Canowindra is a historic township located between Orange and Cowra in the central west of New South Wales, Australia, in Cabonne Shire. Canowindra is situated on the Belubula River; the curving main street, Gaskill Street, is an urban conservation area. At the 2016 census and the surrounding area had a population of 2,258; the name of the town is derived from an Aboriginal language word meaning'a home' or'camping place' Prior to the arrival of Europeans to Australia, the area now known as Canowindra was occupied for tens of thousands of years by a people known as the Wiradjuri. These "people of the three rivers" were hunters and gatherers who exploited the resources available in the rivers and the lands the river flats; the first land grant of 640 acres to a European in the area was to James Collits by Governor Ralph Darling in 1829 as a reward for "pointing out a line of road from Mt. York to Bathurst". Subsequently Collits' father, was granted land adjacent to the original grant. There is some evidence that James named the property "Canoundra".
Collits owned other significant tracts of land in the area, together with a store and the first hotel. A settlement grew, as early as 1844 the village was the site of a government pound. A post office opened at Canowindra in 1847 with mail coming from Carcoar, but the village was handicapped as part of a main route to the lower Lachlan, first by the lack of a bridge and by the construction of the railway to Orange; the first bridge across the Belubula River at Canowindra was opened on 28 July 1875. It was replaced by the Waddell Bridge in May 1901, by the current John Grant Bridge in 1997. In October 1863, Ben Hall's gang took over the village for three days and entertained the whole population, as well as some stray travellers, all herded into the inn. An account of the incident was reported in the Bathurst Times quoted in the Maitland Mercury. According to newspaper reports in November 1863 and June 1864, it appears that Hall and his associates made two further visits to the town. A monument to Ben Hall, on the site of Robinson's inn, the Travellers' Rest, was erected in 1951, but evidently, further research has indicated that the events recorded here happened at the inn on the other side of the river.
Today the main street, Gaskill Street, has an old-world air, with its kerbside verandah posts lining the dog-leg course of what was once a bullock team track. A total of 34 buildings and features in the town and environs are listed in the New South Wales State Heritage Register including 17 in or adjacent to Gaskill Street, The Swinging Bridge In the early 20th century residents of South Canowindra a village in Waugoola Shire, agitated for a bridge to be built at the end of Finn’s Lane to give pedestrian access to the Canowindra business area situated in the neighbouring Boree Shire. A low-level footbridge financed by the two shires and local residents was completed early in 1928; the footbridge was washed away by a major flood event in 1934. In 1938 a new suspension bridge was built, locally known as the "Swinging Bridge", it has been modified and strengthened over the years to withstand the floods that were regular occurrences in Canowindra. All Saints' Anglican Church Designed by noted ecclesiastical architect, Louis Williams All Saints' is a simple brick church.
It was constructed in 1927-8 in a modified Gothic mode, when the sanctuary and nave were built. It was subsequently finished to Williams' original design in 1959; the building houses several distinctive stained glass windows including the vesica window designed by the European trained artist, William Montgomery. Noojee Lea is a homestead located some 9 km south-west of the town on the Belubula River; the lands occupied by the house and demesne including more than 2000 hectares of rural property along Fish Fossil Drive were granted to Robert Read in 1869. Since 1981 the owners are the family of the prominent businessman and "BRW rich lister" Charles Curran AO. There have been several iterations of the garden including a design in 2010 by a local landscaper, Sally Bourne. Subsequently, further improvements on the layout were carried out by the Melbourne landscape designer Paul Bagnay in 2015; the Curran family hold an open day at the homestead each year with proceeds benefiting the Canowindra Soldiers' Memorial Hospital.
