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Bushrangers were escaped convicts in the early years of the British settlement of Australia who used the Australian bush as a refuge to hide from the authorities. By the 1820s, the term "bushranger" had evolved to refer to those who took up "robbery under arms" as a way of life, using the bush as their base. Bushranging thrived during the gold rush years of the 1850s and 1860s when the likes of Ben Hall, Frank Gardiner and John Gilbert led notorious gangs in the country districts of New South Wales; these "Wild Colonial Boys" Australian-born sons of convicts, were analogous to British "highwaymen" and outlaws of the American Old West, their crimes included robbing small-town banks and coach services. In other infamous cases, such as that of Dan Morgan, the Clarke brothers, Australia's best-known bushranger, Ned Kelly, numerous policemen were murdered; the number of bushrangers declined due to better policing and improvements in rail transport and communication technology, such as telegraphy.

Although bushrangers appeared sporadically into the early 20th century, most historians regard Kelly's capture and execution in 1880 as representing the end of the bushranging era. Bushranging exerted a powerful influence in Australia, lasting for a century and predominating in the eastern colonies, with several notable bushrangers operating elsewhere on the continent, its origins in a convict system bred a unique kind of desperado, most with an Irish political background. Native-born bushrangers expressed nascent Australian nationalist views and are recognised as "the first distinctively Australian characters to gain general recognition." As such, a number of bushrangers became folk heroes and symbols of rebellion against the authorities, admired for their bravery, rough chivalry and colourful personalities. However, in stark contrast to romantic portrayals in the arts and popular culture, bushrangers tended to lead lives that were "nasty and short", while some were notorious for their cruelty and bloodthirst.

Australian attitudes toward bushrangers remain ambivalent. The earliest documented use of the term appears in a February 1805 issue of The Sydney Gazette, which reports that a cart had been stopped between Sydney and Hawkesbury by three men "whose appearance sanctioned the suspicion of their being bush-rangers". John Bigge described bushranging in 1821 as "absconding in the woods and living upon plunder and the robbery of orchards." Charles Darwin recorded in 1835 that a bushranger was "an open villain who subsists by highway robbery, will sooner be killed than taken alive". Over 2,000 bushrangers are estimated to have roamed the Australian countryside, beginning with the convict bolters and drawing to a close after Ned Kelly's last stand at Glenrowan. Bushranging began soon after British settlement with the establishment of New South Wales as a penal colony in 1788; the majority of early bushrangers were convicts who had escaped prison, or from the properties of landowners to whom they had been assigned as servants.

These bushrangers known as "bolters", preferred the hazards of wild, unexplored bushland surrounding Sydney to the deprivation and brutality of convict life. The first notable bushranger, African convict John Caesar, robbed settlers for food, kept a tempestuous alliance with Aboriginal resistance fighters during Pemulwuy's War. While other bushrangers would go on to fight alongside Indigenous Australians in frontier conflicts with the colonial authorities, the Government tried to bring an end to any such collaboration by rewarding Aborigines for returning convicts to custody. Aboriginal trackers would play a significant role in the hunt for bushrangers. Colonel Godfrey Mundy described convict bushrangers as "desperate, fearless. Edward Smith Hall, editor of early Sydney newspaper The Monitor, agreed that the convict system was a breeding-ground for bushrangers due to its savagery, with starvation and acts of torture being rampant. "Liberty or Death!" was the cry of convict bushrangers, in large numbers they roamed beyond Sydney, some hoping to reach China, believed to be connected by an overland route.

Some bolters seized boats and set sail for foreign lands, but most were hunted down and brought back to Australia. Others attempted to inspire an overhaul of the convict system, or sought revenge on their captors; this latter desire found expression in the convict ballad "Jim Jones at Botany Bay", in which Jones, the narrator, plans to join bushranger Jack Donahue and "gun the floggers down". Donahue was the most notorious of the early New South Wales bushrangers, terrorising settlements outside Sydney from 1827 until he was fatally shot by a trooper in 1830; that same year, west of the Blue Mountains, convict Ralph Entwistle sparked a bushranging insurgency known as the Bathurst Rebellion. He and his gang raided farms, liberating assigned convicts by force in the process, within a month, his personal army numbered 130 bushrangers. Following gun battles with vigilante posses, mounted policemen and soldiers of the 39th and 57th Regiment of Foot, he and nine of his men were captured and executed.

