A gold medal is a medal awarded for highest achievement in a non-military field. Its name derives from the use of at least a fraction of gold in form of plating or alloying in its manufacture. Since the eighteenth century, gold medals have been awarded in the arts, for example, by the Royal Danish Academy as a symbol of an award to give an outstanding student some financial freedom. Others offer only the prestige of the award. Many organizations now award gold medals either annually or extraordinarily, including UNESCO and various academic societies. While some gold medals are solid gold, others are gold-plated or silver-gilt, like those of the Olympic Games, the Lorentz Medal, the United States Congressional Gold Medal and the Nobel Prize medal. Nobel Prize medals consist of 18 karat green gold plated with 24 karat gold. Before 1980 they were struck in 23 karat gold. Before the establishment of standard military awards, e.g. the Medal of Honor, it was common practice to have a medal specially created to provide national recognition for a significant military or naval victory or accomplishment.
In the United States, Congress would enact a resolution asking the President to reward those responsible. The commanding officer would receive his officers silver medals. Medals have been given as prizes in various types of competitive activities athletics. Traditionally, medals are made of the following metals: Gold Silver BronzeOccasionally, Platinum medals can be awarded; these metals designate the first three Ages of Man in Greek mythology: the Golden Age, when men lived among the gods, the Silver Age, where youth lasted a hundred years, the Bronze Age, the era of heroes. The custom of awarding the sequence of gold and bronze medals for the first three highest achievers dates from at least the 18th century, with the National Association of Amateur Athletes in the United States awarding such medals as early as 1884; this standard was adopted for Olympic competition at the 1904 Summer Olympics. At the 1896 event, silver was awarded to winners and bronze to runners-up, while at 1900 other prizes were given, not medals.
At the modern Olympic Games, winners of a sporting discipline receive a gold medal in recognition of their achievement. At the Ancient Olympic Games only one winner per event was crowned with kotinos, an olive wreath made of wild olive leaves from a sacred tree near the temple of Zeus at Olympia. Aristophanes in Plutus makes a remark why victorious athletes are crowned with wreath made of wild olive instead of gold. Herodotus describes a story that explains why there were only a few Greek men at the Battle of Thermopylae since "all other men were participating in the Olympic Games" and that the prize for the winner was "an olive-wreath"; when Tigranes, an Armenian general learned this, he uttered to his leader: "Good heavens! What kind of men are these against whom you have brought us to fight? Men who do not compete for possessions, but for honour". Hence medals were not awarded at the ancient Olympic Games. At the 1896 Summer Olympics, winners received a silver medal and the second-place finisher received a bronze medal.
In 1900, most winners received trophies instead of medals. The next three Olympics awarded the winners solid gold medals, but the medals themselves were smaller; the use of gold declined with the onset of the First World War and with the onset of the Second World War. The last series of Olympic medals to be made of solid gold were awarded at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden. Olympic Gold medals are required to be made from at least 92.5% silver, must contain a minimum of 6 grams of gold. All Olympic medals must be at least 60mm in diameter and 3mm thick. Minting the medals is the responsibility of the Olympic host. From 1928 through 1968 the design was always the same: the obverse showed a generic design by Florentine artist Giuseppe Cassioli of Greek goddess Nike with Rome's Colloseum in the background and text naming the host city. From the 1972 Summer Olympics through 2000, Cassioli's design remained on the obverse with a custom design by the host city on the reverse. Noting that Cassioli's design showed a Roman amphitheater for what were Greek games, a new obverse design was commissioned for the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens.
For the 2008 Beijing Olympics medals had a diameter of 70mm and were 6mm thick, with the front displaying a winged figure of victory and the back showed a Beijing Olympics symbol surrounded by an inset jade circle. Winter Olympics medals have been of more varied design; the silver and bronze medals have always borne the same designs. The award of a gold medal coupled with the award of silver and bronze medals to the next place finishers, has been adopted in other sports competitions and in other competitive fields, such as music and writing, as well as some competitive games. Bronze medals are awarded only to third place, but in some contests there is some variety, such as International barbershop music contests where bronze medals are awarded for third and fifth place. List of gold medal awards Medals: Going For Gold! - Minerals Council of Australia Royal Canadian Mint Interactive 3D Tour of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Medals
Chicago White Sox
The Chicago White Sox are an American professional baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois. The White Sox compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League Central division; the White Sox are owned by Jerry Reinsdorf, play their home games at Guaranteed Rate Field, located on the city's South Side. They are one of two major league clubs in Chicago. One of the American League's eight charter franchises, the franchise was established as a major league baseball club in 1901; the club was called the Chicago White Stockings, but this was soon shortened to Chicago White Sox. The team played home games at South Side Park before moving to Comiskey Park in 1910, where they played until Guaranteed Rate Field opened in 1991; the White Sox won the 1906 World Series with a defense-oriented team dubbed "the Hitless Wonders", the 1917 World Series led by Eddie Cicotte, Eddie Collins, Shoeless Joe Jackson. The 1919 World Series was marred by the Black Sox Scandal, in which several members of the White Sox were accused of conspiring with gamblers to fix games.
