Enemy at the Gates, learned ballet dancing for the film A. I. Artificial Intelligence. In 2002, he played a mob hitman in Sam Mendes's 1930s period drama Road to Perdition. In 2003, he collaborated again with director Anthony Minghella, for Cold Mountain, earning Best Actor nominations from members of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the Hollywood Foreign Press Association and the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. Law, an admirer of Sir Laurence Olivier, suggested the actor's image be included in the 2004 film Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow. Using the science of computer graphics, footage of the young Olivier was merged into the film, playing Dr. Totenkopf, a mysterious scientific genius and supervillain. In 2004, Law portrayed the title character in Alfie, the remake of Bill Naughton's 1966 film, playing the role originated by Michael Caine. In 2006, he portrayed the role of Kate Winslet's single-parent brother in the film The Holiday, a modern-day American romantic comedy written and directed by Nancy Meyers.
After his appearances in a string of period dramas and science fiction films in the early to mid-2000s, Law said he found it tricky to approach the contemporary role in this film. Like Winslet, the actor stated, he felt more vulnerable about playing a character who fitted his own look and did not require an accent, a costume or a relocation. By the end of the year, Law was one of the Top Ten A-list of the most bankable film stars in Hollywood, according to the Ulmer Scale. Law is one of three actors who took over the role of actor Heath Ledger in Terry Gilliam's film The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus. Along with Law, actors Johnny Depp and Colin Farrell portray "three separate dimensions in the film." He appeared opposite Forest Whitaker in the dark science fiction comedy Repo Men and as Dr. Watson in Guy Ritchie's adaption of Sherlock Holmes, alongside Robert Downey, Jr. and Rachel McAdams, as well as the 2011 sequel, Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows
Richard K. Morgan
Richard Morgan, known as Richard K. Morgan in the U. S. is a British science fantasy author. Morgan's books are set in a post-extropianist dystopian world. Morgan described his "takeaway" of one of his books as: Born in London, brought up in the village of Hethersett, near Norwich, Morgan studied history at Queens' College, Cambridge. After graduating he started teaching English in order to travel the world. After 14 years and a post at the University of Strathclyde, his first novel was published and he became a full-time writer. In 2002 Morgan's first novel Altered Carbon was published, combining elements of cyberpunk and hardboiled detective fiction and featuring the antihero Takeshi Kovacs; the film rights for the book sold for a reported figure of $1,000,000 to film producer Joel Silver, enabling Morgan to become a full-time writer. In 2003 the U. S. edition received the Philip K. Dick Award. In 2003 Broken Angels was published, the sequel to Altered Carbon, again featuring Takeshi Kovacs and blending science fiction and war fiction in a similar way to his cross-genre début.
Market Forces, Morgan's first non-Kovacs novel, is set in the not-too-distant future. It was written as a short story as a screenplay. After the success of his first two works, it was optioned as a film. Morgan's third, he has stated final, Kovacs novel Woken Furies was released in the UK in March 2005 and in the U. S. in September 2005. Morgan wrote two six issue miniseries for Marvel Comics under the Marvel Knights imprint, his first story, Black Widow: Homecoming published monthly in 2004 was followed by a second, Black Widow: The Things They Say About Her published monthly in 2005. According to Morgan's official website the series was "an artefact of limited appeal" and is unlikely to be continued, although he has other comic projects in development. Black Man was released in May 2007 in June 2007 in the United States. According to the author, the book is about the constraints of physicality and the fact that people are locked into who they are; these are things he could not deal with in the Kovacs universe, because for Kovacs and people like him mortality is avoidable: they just skip into a new body.
The novel won the 2008 Arthur C. Clarke Award. Morgan wrote a fantasy trilogy with a gay protagonist, A Land Fit for Heroes, the first volume of which has the title The Steel Remains and was published in August 2008 in the UK and on 20 January 2009 in the United States; the second volume, titled The Cold Commands was published in 2011. The third book in the series is called The Dark Defiles and was published on 17 August 2014. Liber Primus Games is creating a gamebook series based on the A Land Fit For Heroes trilogy; the first game was published for Android and Amazon Kindle Fire devices on 4 November 2015. In 2008, he worked with Starbreeze as a writer for Syndicate, the 2012 re-imagining of the 1992 original. Additionally, Morgan worked with Electronic Arts and Crytek as lead writer for their 2011 video game, Crysis 2. In October 2018, Morgan's science fiction novel, Thin Air was published in the UK by Gollancz. In an interview before the launch of Thin Air, Morgan described a common feature of his works: There is a central conceit that I keep — not consciously, I swear!