By one measure the town's population like that of much of regional and rural Australia is in a steady decline. Census data for the "Urban Centre and Locality" which excludes Moorbel shows that between 2001 and 2016 the numbers have reduced from 1516 to 1395. However, the figures for wider area "State Suburb" show a modest increase in the count from 2,126 in 2006 to 2258 in 2016. In the Canowindra SSC, 88.2% of people were born in Australia and 91.5% of people only spoke English at home. The most common responses for religion were Catholic 29.7%, Anglican 26.6%, No Religion 16.5% and Uniting Church 8.9%. There are two residential areas associated with the town: Moorbel; the "Village of South Canowindra" is a rural place located south of the Bellubula River. Moorbel is a locality about 3 km E by 4 km SW by W of South Canowindra. In February 1917, residents of Belmore petitioned the postal inspector at Parkes for a postal receiving station; because a place named Belmore existed in Sydney, the residents submitted other names, with Moorbel being approved by the Department of Lands in July 1917.
A local market is held at Moorbel Hall each month. Located in Browns Avenue, the hospital was built as a memorial for the men of the district who served in World War 1. The
Forbes, New South Wales
Forbes is a town in the Central West region of New South Wales, located on the Newell Highway between Parkes and West Wyalong. At the 2016 census, Forbes had a population of 8,432. Forbes is named after Sir Francis Forbes, first Chief Justice of NSW. Located on the banks of the Lachlan River, Forbes is 245 metres above sea-level and about 380 kilometres west of Sydney; the district is a cropping area where similar crops are grown. Nearby towns and villages include Calarie, Bedgerebong, Corradgery, Eugowra, Ooma North and Paytens Bridge. Forbes is subject to a pattern of flooding occurring to a significant level once every seven years, including 2016; the area was home to the Wiradjuri people before non-indigenous settlement. John Oxley passed through in 1817 during one of the first inland expeditions. Oxley named the site Camp Hill, he was unimpressed with the clay soil, poor timber and swamps and he concluded, it is impossible to imagine a worse country. The first settlers moved into the district in 1834.
Gold was discovered by Harry Stephens known as "German Perry", in June 1861. About 30,000 people moved to the goldfields, but by 1863 this had declined to about 3,500 because of the difficult mining conditions; the goldfields were named "Black Ridge", the name "Forbes" celebrating Sir Francis Forbes was declared from Sydney as the result of a possible government administrative error, it is said that the name was meant for the town now known as "Hill End" between Orange and Mudgee, New South Wales where gold was discovered around a similar time. Gold was found in the area known as Halpin's Flat; the Albion Hotel, once a Cobb and Co. stage coach stop, had tunnels situated underneath which were used during the gold rush to convey gold and money to and from the banks to minimise the chance of theft. The Albion Hotel burnt down on 10 February 2009. One of Australia's most renowned bushrangers, Ben Hall, was shot dead in an early morning Police ambush about 20 kilometres to the north-west of town on 5 May 1865.
Hall and his gang were famous for stealing 77 kilograms of gold and £3,700 from the nearby town of Eugowra in 1862. He is buried in the Forbes Cemetery. Kate Kelly, the sister of bushranger Ned Kelly, lived in the town, she drowned in Lake Forbes while saving an Aboriginal child during a flood in 1898 and was found in a lagoon of the Lachlan River, just outside Forbes. She is buried in Forbes Cemetery. Forbes has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Billabong Creek, Ben Halls Road: Ben Hall's Death Site Forbes Cemetery, Bogan Gate Road: Grave of Ben Hall 118 Lachlan Street: Forbes Post Office Parkes-Stockinbingal railway: Forbes railway station According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 8,432 people in Forbes. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 12.1% of the population. 86.2% of people were born in Australia and 89.1% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were Catholic 35.1%, Anglican 24.7% and No Religion 15.4%. The Stockinbingal–Parkes railway line passes through Forbes.
Passenger trains operated to Forbes until 1983. Forbes lies at or near the confluence of the Newell Highway, the Lachlan Valley Way and Henry Lawson Way. Forbes Shire has four public primary schools: Forbes Primary School, Forbes North Primary School, Corinella Public School and Bedgerebong Public School. There is St Laurence's Primary School. Forbes High School, a public school, is located to the north of town. Red Bend Catholic College at Forbes is a co-educational secondary school, with the school located at the site of the former Marist Brothers' College, on the banks of the Lachlan River. Local tertiary institutions are the Forbes College of Technical and Further Education and the Forbes Conservatorium; the Forbes Camel Races have been held annually since 2001 on Good Friday at the Forbes Racecourse. Forbes lies in the transitional zones of the semi-arid climate and humid subtropical climates, with large temperature variation between seasons and mild rainfall spread evenly throughout the year.