In response, Major League Baseball's new Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis banned the players from Major League Baseball for life. In 1959, led by Early Wynn, Nellie Fox, Luis Aparicio and manager Al López, the White Sox won the American League pennant, they won the AL pennant in 2005, went on to win the World Series, led by World Series MVP Jermaine Dye, Paul Konerko, Mark Buehrle, catcher A. J. Pierzynski, the first Latino manager to win the World Series, Ozzie Guillén. For 1901-2018, the White Sox have an overall record of 9211-9126; the White Sox originated as the Sioux City Cornhuskers of the Western League, a minor league under the parameters of the National Agreement with the National League. In 1894, Charles Comiskey bought the Cornhuskers and moved them to St. Paul, where they became the St. Paul Saints. In 1900, with the approval of Western League president Ban Johnson, Charles Comiskey moved the Saints into his hometown neighborhood of Armour Square, where they became known as the White Stockings, the former name of Chicago's National League team, the Orphans.
In 1901, the Western League broke the National Agreement and became the new major league American League. The first season in the American League ended with a White Stockings championship. However, that would be the end of the season as the World Series did not begin until 1903; the franchise, now known as the Chicago White Sox, made its first World Series appearance in 1906, beating the crosstown Cubs in six games. The White Sox would win a third pennant and second World Series in 1917, beating the New York Giants in six games with help from stars Eddie Cicotte and "Shoeless" Joe Jackson; the Sox were favored in the 1919 World Series, but lost to the Cincinnati Reds in 8 games. Huge bets on the Reds fueled speculation. A criminal investigation went on in the 1920 season, though all players were acquitted, commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis banned eight of the White Sox players for life, in what was known as the Black Sox Scandal; this set the franchise back. The White Sox did not finish in the upper half of the American League again until after club founder Charles Comiskey died and passed ownership of the club to his son, J. Louis Comiskey.
They finished in the upper half most years between 1936–1946 under the leadership of manager Jimmy Dykes, with star shortstop Luke Appling, known as Ol' Aches and Pains, pitcher Ted Lyons. Appling and Lyons have their numbers 16 retired. After J. Louis Comiskey died in 1939, ownership of the club was passed down to his widow, Grace Comiskey; the club was passed down to Grace's children Dorothy and Chuck in 1956, with Dorothy selling a majority share to a group led by Bill Veeck after the 1958 season. Veeck was notorious for his promotional stunts, attracting fans to Comiskey Park with the new "exploding scoreboard" and outfield shower. In 1961, Arthur Allyn, Jr. owned the club before selling to his brother John Allyn. From 1951 to 1967, the White Sox had their longest period of sustained success, scoring a winning record for 17 straight seasons. Known as the "Go-Go White Sox" for their tendency to focus on speed and getting on base versus power hitting, they featured stars such as Minnie Miñoso, Nellie Fox, Luis Aparicio, Billy Pierce, Sherm Lollar.
From 1957 to 1965, the Sox were managed by Al López. The Sox finished in the upper half of the American League in eight of his nine seasons, including six years in the top two of the league. In 1959, the White Sox ended the New York Yankees dominance over the American League, won their first pennant since the ill-fated 1919 campaign. Despite winning game one of the 1959 World Series 11-0, they fell to the Los Angeles Dodgers in six games; the late 1960s and 70s were a tumultuous time for the Sox, as they struggled to win games and attract fans. Allyn and Bud Selig agreed to a handshake deal that would give Selig control of the club and move them to Milwaukee. Selig instead bought the Seattle Pilots and moved them to Milwaukee, putting enormous pressure on the American League to place a team in Seattle. A plan was in place for the Sox to move to Seattle and for Charlie Finley to move his Oakland A's to Chicago. However, Chicago had a renewed interest in the Sox after the 1972 season, the American League instead added the expansion Seattle Mariners.