— returning to in my work. It takes different metaphorical guises, but at root it’s always the same sense of something grand and worthwhile being abandoned by vicious and stupid men in favour of short-term profit and tribal hegemony. You see it in the regressive politics of the Protectorate in the Kovacs novels, the way both the Yhelteth Empire and the — so-called — Free Cities fail their duty as civilisations in A Land Fit for Heroes. So with Thin Air — the landscape is littered with the markers of a retreat from the grand scheme of terraforming and building a home for humanity on Mars, in favour of an ultraprofitable corporate stasis and an ongoing lie of emotive intangibles sold to the general populace in lieu of actual progress. Altered Carbon ISBN 0-575-07390-X Broken Angels ISBN 0-575-07550-3 Woken Furies ISBN 0-575-07325-X The Steel Remains ISBN 0-575-07792-1 The Cold Commands ISBN 0-575-07793-X The Dark Defiles ISBN 0575088605 Black Man ISBN 0-575-07513-9 Thin Air ISBN 9780575075146 Market Forces ISBN 0-575-07584-8 Black Widow: Homecoming ISBN 0-7851-1493-9 Black Widow: The Things They Say About Her ISBN 0-7851-1768-7 Crysis 2 Syndicate A Land Fit For Heroes "Woken Furies" from the album Dark All Day by Gunship Official website Richard Morgan at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
Gale is an educational publishing company based in Farmington Hills, west of Detroit. Since 2007 it has been a division of Cengage Learning; the company known as Gale Research and the Gale Group, is active in research and educational publishing for public and school libraries, businesses. The company is known for its full-text magazine and newspaper databases, InfoTrac, other online databases subscribed by libraries, as well as multi-volume reference works in the areas of religion and social science. Founded in Detroit, Michigan in 1954 by Frederick Gale Ruffner, the company was acquired by the Thomson Corporation in 1985 before its 2007 sale to Cengage. In 1999, Thomson Gale acquired Macmillan Library Reference from Pearson. In 2000 it acquired the Munich-based K. G. Saur Verlag, but sold it to Walter de Gruyter in 2006. On October 25, 2006 Thomson Corporation announced that it intended to wholly divest the Thomson Learning division, because, in the words of Thomson CEO Richard Harrington, "it does not fit with our long-term strategic vision".
Thomson has said that it expected this sale to generate $5 billion. Thomson Learning was bought by a private equity consortium consisting of Apax Partners and OMERS Capital Partners for $7.75 billion and the name was changed from Thomson Learning to Cengage Learning on July 24, 2007. Patrick C. Sommers was president of Gale from October 22, 2007, until he retired in 2010. Gale produces hundreds of products, such as Academic OneFile and Genealogy Master Index, General OneFile, General Reference Center, Sabin Americana, World History Collection. Gale print imprints include the reference brands Primary Source Scholarly Resources Inc.. Schirmer Reference, St. James Press, The TAFT Group and Twayne Publishers, among others. Five Star Publishing is Gale's fiction imprint, with hundreds of books in print in the Western, Romance and Science Fiction & Fantasy genres. Gale sells into the K–12 market with several imprints, including U·X·L, Greenhaven Press, KidHaven Press, Lucent Books, others. Gale owns large print publishers Christian Large Print and Wheeler Publishing.
Contemporary Authors published by Gale Dictionary of Literary Biography published by Gale Dictionary of the Middle Ages published by Scribner's Dictionary of Scientific Biography published by Scribner's Encyclopaedia Judaica published by Gale Encyclopedia of Associations published by Gale HighBeam Research owned by Gale New Catholic Encyclopedia published by Gale Questia Online Library owned by Gale Gale websiteGale-owned sites and servicesGale Directory Library – dozens of print directories on a digital platform Books & Authors – indexed database of fiction and nonfiction book titles
The Canadian Press
The Canadian Press is a national news agency headquartered in Toronto, Canada. It was established in 1917 as a vehicle to permit Canadian newspapers of the day to exchange their news and information. For most of its history, The Canadian Press has been a private, not-for-profit cooperative and operated by its member newspapers. In mid-2010, however, it announced plans to become a for-profit business owned by three media companies once certain conditions are met. Over the years, The Canadian Press and its affiliates have adapted to reflect changes in the media industry, technological change and the growing appetite for rapid news updates, it offers a wide variety of text, photographic and graphic content to websites, radio and commercial clients in addition to newspapers and its long-standing ally, The Associated Press, a global news service based in the United States. Created by an act of Parliament and by means of an annual financial grant from the government from 1917 to 1924, the news co-operative was formed to help newspapers cover and distribute news across the vast country.