Extreme temperatures have ranged from 47.8 °C to −5.6 °C. Since 1887 Forbes has experienced a major flood event on average every seven years, with major flooding occurring in June 1952 with a peak of 10.8 metres. Forbes' most recent major flood event was in late September 2016 after heavy rain fell on much of inland NSW. Unseasonal heavy rainfall in most of the state, centred on the catchment area of the upper Lachlan during autumn and winter 2016, resulted in Wyangala Dam water storage levels increasing from 38 per cent to 90 per cent. By early August, the Bureau of Meteorology had issued flood warnings for the Orara, Macquarie and Lachlan rivers. In late August, Water NSW began releasing up to 10,000 megalitres per day from Wyangala Dam ahead of expected daily rainfall in the range of 20 to 40 millimetres in the dam's catchment area. Moderate to major flooding first hit Forbes and Condobolin in early September, by mid-September predictions were for widespread flooding across most of inland New South Wales.
By late September, flooding had peaked in Forbes at 10.67 metres, with 1,000 people evacuated, as the Newell Highway was cut north and south of Forb
Ticket of leave
A ticket of leave was a document of parole issued to convicts who had shown they could now be trusted with some freedoms. The ticket was issued in Britain and adapted by the United States and Ireland; the ticket of leave system was first introduced by Governor Philip Gidley King in 1801. Its principal aim was to reduce the burden on the fledgling colonial government of providing food from the government's limited stores to the convicts who were being transported from the United Kingdom to New South Wales. Convicts who seemed able to support themselves were awarded a ticket of leave. Before too long, tickets began to be given as a reward for good behaviour, which permitted the holders to seek employment within a specified district, but not leave it without the permission of the government or the district's resident magistrate; each change of employer or district was recorded on the ticket. The ticket of leave was given without any relation to the period of the sentence a convict had served; some "gentlemen convicts" were issued with tickets on their arrival in the colony.
Starting in 1811, the need to first officiate some time in servitude was established, in 1821 Governor Brisbane introduced regulations specifying the lengths of sentences that had to be served before a convict could be considered for a ticket: four years for a seven-year sentence, six to eight years for a 14-year sentence, 10 to 12 years for those with a life sentence. Once the full original sentence had been served, a "certificate of freedom" would be issued upon application. If a life sentence had been given the convict could get a ticket to leave and/or conditional or full pardon. Ticket-of-leave holders were permitted to marry, or to bring their families from Britain, to acquire property, but they were not permitted to carry firearms or board a ship. Convicts who observed the conditions of the ticket of leave until the completion of one half of their sentence were entitled to a conditional pardon, which removed all restrictions except a ban on leaving the colony. Convicts who did not observe the conditions of their ticket could be arrested without warrant, tried without recourse to the Supreme Court, would forfeit their property.
The ticket of leave had to be renewed annually, those with one had to attend muster and church services. The ticket itself was a detailed document, listing the place and year the convict was tried, the name of the ship in which he or she was transported, the length of the sentence. There was a complete physical description of the convict, along with year of birth, former occupation and "native place". A ticket had two components: The "ticket proper" was issued to the person named, it was mandatory for the person to carry that document on their person at all times; the second component was the "butt", the official copy and was kept on file by the Government. Tickets proper are now quite rare; the butts are available for researchers. According to Alexander Maconochie, tickets of leave could be suspended in summary fashion for the most "trifling irregularities," and a "very large proportion" of ticket-of-leave holders were returned to government work as a result. In the Second World War, the "ticket of leave" was a colloquial name given to the papers allowing a soldier to take leave from active service.