The 1972 White Sox were one of the lone successful sea
Michael Everett Arch Parrott, nicknamed "Bird", is a former Major League Baseball pitcher. Parrott graduated from Adolfo Camarillo High School in Camarillo, California in 1973, he was drafted by the Baltimore Orioles in the first round, 15th pick, of the 1973 Major League Baseball Draft. During a five-year baseball career, he pitched for the Seattle Mariners. A minor league pitching coach for over 30 years, in 2019 Parrott became the pitching coach of the Kane County Cougars, the Class A affiliate of the Arizona Diamondbacks; this followed several years in the same position with the Hillsboro Hops. Parrott played for the Rochester Red Wings and was the International League's Most Valuable Pitcher in 1977, he was called up that year by the Orioles and in three games he gave up just one earned run. On December 7, 1977 he was traded by Baltimore to the Seattle Mariners for Carlos Lopez and Tommy Moore. In 1979, Parrott won a career high 14 games for the Mariners, he led all Seattle pitchers in wins that year.
After winning Seattle's opener in 1980, Parrott lost 16 straight to finish the season at 1-16, the longest such streak of the 1980s. On March 5, 1982 he was traded by the Mariners to the Milwaukee Brewers for Thad Bosley, he never made a Major League roster after this. In 1993 he was named to the Ventura County Sports Hall of Fame. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference Baseball Almanac
Gerrit Alan Cole is an American professional baseball pitcher for the Houston Astros of Major League Baseball. He attended the University of California, Los Angeles, where he played college baseball for the UCLA Bruins. Cole pitched in MLB for the Pittsburgh Pirates. Cole played for the baseball team at Orange Lutheran High School, was selected by the New York Yankees in the first round of the 2008 MLB Draft. Cole opted not to sign and instead attended UCLA. After his college baseball career, the Pirates made Cole the first overall selection in the 2011 MLB draft. Cole made his MLB debut in 2013 and was named the National League Rookie of the Month in September 2013, he was named the NL Pitcher of the Month for April 2015, an MLB All-Star in 2015. The Pirates traded Cole to the Astros in the 2017–18 offseason. Cole attended Orange Lutheran High School. In his sophomore year, Cole pitched for the school's junior varsity baseball team, allowing no runs in 45 innings pitched, he gained national attention while pitching for the varsity team in his junior year, as his fastball reached 94 miles per hour.
He reached 96 miles per hour in a showcase for the best prep school talents, close to 50 scouts attended the first game of his senior season. In his senior year, Cole pitched to an 8–2 win–loss record and a 0.47 earned run average, while recording 121 strikeouts in 75 innings. Cole was named to the USA Today All-USA high school baseball team. Baseball America rated him the 17th best prospect available in the 2008 Major League Baseball draft, he was named the ESPN Rise Athlete of the Month for three consecutive months in March and May 2010. He was named the starting pitcher of the 2008 Orange County North–South All-Star Game. After his senior year, the New York Yankees selected Cole in the first round, with the 28th overall selection, of the 2008 Major League Baseball draft, becoming the first player drafted out of Orange Lutheran High School; the Yankees were planning on offering Cole a $4 million signing bonus, above the recommended amount for the slot. As the Yankees planned to give Cole a large bonus to sign, they waited until the deadline to attempt to sign him.
By the time the deadline approached, Cole had decided to follow through with his commitment to attend the University of California, Los Angeles on a college baseball scholarship. Despite being represented by Scott Boras, though the Yankees were believed to be ready to offer upwards of $4 million, Cole never negotiated with the Yankees, as he was determined to attend college. John Savage, coach of the UCLA Bruins, made Cole the team's Friday night starting pitcher in his freshman year; that season, Cole recorded a 4–8 win–loss record with a 3.49 ERA, collecting 104 strikeouts in 85 innings. Cole was a member of the 2009 United States collegiate national baseball team and was named to the 2010 Collegiate National Team roster, he competed in the 2010 World University Baseball Championship. During UCLA's 2010 season and Trevor Bauer contributed in making the Bruins the best baseball team in school history and the second best team in the country. Cole had an 11–4 win–loss record, a 3.37 ERA, 153 strikeouts in 123 innings.