Convict bushrangers were prevalent in the penal colony of Van Diemen's Land, established in 1803. The island's most powerful bushranger, the self-styled "Lieutenant Governor of the Woods", Michael Howe, led a gang of up to one hundred members "in what amounted to a civil war" with the colonial government, his control over large swathes of the island prompted elite squatters from Hobart and Launceston to collude with him, for six months in 1815, Lieutenant-Governor Thomas Da

Persoonia silvatica

Persoonia silvatica known as the forest geebung, is a plant in the family Proteaceae and is endemic to south-eastern Australia. It is a shrub or tree with more or less lance-shaped leaves and small groups of yellow flowers with white centres, it grows in forest near the border between New South Wales and Victoria. Persoonia silvatica is a shrub or small tree which grows to a height of 1.5–9 m with its young branches having a sparse covering of hair. The leaves are 30 -- 120 mm long and 6 -- 25 mm wide, they are narrow elliptic to lance-shaped, or narrow spatula-shaped to lance-shaped with the narrower end towards the base. They are flat and smooth, the upper surface a darker colour than the lower one, the leaves are hairy when young but become glabrous as they age; the flowers are arranged in groups called racemes in leaf axils, or on the ends of branches, some of the groups continue to grow into leafy shoots. Each flower is on a pedicel 1–4 mm long, sometimes hairy; the flower is composed of four yellow tepals 12–14 mm long, which are fused at the base but with the tips rolled back.

There is a spine up to 1.5 mm long on the end of each tepal. The central style is surrounded by four white anthers which are joined at the base with the tips rolled back, so that they resemble a cross when viewed end-on; the ovary at the base of the style is glabrous. Flowering occurs in summer and is followed by fruit which are green, oval-shaped drupes about 15 mm long and 12 mm wide. Persoonia silvatica was first formally described in 1957 by botanist Lawrie Johnson based on plant material collected at Brown Mountain in New South Wales by Ernst Betche in 1893; the specific epithet is a Latin word meaning "of woods". Persoonia silvatica occurs in montane forest along the Great Dividing Range in East Gippsland and south-eastern New South Wales including localities Bendoc, the Errinundra Plateau, Mount Kaye and Howe Hill in Victoria and Monga, Tinderry Peak and Mount Currockbilly in New South Wales. Plants that are believed to be hybrids of this species with Persoonia confertiflora have been noted at Genoa in Victoria

Sheila Bleck

Sheila R. Bleck is an American professional female bodybuilder, she ranks as the 6th best in the IFBB Pro Women's Bodybuilding Ranking List. Bleck was born in Coos Bay, along with her identical twin sister, Sherry, their mother, was young and unmarried, they never knew their father. Bleck has spoken of the abuse she and her sister suffered at the hands of babysitters between the ages of three and five years old. Bleck's working mother asked the twins' grandmother to step in and take care of them. In 1992, who describes herself as having always been athletic, graduated from North Bend High School. At the age of twelve, Bleck's mother bought her sister their first weight bench, she cites actor Sylvester Stallone's character Rocky Balboa and the Incredible Hulk as her early inspirations. Bleck, by that time a modern dancer, would not begin lifting until the age of 16, when she joined a powerlifting, her first trainer was Jake Grabow of Better Builds Gym, from whom she received an education on eating and posing.

Not long after high school graduation, Bleck started competing as a bodybuilder. In 2008, in winning the NPC Nationals, she obtained her IFBB pro card. In 2009, John Romano became Bleck's prep coach for her pro career, although her current prep coach is Dave Palumbo. In 2010, she came in a close second at the 2010 New York Pro, she lost to Cathy LeFrançois by just one point. Since 2010, she has been in the top six of every professional bodybuilding competition in which she has competed, with the exception of the 2014 Ms. Olympia. At the 2016 Rising Phoenix World Championships, Bleck came in 2nd place overall and won the Best Poser Award. 1993 Bill Pearl Classic - 2nd 1995 Oregon Coast Champ - 1st 1998 Oregon State Champ - 1st 1999 Oregon State Champ - 1st 2000 Oregon State Champ - 1st 2000 Emerald Cup 2000 - 1st 2000 USAs Nationals - 16th 2002 Contra Costa - 1st 2003 Nationals - 6th 2005 National - 11th 2006 USAs Nationals - 3rd 2006 Nationals - 3rd 2007 USAs Nationals - 2nd 2008 Nationals - 1st 2010 IFBB New York Pro - 2nd 2010 IFBB Ms. Olympia - 4th 2011 IFBB Ms. Olympia - 6th 2012 IFBB Tampa Pro - 2nd and Best Poser Award 2012 IFBB Ms. Olympia - 6th 2014 IFBB Tampa Pro - 1st and Best Poser Award 2014 IFBB Ms. Olympia - 7th 2016 IFBB Tampa Pro - 1st 2016 IFBB Rising Phoenix World Championships – 2nd and Best Poser Award 2017 IFBB Tampa Pro - 1st 2017 IFBB WOS Rising Phoenix World Championships – 2nd and Best Poser Award 2018 IFBB WOS Rising Phoenix World Championships – 3rd Bleck resides in Tampa, Florida.