Canada had regional news associations but no national wire service. Operating as a distribution network, its first editorial staff came on board during World War I to report on the efforts of Canadian soldiers overseas. With the arrival of television and radio, The Canadian Press created a subsidiary, Broadcast News, to deliver text written for broadcasters, as well as the production of newscasts and audio clips; the Canadian Press operates in Canada's official languages. The Canadian Press has a staff of more than 180 journalists in its bureaus across Canada, as well as a correspondent in Washington, DC; the news agency operated a bureau in London, until 2004, has had reporters covering the Canadian mission in Afghanistan since 2002. Canadian Press Enterprises Inc. is the entity which "will take over the operations of the Canadian Press" according to a November 26, 2010 article in the Toronto Star. The new board met for the first time on November 29, 2010, to review the operations of the Canadian Press.
In addition to providing news to newspapers, TV and radio, The Canadian Press provides online news and photos. It introduced this online breaking news service in 1996 and now its multimedia content is published by most major Canadian news websites; the Canadian Press launched breaking news video in 2007, with clips produced for websites and wireless services. On June 30, 2007, CanWest left The Canadian Press cooperative. In September 2007, the Canadian Press launched a rebranding campaign in an effort to stay competitive, notably in the wake of the pullout by the CanWest Global's newspaper and online news outlets. All of its services, including radio networks Broadcast News and Nouvelles télé-radio, were rolled into a single brand: The Canadian Press; the change marked the end of the familiar service logo. The Canadian Press operates the largest online editorial archive of news pictures shot by photojournalists, it was the first in Canada to develop this online archive in 1996 and now it is home to over two million digital images with hundreds of images added each day.
These photos appear in newspapers and magazines, online. Through a longstanding partnership, The Canadian Press is the exclusive distributor of The Associated Press and Associated Press Television News material in Canada; the AP is the exclusive distributor of The Canadian Press in the United States and worldwide. In addition to news and information, The Canadian Press publishes the Stylebook and Caps and Spelling book, which are considered the chief style guides for Canadian journalists, public relations professionals and writers of all disciplines. Through an alliance with The Canadian Press since 2004, Marketwire is the only news release distributor with exclusive access to send press releases and PR photos on behalf of clients over the same Canadian Press Wire Network used to deliver Canadian Press news copy directly into the editorial systems of more than 600 newspapers, radio and TV stations and websites across Canada. On March 11, 2009, Sun Media announced that it would be pulling out of the cooperative.
In July 2010, a tentative deal was struck between The Canadian Press's three largest stakeholders, CTVglobemedia and Gesca, to transform the newswire from a co-operative into a for-profit entity. On November 26, 2010, The Globe and Mail and Square Victoria Communications Group announced they have invested in a new for-profit entity, Canadian Press Enterprises Inc. to take over the operations of the Canadian Press. The change in the ownership structure from a non-profit co-operative to a for-private business will allow the company to cover its pension needs and take advantage of future business opportunities, Phillip Crawley, publisher of The Globe and Mail, said in an interview, November 26, 2010. Canadian Press had a serious pension shortfall. Canadian Newsmaker of the Year Canadian Press Cable Service CNW Group Quoi de Neuf Official website
Silver Pictures is an American film production company founded by Hollywood producer Joel Silver during 1980. The Silver Pictures logo called The Chip, is modeled on a block pattern that Frank Lloyd Wright designed for the exteriors of the legendary Storer House in Los Angeles. Silver has been a lifelong aficionado of Frank Lloyd Wright and has worked many of Wright's works within both Silver Pictures and Dark Castle Entertainment. All pre-Universal Pictures deal films are distributed by Warner Bros.. In 2012, Joel Silver and Warner Bros. ended their 25-year production and distribution relationship. This is due to Silver growing upset with how Warner Bros. had been handling the marketing and releasing of the films his company produced. Despite having split and Warner Bros. co-produced The Nice Guys four years later. That same year, Joel Silver and Universal Pictures struck a 5-year marketing and distribution deal, starting with the Liam Neeson action thriller Non-Stop on February 28, 2014. Universal Pictures will not be a production partner with Silver Pictures, only a distributor.