His 153 strikeouts placed Cole third in among all collegiate pitchers. The Bruins went on to play in the 2010 College World Series, but were defeated by South Carolina in the NCAA Championship Series. Cole's statistics declined in his junior year, he finished the season with a 6–8 win-loss record and a 3.31 ERA, with 119 strikeouts in 114 1⁄3 innings. Heading into the 2011 MLB draft, Cole and Danny Hultzen a college pitcher, were seen as among the best available talents in the draft; the Pittsburgh Pirates selected Cole with the first overall selection. He signed a minor league contract with an $8 million signing bonus, the highest signing bonus offered to a rookie, 15 minutes before the signing deadline on August 15, 2011. Though he signed too late to pitch in the 2011 minor league season, he pitched for the Mesa Solar Sox of the Arizona Fall League, he recorded 16 strikeouts in 15 innings pitched for the Solar Sox and had a 3.00 earned run average and a 0.93 walks plus hits per inning pitched ratio.
He was selected to start the AFL Rising Stars game in November 2011. The Pirates invited Cole to spring training in 2012 as a non-roster invitee, but they optioned him to the minor leagues. Cole started the 2012 season with the Bradenton Marauders of the Class A-Advanced Florida State League, along with fellow starting pitcher Jameson Taillon, the Pirates' first selection in the 2010 MLB draft. Cole was named a FSL Mid-Season All-Star, he was promoted to the Altoona Curve of the Class AA Eastern League on June 15, 2012. He was named to appear in the 2012 All-Star Futures Game. In twelve starts with the Curve, Cole pitched to a 2.90 ERA, before the Pirates promoted him to the Indianapolis Indians of the Class AAA International League on August 29, 2012. Prior to the 2013 season, Cole was ranked as the ninth best prospect in baseball by MLB.com. Cole played for the Indianapolis Indians to start the 2013 season. Cole pitched to a 5–3 record and a 2.91 ERA in 12 starts for Indianapolis. Due to injuries to James McDonald and Wandy Rodríguez, the Pirates promoted Cole to the major leagues, to make his MLB debut on June 11, 2013.
During his debut, he struck out the first batter. He recorded his first career hit, a 2-run single with the bases loaded in his first career plate appearance. Cole pitched 6⅓ innings being charged with two earned runs but got the win as the Pirates won over the San Francisco Giants, 8–2. Cole became the fo
Alexander David Bregman is an American professional baseball infielder for the Houston Astros of Major League Baseball. As a 16-year-old high school sophomore in 2010, Bregman became the first high school player to win the USA Baseball Player of the Year Award; as a junior the following year he batted.678, while setting a New Mexico season record with 19 home runs. In three years of college baseball for Louisiana State University, Bregman was voted the 2013 National Freshman of the Year by Baseball America, won the 2013 Brooks Wallace Award as the country's best college shortstop, was a two-time All-American. Toward the end of his junior year of college, he was selected by the Houston Astros with the second pick in the first round of the 2015 MLB draft. In the minor leagues he was named a 2016 AA mid-season All Star, the 2016 USA Today Minor League Player of the Year, MLB Pipeline Hitter of the Year, ESPN Prospect of the Year. Bregman made his MLB debut in July 2016. Bregman started 2017 as the youngest member of Team USA, which won the gold medal in the 2017 World Baseball Classic, ended the season winning the 2017 World Series with the Astros.
He was named MVP of the 2018 MLB All-Star Game, led the American League in doubles in 2018. Bregman was born in Albuquerque, New Mexico, he was a member of Albuquerque's Congregation Albert growing up and lived in the Northeast Heights section of Albuquerque. His father, Sam Bregman, his mother, Jackie Bregman, are both lawyers, he has two younger siblings and Anthony. Bregman's brother A. J. is a baseball player, was selected by the Astros in the 35th round of the 2018 MLB Draft. His father played baseball as a freshman for the University of New Mexico Lobos in 1982, a team for which his uncle Ben Bregman played, his father was a part owner, starting in 2006, of the NBA Development League’s New Mexico Thunderbirds. His grandfather Stan Bregman was the son of Russian Jewish immigrants, his grandfather was general counsel for the Washington Senators from the late 1960s until the team moved to Texas in 1971 in a sale that he negotiated, he helped the club sign Hall of Famer Ted Williams as the team's general manager.