On August 11, 1899, An Act to Provide for the Conditional Liberation of Convicts - the Ticket of Leave Act - was enacted by the Canadian Parliament. The Canadian Ticket of Leave Act was based word for word on the British legislation. There was no reference in the text to the purpose of conditional release, though ticket of leave was understood to be a form of pardon. In the beginning, the Governor General granted paroles on the advice of Cabinet as a whole; the act was amended so that the power to advise the Governor General was limited to the Minister of Justice. This was a significant departure from traditional practice in the use of executive clemency. So, because conditional release was still in the hands of an elected minister, public opinion would still have a strong, sometimes questionable, influence on policy. In the early 20th century, Canada was sparsely settled. Keeping track of men on tickets of leave was difficult and the authorities relied on parolees to report every month to the police.
This had its drawbacks, when the Salvation Army offered to take over parole supervision in some places, the Department of Justice was glad to accept. Salvation Army officers acted as Dominion Parole Officers until the position was abolished in 1931. On March 7, 1939, Bill C-34 was passed, revising the Penitentiary Act and creating an administrative board of three. Walter Crofton administered the Irish ticket of leave system. Certificate of Freedom The Ticket-of-Leave Man
John Gilbert (bushranger)
Johnny Gilbert was an Australian bushranger shot dead by the police at the age of 23 near Binalong, New South Wales on 13 May 1865. Gilbert was a member of Ben Hall's gang. Hall and Gilbert were both shot by police within a week of each other. Hall was shot dead on 5 May 1865 near New South Wales. After Hall was killed his gang split up and Gilbert and John Dunn travelled to Binalong where Dunn had relatives, he was born in Hamilton, Canada in 1842. His mother Eleanor died shortly after his birth, his father William subsequently married Eliza Cord, a girl only older than his eldest surviving daughter, Eleanor. In 1852 John accompanied his family to the Victorian goldfields. Nine members of the Gilbert family arrived in Port Phillip on board the Revenue in October 1852, they included William and Eliza, Frank, Charles, Thomas Charbonnelle and Nicholas Wiseman. A contemporary of Hall and Gardiner, Johnny Gilbert, alias Roberts, was one of the gang charged with the robbery of the gold escort at Eugowra Rocks, but had not been captured.
His uncle, John Davis, was found shot in April 1854 Gilbert was charged with murder. He was acquitted but jailed for horse stealing; some suggest Gilbert accompanied John Davis, to the Victorian goldfields. However, there is no mention of Davis on the passenger list for the Revenue, though there is a ten-year-old John Gilbert. Roy Mendham, in his book, The Dictionary of Australian Bushrangers, asserts that Gilbert was responsible for the murder of his uncle. In 1854, Davis was found shot dead, a Joseph Roberts, an alias of John Gilbert, was tried for Davis's murder but acquitted. Roberts was tried for horsestealing. Roberts however was said to be about seventeen, Davis's murder occurred at the Waverley Arms at Bondi Junction, New South Wales, it would seem that Roberts, although an alias for a John Gilbert, is not the same John Gilbert. The Gilbert family history does not include the names Roberts or Davis in Australia, although Wilson was used as an alias by Charles, his older brother who fled first to New Zealand's gold fields to California to avoid arrest.
When he was only twelve, Gilbert worked as a stablehand at Kilmore, Victoria for his sister Eleanor and her new husband, John Stafford, for a time before moving on to the Kiandra goldfields in New South Wales. John was described as quite a smart man who could read and write, a jolly fellow, always laughing, it was because of his happy disposition. He was of thin slight build, an excellent horseman. At eighteen he fell under the influence of the bushranger. In 1862, John Gilbert was first named as an accomplice of Gardiner when they and two others held up a storekeeper. Just over a month John Gilbert was involved in another robbery, this time with Gardiner, Ben Hall. From on John Gilbert was identified as being involved in several hold-ups between Lambing Flat and Lachlan. Frank Gardiner enlisted the assistance of John Gilbert, Ben Hall, John O'Meally, Dan Charters, Henry Manns, Alexander Fordyce and Johnny Bow, to rob the Forbes gold escort at a place called Eugowra Rocks. On 15 November 1864 the gang robbed the Gundagai Mail near Jugiong and Gilbert shot Sergeant Parry dead.