Her sister Sherry started boxing competitively at age 19 and did so for six years with the USA Amateur Boxing Association. She had an undefeated 10-0 career. Sherry has competed in amateur bodybuilding three times and took two overall titles and one 2nd place, they remain close to this day. Female bodybuilding List of female professional bodybuilders Official website

Subhumans (Canadian band)

The Subhumans are a punk rock band formed in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 1978. Known by pejorative, punk rock nicknames, original members were known as "Useless", "Dimwit", "Wimpy" and "Normal". Dimwit quit the band shortly after their first 7" was released to join the Pointed Sticks and was replaced by Koichi Imagawa known as Jim Imagawa, on drums. In 1981, Hannah left the band and became involved with a small group of underground activists calling themselves Direct Action. In the alternative media they were referred to as the Vancouver 5, but in the mainstream press they were dubbed the Squamish 5; the group, composed of ecologists and feminists, were responsible for a number of actions, including the 14 October 1982 bombing of the Litton Industries plant in Ontario which made guidance systems for cruise missiles. The Litton bombing hurt several plant workers and three police officers were injured. While Gerry was not part of the Litton bombing, he supported it, did take part in other actions, as well as planning to rob a Brinks truck to fund future actions.

He was arrested on 20 January 1983, along with the four other members of Direct Action. Many benefits were arranged for the group by people such as Jello Biafra and Joey Shithead of D. O. A. to pay lawyers fees but, in the end, Hannah pleaded guilty to avoid years in prison. He was released after serving 5 years. During his time in prison, he began writing a column for the fanzine Maximum RocknRoll which helped maintain his connection to the punk scene. A number of years after his release he was the subject of a documentary film made by B. C. filmmaker Glen Sanford, called Useless. After Hannah left the band, the Subhumans re-formed with Ron Allan on bass. After Imagawa left the band, Dimwit was back with the Subhumans before Randy Bowman joined in his place. With the line up of Wimpy Roy, Mike Graham, Ron Allan, Randy Bowman, the Subhumans recorded the album No Wishes, No Prayers for Black Flag's SST Records. Ron Allan and Randy Bowman went on to join the Vancouver band The Scramblers and Brian Goble went on to join D.

O. A. on bass and occasional lead vocals. Their songs have been covered by many other bands, including D. O. A. NoMeansNo, MDC, Jingo de Lunch, Vancouver all-women band Cub, they are regarded within the punk community. In 2005, the Subhumans reunited with the following lineup: Gerry Hannah on bass, Jon Card on drums, Wimpy Roy on vocals and Mike Graham on guitar, they signed to G7 Welcoming Committee Records. A new album, New Dark Age Parade, was released in September 2006. Death Was Too Kind, a compilation of the band's early singles and EPs, was released in 2008. In 2010, the band released the album Same Thoughts, Different Day, a re-recorded version of Incorrect Thoughts, after legal issues prevented the band from reissuing the original album; the Subhumans were featured in the 2010 documentary film Bloodied but Unbowed, directed by Susanne Tabata. On December 7, 2014, lead singer Brian Goble died of a heart attack at the age of 57. Incorrect Thoughts LP on No Wishes, No Prayers LP on New Dark Age Parade LP.

Same Thoughts, Different Day CD/LP. "Death to the Sickoids"/"Oh Canaduh" 7" Untitled 12" EP "Firing Squad"/"No Productivity" 7" Subhumans Limited Edition Demo EP "Death to the Sickoids" and "Urban Guerilla" on Vancouver Complication "Out of Line" and "Behind The Smile" on Vancouver Independence, Friends Records "Slave to My Dick" on Let Them Eat Jellybeans! "No Productivity" on Killed By Death vol. 2 "Slave to My Dick" on Last Call: Vancouver Independent Music 1977-1988 "Firing Squad" on Faster & Louder: Hardcore Punk, Vol. 2, Pissed Off... with Good Reason CD Death Was Too Kind DOA covered "Fuck You" on the Right to Be Wild single, covered "No Productivity" on the "Murder" LP, covered "Behind the Smile" for the Terminal City Ricochet film soundtrack. Frank Frink Five "Slave to My Dick" on "Van-Cover" compilation, Garbonzo Bean Productions, 1986 MDC covered "The Big Picture" in their Smoke Signals LP. Overkill covered "Fuck You" in the!!! Fuck You!!! EP and performs. Jingo de Lunch covered "Fuck You" in the various artists' compilation LP 20 Berlin bullets.