His grandfather saw all of his games in high school. His great-grandfather Samuel "Bo" Bregman immigrated from Russia to Washington, D. C. around 1900 at age 11 to escape Russian anti-Jewish pogroms, married Sadie Hurwitz. He promoted boxing cards that featured, among others, Joe Louis, Billy Conn, Bob Foster, he was part of the ownership group with George Preston Marshall that moved the Boston Redskins to Washington, D. C. to become the Washington Redskins. Bregman began playing tee-ball at age 4. In his first game, he turned an unassisted triple play by catching a line drive, tagging a runner, stepping on second base, he was a batboy for the University of New Mexico baseball team, in 2004 served as a batboy for a game against Arizona State University and his favorite baseball player, Dustin Pedroia. Bregman attended Albuquerque Academy, his best friend is Blake Swihart, who plays for the Boston Red Sox, with whom he grew up playing travel ball. Bregman was coached on travel baseball teams during his high school years at the Albuquerque Academy by Ryan Kellner and Jason Columbus, who in 2002 played for Louisiana State University as a reserve first baseman.
Bregman played catcher. In 2009, Bregman led his high school team to a state championship as a freshman playing shortstop, he batted leadoff in a lineup loaded with home run power, hitting for an average of.514 with three home runs, including one during the championship game that left Isotopes Park, the Dodgers' Class AAA team park. At the October 2010 COPABE Pan American Baseball Championships in Lagos de Mareno, while he was a sophomore, he batted.564 for the gold-medal-winning 16-and-under USA National Team, was named the MVP. That year, at the age of 16, he became the first high school player to win the USA Baseball Richard W. "Dick" Case Player of the Year Award. In 2011, he batted.678 as a junior in high school, established a season record in New Mexico with 19 home runs. Bregman was named first team All-State, received All-Metro honors and All-District honors. In the fall of that year he led the 18-and-under U. S. National Team to a gold medal at the International Baseball Federation World Championships.
Bregman was projected to be a first-round draft pick out of high school. That changed, when he shattered the second knuckle on his right throwing hand in the fifth game of his high school senior season, while using his bare hand to deflect a bad hop on a ground ball; the injury made. He was drafted by the Boston Red Sox in the 29th round of the 2012 Major League Baseball Draft as a second baseman, after he made clear that he would not sign with any team unless it picked him in the first round, he elected not to sign with the Red Sox. Instead, he chose to attend LSU. At LSU, Bregman majored in sports administration, he played shortstop for the LSU Tigers baseball team in the Southeastern Conference. He wore number 30 as a freshman, reflecting the 30 teams that had passed on him in the first round of the 2012 draft. In 2013, he batted.369/.417/.546 with 104 hits, 18 doubles, seven triples, six homers, 52 RBIs, 59 runs, 16 steals in 17 attempts, had a 23-game hitting streak. Bregman won the 2013 Brooks Wallace Award as the country's best college shortstop.
He was voted first-team All-American by Baseball America, the American Baseball Coaches Asso
In baseball or softball, a strikeout occurs when a batter racks up three strikes during a time at bat. It means the batter is out. A strikeout is a statistic recorded for both pitchers and batters, is denoted by K. A strikeout looking is denoted by a Ʞ. Although a strikeout suggests that the pitcher dominated the batter, the free-swinging style that generates home runs leaves batters susceptible to striking out; some of the greatest home run hitters of all time — such as Alex Rodriguez, Reggie Jackson, Sammy Sosa — were notorious for striking out. A pitched ball is ruled a ball by the umpire if the batter did not swing at it and, in that umpire's judgement, it does not pass through the strike zone. Any pitch at which the batter swings unsuccessfully or, that in that umpire's judgement passes through the strike zone, is ruled a strike; each ball and strike affects the count, incremented for each pitched ball with the exception of a foul ball on any count with two strikes. That is, a third strike may only occur by the batter swinging and missing at a pitched ball, or the pitched ball being ruled a strike by the umpire with no swing by the batter.
A pitched ball, struck by the batter with the bat on any count, is not a foul ball or foul tip, is in play. A batter may strike out by bunting if the ball is hit into foul territory. A pitcher receives credit for a strikeout on any third strike, but a batter is out only if one of the following is true: The third strike is pitched and caught in flight by the catcher. Thus, it is possible for a batter to strike out, but still become a runner and reach base safely if the catcher is unable to catch the third strike cleanly, he does not either tag out the batter or force him out at first base. In Japan, this is called furinige, or "swing and escape". In Major League Baseball, it is known as an uncaught third strike; when this happens, a strikeout is recorded for both the pitcher and the batter, but no out is recorded. Because of this, a pitcher may be able to record more than three strikeouts in one half-inning, it is possible for a strikeout to result in a fielder's choice. With the bases loaded and two strikes with two outs, the catcher drops the ball or catches it on the bounce.