Senior Constable Charles Hales of the Binalong police station received information at 8:00 PM on 12 May 1865 that the two bushrangers had "stuck up" the Woolshed near Murrumburah. He suspected, he thought they might visit Dunn's grandfather. Senior Constable Hale gathered constables John Bright and Michael King and headed out to watch Kelly's house, they watched most of the night, but saw no one enter, so returned to the police station about half a mile away. The next morning at 8:00 AM, John Kelly informed Senior Constable Hales that Gilbert and Dunn were at his hut. Hales headed to Kelly's place. Two parties were formed and Hall went to the back of the hut and were stationed in the creek. Hales and King were stationed at the front of the hut; the troopers watched for about an hour in the rain. At some stage Kelly's son, approached the stockyard. Hales called him over to ask if there were strangers in the house, to which he said "No." Hales and King approached the dogs started barking. John Kelly and his wife came to the door of the hut, seeing Trooper Hales, Kelly called out "Look out, the hut is surrounded by bloody troopers."
As Hales entered the hut two shots were fired, Hales looked through the slabs of the bedroom wall to see the shadows of two men. Hales fired and ran to the front room of the hut, he called out "Men, surround the hut—the bushrangers are inside". Hales warned Kelly if he did not turn out, they would burn the hut. Hales heard firing in the paddock at the end of the hut, he saw the bushrangers firing at Constables King and Hall. The bushrangers kept up the fire as they got through a bush fence that led to the creek and took up position behind a large tree. Gilbert used his revolving rifle on Hales and Bright but it misfired. Meanwhile and Hall took up positions. Dunn and Gilbert started firing their revolvers at Hall and King, ran down to the creek. Hales and Bright fired at the bushrangers, at which time Gilbert dropped. Hales ordered his men to chase Dunn. King was left to guard Gilbert's body; the three constables chased Dunn for about a mile and a half, they were exhausted and h
John Dunn (bushranger)
John Dunn was an Australian bushranger. He was born at Murrumburrah near Yass in New South Wales, he was 19 years old. He was buried in the former Devonshire Street Cemetery in Sydney. Dunn associated with the known bushrangers Ben John Gilbert. Dunn joined the Hall gang in October 1864, a welcomed new member after police captured gang members Dunleavy and Mount. In late 1864, during the robbery of a mail coach near Jugiong, Gilbert shot and killed Sergeant Parry. On 26 January 1865, Hall and Dunn were at Collector, near Lake George. While Hall and Gilbert were holding up the hotel, Dunn killed the local police officer. Dunn twice fired, his first shot hitting once in the second that pierced the heart. Constable Samuel Nelson was the father of eight. Dunn shot at Nelson's son but missed. In May, Hall and Dunn were proclaimed outlaws. Hall had separated from the other two and was surrounded by police in the bush near Forbes, New South Wales, shot dead. Gibert and Dunn on hearing the news of Hall's death headed for Dunn's grandfather's property at Murrumbarrah.
Senior Constable Charles Hales of the Binalong police station received information at 8pm on 12 May 1865 that the two bushrangers had "stuck up" the woolshed near Murrumburrah. He suspected, he thought they might visit Dunn's grandfather. Hale gathered constables John Bright and Michael King and headed out to watch Kelly's house, they watched most of the night, but saw no one enter, so returned to the police station about half a mile away. The next morning at 8 am John Kelly informed Hales that Dunn were at his hut. Hales headed to Kelly's place; the troopers watched for about an hour in the rain. At some stage Kelly's son, approached the stockyard. Hales called him over to ask if there were strangers in the house, to which he said "No." Hales and King approached the dogs started barking. John Kelly and his wife came to the door of the hut, seeing Hales, Kelly called out "Look out, the hut is surrounded by bloody troopers." As Hales entered the hut two shots were fired, Hales looked through the slabs of the bedroom wall to see the shadows of two men.