NoMeansNo covered "Oh Canaduh!" in a 1991 single. Screeching Weasel recorded a cover of "Fuck You" that wound up on their 2-Disc Thank You Very Little compilation. Leamers covered "Oh Canaduh!" in the Magic, Yo! EP. List of musicians in the first wave of punk music Music of Vancouver List of bands from British Columbia List of bands from Canada Subhumans Official website The Subhumans on New Music Canada

Jed Metcher

Jed Metcher is a former Grand Prix motorcycle racer from Australia. He is a former competitor in the Australian 125cc Championship, the Australian Supersport Championship, the Supersport World Championship, the British Superbike Championship, the European Superstock 600 Championship where he finished as champion in 201, the IDM Supersport Championship and the IDM Superbike Championship. Jed Metcher is an avid supporter of the Hands Across the Water Charity bike ride. 2006- 8th, Australian 125 Championship #13 Honda RS125R 2007- 7th, Australian 125 Championship #13 Honda RS125R 2008- 3rd, Australian 125 Championship #13 Honda RS125R 2009- 8th, Australian Supersport Championship #71 Yamaha YZF-R6 2010- 17th, IDM Superbike Championship #77 Honda CBR1000RR 2011- 1st, European Superstock 600 Championship #3 Yamaha YZF-R6 2012- 14th, Supersport World Championship #3 Yamaha YZF-R6 2013- 4th, IDM Supersport Championship #3 Suzuki GSX-R600 2014- Australasian Formula OZ Championship #91 Kawasaki ZX-10R 2014 - Winner of the 63rd Harvie Wiltshire Memorial Trophy at Phillip Island #91 Kawasaki ZX-10R 2015 - 6th, International Island Classic.

Winner of race four #91 Suzuki Katana 2015- 33rd, British Superbike Championship #68 Kawasaki ZX-10R * Season still in progress. Profile on

William Mann (RAF officer)

Air Commodore William Edward George Mann CB, CBE, DFC was a senior officer in the Royal Air Force and a flying ace of the First World War credited with thirteen confirmed aerial victories. In years, he specialized in signals and communications work, was instrumental in developing mobile radars and signal units for the RAF in the Second World War. After his retirement from military service, Mann became the Director of Telecommunications of the Ministry of Civil Aviation from 1948 to 1950, he became Director-General of Civil Aviation Navigational Services until his final retirement in 1959. Mann began his military career as a Sopwith Camel pilot in the Royal Naval Air Service in 1917, it took him several months before he was successful, but from 8 May through 26 September 1918, he scored thirteen aerial victories while with 208 Squadron. His final tally was six German planes destroyed, seven more driven down out of control. Mann spent a period of unemployment for some months as the new Royal Air Force downsized and reorganized.

He spent 1920 in various instructor training courses. In 1921, he participated in the second Hendon Air Pageant. Mann would return to this team in 1924, they were the first to fly an inverted formation at Hendon. Beginning 10 January 1926, he attended Wireless School. Signals would become his specialty for the remainder of his career, he attended the RAF Staff College, beginning the course on 21 January 1936, before shipping out to the Middle East. Mann continued to serve in Mediterranean, he served through the war, retiring on 18 April 1945. Mann's expertise in signals took him into civil service on familiar ground, he became the Civil Aviation Signals representative in Cairo, starting in 1945. He moved on to become the Director of Telecommunications of the Ministry of Civil Aviation from 1948 to 1950, he became Director-General of Civil Aviation Navigational Services until his second retirement in 1959. He would spend the next two years representing the Decca Navigator Company before returning to England.

Mann died on 4 May 1966. Temporary Sub-Lieutenant: 12 August 1917 Second lieutenant: 1 April 1918 Lieutenant: Unknown date Temporary Captain and Flight commander: 27 August 1918 Flying officer: 1 August 1919 –Transferred to Unemployed List on 27 August 1919– Flying officer: 2 January 1920 Flight lieutenant: 1 July 1924 Squadron leader: 1 December 1934 Wing Commander: 1 July 1938 Temporary Group Captain: 1 December 1940 Temporary Air Commodore: 1 December 1943 Companion of the Order of the Bath: 2 January 1956 Commander of the Order of the British Empire: 1942 Distinguished Flying Cross: 3 December 1918 Mentioned in Dispatches: 14 January 1944. Above the Trenches: a Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces 1915–1920. London, UK: Grub Street. ISBN 978-0-948817-19-9