The batter-runner is obliged to run for first base and other base-runners are obliged to attempt to advance one base. Should the catcher field the ball and step on home plate before the runner from third base can score the runner from third base is forced out. In baseball scorekeeping, a swinging strikeout is recorded as a K, or a K-S. A strikeout looking is scored with a backwards K, sometimes as a K-L, CK, or Kc. Despite the scorekeeping custom of using "K" for strikeout, "SO" is the official abbreviation used by Major League Baseball."K" is still used by fans and enthusiasts for purposes other than official record-keeping. One baseball ritual involves fans attaching a succession of small "K" signs to the nearest railing, one added for every strikeout notched by the home team's pitcher, following a tradition started by New York Mets fans in honor of "Dr. K", Dwight Gooden; the "K" may be placed backwards in cases where the batter strikes out looking, just as it would appear on a scorecard.
Every televised display of a high-strikeout major league game will include a shot of a fan's strikeout display, if the pitcher continues to strike out batters, the display may be shown following every strikeout. The use of "K" for a strikeout was invented by Henry Chadwick, a newspaper journalist, credited as the originator of the box score and the baseball scorecard; as is true in much of baseball, both the box score and scorecard remain unchanged to this day. Chadwick decided to use "K", the last letter in "struck", since the letter "S" was used for "sacrifice." Chadwick was responsible for several other scorekeeping conventions, including the use of numbers to designate player positions. Those unaware of Chadwick's contributions have speculated that "K" was derived from the last name of 19th century pitcher Matt Kilroy. If not for the evidence supporting Chadwick's earlier use of "K", this explanation would be reasonable. Kilroy raised the prominence of the strikeout, setting an all-time single-season record of 513 strikeouts in 1886, only two years after overhand pitching was permitted.
His record, however, is limited to its era since the pitcher's mound was only 50 feet from the batter during that season. It was moved to its current distance of 60'6" in 1893; the modern record is 383 strikeouts, held by Nolan Ryan, one better than Sandy Koufax's 382. For 55 years, Walter Johnson held the career strikeout record, at 3,508; that record fell in 1982 to Nolan Ryan, passed by Steve Carlton, before Ryan took the career strikeout record for good at 5,714. Early rules stated that "three balls being struck at and missed and the last one caught, is a hand-out; the modern rule has changed little. The addition of the called strike came in 1858. In 1880, the rules were changed to specify. A adjustment to the dropped third strike rule specified that a batter is automatically out when there are fewer than two out and a runner on first base. In 1887, the number of strikes for an out was changed to four, but it was promptly changed back to three the next season. A swinging strik
In baseball, innings pitched are the number of innings a pitcher has completed, measured by the number of batters and baserunners that are put out while the pitcher is on the pitching mound in a game. Three outs made is equal to one inning pitched. One out counts as one-third of an inning, two outs counts as two-thirds of an inning. Sometimes, the statistic is written 34.1, 72.2, or 91.0, for example, to represent 34 1⁄3 innings, 72 2⁄3 innings, 91 innings respectively. Runners left on base by a pitcher are not counted in determining innings pitched, it is possible for a pitcher to enter a game, give up several hits and even several runs, be removed before achieving any outs, thereby recording a total of zero innings pitched. The only active players in the top 100 all-time at the end of the 2009 season were Tom Glavine, Randy Johnson, Jamie Moyer and John Smoltz. By the end of the 2018 season, only two active players were in the top 100 all-time: CC Sabathia, Bartolo Colón; this is. Several factors are responsible for this decline: From 1876–1892, pitchers threw from fifty feet and exerted less stress on their arms.
In this era, season totals of 600 innings pitched were not uncommon. In 1892, pitchers moved back to the current distance of six inches. However, they still threw 400 innings in a season; this was because the home run was far less common and pitchers conserved arm strength throughout the game. From 1920 to the 1980s, the four-man pitching rotation was well established. Pitchers could no longer throw 400 innings in a season, as the home run meant a run could be scored at any time; the league leader in innings pitched threw somewhat more than 300 innings. Innings pitched would spike, as in the early 1970s, when Wilbur Wood pitched 376 2⁄3 innings in 1972 and 359 1⁄3 innings in 1973. From the 1980s to the present, the four-man rotation was replaced with the five-man rotation, with a weak fifth man who would be skipped on off days. Managers starting using their bullpens more and more, accelerating the decline in innings pitched. Today, only a few pitchers pitch more than 250 innings in a season. Per Baseball Reference: All-time innings pitched leaders