Hales fired and ran to the front room of the hut. He called out "Men, surround the hut—the bushrangers are inside". Hales warned Kelly if he did not turn out, they would burn the hut. Hales heard firing in the paddock at the end of the hut, he saw the bushrangers firing at King and Hall. The bushrangers kept up the fire as they got through a bush fence that led to the creek and took up position behind a large tree. Gilbert used his revolving rifle on Hales and Bright but it misfired. Meanwhile and Hall took up positions. Dunn and Gilbert started firing their revolvers at Hall and King, ran down to the creek. Hales and Bright fired at the bushrangers, at which time Gilbert was hit and killed instantly. Hales ordered his men to chase Dunn. King was left to guard Gilbert's body; the three constables chased Dunn for about a mile and a half, but they became exhausted and had to give up the pursuit. Dunn wasn't heard from again for seven months. On 18 December, Dunn was recognised by police at McPhails Station near Walgett.
Eight days he was betrayed by those he trusted and after a fight with police was wounded and captured near Coonamble. Dunn was taken to Dubbo where he was treated for his wounds, Dunn was kept in the police barracks, not the prison cells, because of the relentless summer heat. On 14 January Dunn escaped via an unlocked window at night, he was recaptured the next day by a hollow log near the river. He realised he was too ill to continue with his escape and tried to return to the barracks before collapsing at the spot where he was found. Back in custody, the law with little mercy put Dunn on a dray bound for Sydney. Somehow Dunn managed to survive the journey, he was charged with robbery, for the murder of Constable Nelson, on 19 January 1866, the jury took 10 minutes to find him guilty of murder and he was sentenced to hang. Dunn signed a deposition stating that a friend was innocent of a crime that happened while Dunn ran with Ben Hall. Dunn stated on the day of the crime his friend could not be involved because Dunn was with him mustering horses.
Dunn named eight other men. McCormack was given a pardon in consequence of statements made by Dunn. Dunn was hanged in Darlinghurst Gaol on 19 March, he was 19 years old, he was buried in the Devonshire Street Cemetery, cleared and the dead reinterred elsewhere to make way for Central Railway Station. John Dunn appears as a major character in the 2016 feature film The Legend of Ben Hall, portrayed by Melbourne actor William Lee, cast due to his resemblance of the outlaw; the film depicts Dunn's recruitment into the Ben Hall gang, his romantic involvement with Margaret Monks and the murder of Constable Nelson at Collector. "John Dunn". Australian bushrangers. Ned Kelly's World: Glen Rowen Cobb & Co Pty Ltd. 2002. Retrieved 2006-06-05
Ben Hall's Death Site
Ben Hall's Death Site is a heritage-listed site at Billabong Creek, Ben Halls Road, Forbes Shire, New South Wales, Australia. It is one of a group of historic sites labelled the Ben Hall Sites for their association with bushranger Ben Hall, along with the Bushranger Hotel, Escort Rock, the Grave of Ben Hall and Wandi, it is known as Blowclear Pastoral Run and Ben Hall's Place. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 8 October 2010. Nelungaloo Station was Blowclear pastoral run, owned by Thomas Morris in 1840, it was on land belonging to this property that on the 5 May 1865 Ben Hall was shot to death by police officers and Aboriginal trackers. At the end of April 1865 Hall and Dunn were in the vicinity of Forbes where they stole horses from Yamma Station and Gumbidgewa station. Meanwhile, Mick Coneley had turned from friend to informant lured by the 1000 pound reward for Hall and had been following the gang's movements and reporting them to the police. On 29 April a party of 6 police and 2 Aboriginal trackers lead by Sub Inspector Davidson left the police barracks in Forbes and "encamped in dense Scrub" about 10km from where they had been told the gang would meet.