Three years after Silver finalized Silver Pictures 5-year marketing and distributing deal, the veteran producer connected with Canadian financier Daryl Katz. Founder and Chairman of the Katz Group of Companies, one of Canada's largest owned enterprises, Daryl Katz holds operations in pharmaceuticals and entertainment and real estate; the two can together to create a slate of digital projects and television. Hal Sadoff, longtime packaging and finance agent, will serve as Chief Executive Officer of Silver Pictures Entertainment. Sadoff left ICM in 2012. Before Silver's connection with Katz, Silver Pictures required studio backing to develop and fund its films. After the formation of the new partnership, Silver possessed the ability to work on projects both inside and outside the studio system. CEO Hal Sadoff and Silver still possess a longstanding relationship, having worked together on "Gothika", "Thirteen Ghosts" and "House on the Haunted Hill". Moonlight Veronica Mars Next Action Star Action The Strip
Project Vanguard was a program managed by the United States Naval Research Laboratory, which intended to launch the first artificial satellite into Earth orbit using a Vanguard rocket as the launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral Missile Annex, Florida. In response to the surprise launch of Sputnik 1 on October 4, 1957, the U. S. restarted the Explorer program, proposed earlier by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency. However, the CIA and President Dwight D. Eisenhower were aware of progress being made by the Soviets on Sputnik from secret spy plane imagery. Together with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, ABMA built Explorer 1 and launched it on January 31, 1958. Before work was completed, the Soviet Union launched a second satellite, Sputnik 2, on November 3, 1957. Meanwhile, the spectacular televised failure of Vanguard TV3 on December 6, 1957 deepened American dismay over the country's position in the Space Race. On March 17, 1958, Vanguard 1 became the second artificial satellite placed in Earth orbit by the United States.
It was the first solar-powered satellite. Just 152 mm in diameter and weighing just 1.4 kg, Vanguard 1 was described by then-Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev as, "The grapefruit satellite."Vanguard 1, the upper stage of its launch rocket, are the oldest artificial satellites still in space, as Vanguard's predecessors, Sputnik 1, Sputnik 2, Explorer 1, have decayed from orbit. In the early 1950s, the American Rocket Society set up an ad hoc Committee on Space Flight, of which Milton W. Rosen, NRL project manager for the Viking rocket, became chair. Encouraged by conversations between Richard W. Porter of General Electric and Alan T. Waterman, Director of the National Science Foundation, Rosen on November 27, 1954 completed a report describing the potential value of launching an earth satellite; the report was submitted to the NSF early in 1955. As part of planning for the International Geophysical Year, the U. S. publicly undertook to place an artificial satellite with a scientific experiment into orbit around the Earth.
Proposals to do this were presented by the United States Air Force, the United States Army, the United States Navy. The Army Ballistic Missile Agency under Dr. Wernher von Braun had suggested using a modified Redstone rocket while the Air Force had proposed using the Atlas rocket, which did not yet exist; the Navy proposed designing a rocket system based on the Aerobee rocket systems. The Air Force proposal was not considered, as Atlas development was years behind the other vehicles. Among other limitations, the Army submission focused on the vehicle, while a payload was assumed to become available from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the network of ground tracking stations was assumed to be a Navy project. Meanwhile, the NRL proposal detailed all three aspects of the mission. In August 1955, the US DOD Committee on Special Capabilities chose the Navy's proposal as it appeared most by spring 1958, to fulfill the following: Place a satellite in orbit during the International Geophysical Year. Accomplish a scientific experiment in orbit.
Track the satellite and ensure its attainment of orbit. Another consideration was that the Navy proposal used civilian sounding rockets rather than military missiles, which were considered inappropriate for peaceful scientific exploration. What went unstated at the time was that the U. S. had a covert satellite program underway, WS-117, developing the ability to launch spy satellites using USAF Thor IRBMs. The US government was concerned that the Soviets would object to military satellites overflying the Soviet Union as they had to various aircraft incursions and the balloons of the Genetrix project; the idea was that if a "civilian" and "scientific" satellite went up first, the Soviets might not object, thus the precedent would be established that space was above national boundaries. Designated Project Vanguard, the program was placed under DoD monitorship; the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington was given overall responsibility, while initial funding came from the National Science Foundation.
The director was John P. Hagen, an astronomer who in 1958 would become the assistant director of space flight development with the formation of NASA. After a delay due to the NRL changing the shape of the satellite from a conical shape, the initial 1.4 kg spherical Vanguard satellites were built at the NRL, contained as their payload seven mercury cell batteries in a hermetically sealed container, two tracking radio transmitters, a temperature sensitive crystal, six clusters of solar cells on the surface of the sphere. The first satellite was called Vanguard TV3. NRL was responsible for developing the Vanguard rocket launch vehicles through a contract to the Martin Company and installing the satellite tracking system, designing and testing the satellites; the tracking system was called Minitrack. The Minitrack stations, designed by NRL but subcontracted to the Army Corps of Engineers, were 14 stations along a North-South line running along the east coast of North America and the west coast of South America.
Minitrack was the forerunner of another NRL-developed system called NAVSPASUR, which remains operational today under the control of the Air Force and is a major producer of spacecraft tracking data.> The original schedule called for the TV3 to be launched during the month of September 1957, but because of delays this did not happen. On October 4, 1957, the Vanguard team learned of the launch of Sputnik 1 by the USSR while still working on a test vehicle designed to test the first stage of their launcher r