Gilbert and Dunn arrived at the rendezvous camp several days before Hall on 2nd May but were scared off by some local stockmen whom they mistook to be troopers. On the afternoon of 4th May Ben Hall arrived at the camp, a dense area of scrub adjacent to Billabong Creek near Mick Coneley's hut. Sub-Inspector James Davidson, Sergeant James Condell, troopers Thomas Hipkiss, John Boyan, John Caban, Edward Buckley and Aboriginal trackers William Dargin and Charley were still waiting although they had run out of supplies. At six am on 5th May Hall emerged from the bush and walked towards his two hobbled horses, he was shot multiple times by police. Hall's body, after being searched, was strapped to the back of one of his horses and taken to the Forbes police station. Davidson had hoped to keep Hall's death a secret in the hope of trapping Gilbert and Dunn, but it could not be done - there was too much excitement over Hall's death and his body attracted 400-500 people. A map of Hall's death site was drawn by Inspector Davidson as part of the police report on Hall's death, is the basis for the site identification.
Ben Hall's Death Site is located between Forbes and Bogan Gate 19 kilometres northwest of Forbes. The site itself was marked by the Forbes Historical Society in 1957 with a metal plaque on a steel post; the site is a group of small trees on an otherwise treeless plain. The site is adjacent to a dam. Billabong Creek, where Mick Coneley had his hut, is located to the north west of the site; the actual location of where the events of Hall's death took place has been ascertained using the notes and map of Inspector Davison which were reproduced in Peter Bradley's book "The Judas Covenant". A large painted sign with the story of Ben Hall's death is located near the entrance to the paddock. A dam was constructed nearby, it was reported as at 12 March 2009 that the site is unlikely to have archaeological potential, but that the Mick Coneley hut site does have archaeological potential. Ben Hall's Death Site is associated with the introduction of the Felons Apprehension Act which permitted police or anyone else to shoot on sight.
The brutality of Halls murder is a consequence of the introduction of this legislation though it was not in force until several days later. The manner of Halls death at this site demonstrates police brutality and fear when dealing with the bushrangers, Hall was shot numerous times and many more times after he was dead. Ben Hall's Death Site is associated with the employment of Aboriginal people by the NSW police; the site demonstrates the skill of Aboriginal trackers Billy Dargin and Charlie which ensured the police were able to locate Hall. Ben Hall's Death Site contributes to the State significance of the Ben Hall Sites through its intimate associations with Ben Hall and the place he holds in the public's imagination. Hall's Death Site has contributed to the romanticisation of a notorious bushranger; the site has high social value as evidenced by the naming of the road, signage and a monument and visitor numbers to the site despite its distance from Forbes township. The Ben Hall Sites - Ben Hall's Death Site was listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 8 October 2010 having satisfied the following criteria.
The place is important in demonstrating the course, or pattern, of cultural or natural history in New South Wales. The site of the death of Ben Hall is associated with the introduction of the Felons Apprehension Act which permitted police or anyone else to shoot on sight; the police were required to apprehend and confirm identity and a trial took place before sentencing. Hall and Dunn were declared outlaws under the new act although the legislation did not come into force until 5 days after Hall was shot by police; the manner of Halls death at this site demonstrates police brutality and fear when dealing with the bushrangers, Hall was shot numerous times and many more times after he was dead. The brutality of Halls murder is a consequence of the introduction of this legislation. Ben Hall's Death Site is associated with the employment of Aboriginal people by the NSW police; the site demonstrates the skill of Aboriginal trackers Billy Dargin and Charlie which ensured the police were able to locate Hall.
The place has a strong or special association with a person, or group of persons, of importance of cultural or natural history of New South Wales's history. Ben Hall's Death Site contributes to the State
Australian folklore refers to the folklore and urban legends that have evolved in Australia from Aboriginal Australian myths to colonial and contemporary folklore including people and events, that have played part in shaping the culture and traditions that are seen in contemporary Old Australia. Baijini - Unknown race mentioned in Yolngu folklore. Bora - Sacred Aboriginal initiation ceremony. Many sites still exist throughout Australia. Bunyip – According to legend, they are said to lurk in swamps, creeks and waterholes. Dreamtime - The Dreamtime to Aboriginal Australians is the beginning of time, the creation of knowledge from which their culture began more than 60,000 years ago. Kata Tjuta - Many Dreamtime stories are told by the Pitjantjatjara people, including a mythical creature that lurks the summit. Lake Mungo remains - Human skeletons found in 1969, believed to have lived between 40,000 and 68,000 years ago are the oldest human remains found in Australia. Rainbow Serpent – It is the sometimes unpredictable Rainbow Serpent, who vies with the ever-reliable Sun, that replenishes the stores of water, forming gullies and deep channels as he slithered across the landscape, allowing for the collection and distribution of water.
Yara-ma-yha-who - According to Myth, the creature resembles a red frog-like creature that hides in trees waiting for an unsuspecting victim to consume. Bob the Railway Dog - A Dog, remembered for traveling along the South Australian Railway. Booie Monster - Reports of a monster lurking in a cave first reported in the 1950s Drop bear – Stories of drop bears are related to visiting tourists as a joke. Gippsland phantom cat – An urban legend centered on the idea that when United States soldiers were based in Victoria during WWII, they released cougars into the wild. Many sightings of big cats have been reported across Gippsland and in other parts of Australia. Lyrebird – The lyrebird is said to mimic a wide variety of sounds, they have been said to be able to mimic chainsaws, alarms and trains. There is a story about a lyrebird that used to halt 19th-century logging operations by mimicking the fire siren. Megalania – A giant goanna believed to be extinct. However, there have been numerous reports and rumors of living Megalania in Australia, New Guinea, but the only physical evidence that Megalania might still be alive today are plaster casts of possible Megalania footprints made in 1979.
Platypus - Native Australian animal, one of only two mammals that lay eggs, one of the few species, venomous. Due to its unique features the scientist who discovered and examined the creature thought it was made of several animals sewn together and deemed it to be a hoax. Red Dog - A dog, known for his long travels through Western Australia's Pilbara region. Tasmanian tiger – Despite the held view that the thylacine became extinct during the 1930s, accounts of alleged sightings in eastern Victoria and parts of Tasmania have persisted to the present day. Yowie – In the modern context, the Yowie is the generic term for an unidentified hominid reputed to lurk in the Australian wilderness, analogous to the Himalayan Yeti and the North American Bigfoot; the Dog on the Tuckerbox - an allegorical bullock driver's dog that loyally guarded the man's tuckerbox until its death. It has been immortalized in both a poem and a statue at Gundagai in southern NSW. By way of explanation - tucker means food - so a tuckerbox is a lunch box.
Ancient Coins Marchinbar Island - Nine coins found, some believing they could have come from the Kilwa Sultanate of east Africa which dates back to the 10th century. Frontier wars - A much less talked about event in Australian history, a war that spanned 146 years, fought between British settlers and Aboriginal tribes. First Fleet - Name given to the 11 ships that departed England in 1787, with convicts and free settlers to found what became the first European settlement in Australia, Sydney. Frederick escape - A ship hijacked by Australian convicts and used to sail to Chile in 1834. Kokoda Track campaign - Battles fought in 1942 in what was the Australian Territory of Papua with Australian and United States forces defeating the Japanese who directly threatened the security of Australia and is considered part of the Anzac legend. Portuguese discovery of Australia - A much disputed theory that claims early Portuguese navigators were the first Europeans to sight Australia between 1521 and 1524, well before the arrival of Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon did in 1606.
Bush ballad - Poems that depict Australian life in the outback or bush. Clancy of the Overflow – A poem by Banjo Paterson which admires the Outback. Foo was here - Popular Graffiti signature during WW1, adopted by Americans during WW2 and called Kilroy was here. Is said to have Influenced modern Street art. My Country - More known as "I Love a Sunburnt Country" is a patriotic poem about Australia published in 1908 written by Dorothea Mackellar when she was 19 and homesick living in England; the Lucky Country - Is a book by Donald Horne in which the phrase itself was used as sarcasm within the context of the book but has taken place in Australian culture as a true and meaningful title. The Story of the Kelly Gang - The world's first full-length film. Made in 1906 it ran for more than an hour, it is considered a Lost film as only 20 minutes of the original film still exist. Rod Ansell - Outback Australian who became the inspiration for the famous film Crocodile Dundee. Streets of Forbes - Folk song about iconic Bushranger Ben Hall.
Waltzing Matilda – Ext