James Jimmy Witherspoon was an American jump blues singer. Witherspoon was born in Gurdon, Arkansas and he first attracted attention singing with Teddy Weatherfords band in Calcutta, which made regular radio broadcasts over the U. S. Armed Forces Radio Service during World War II, Witherspoon made his first records with Jay McShanns band in 1945. He first recorded under his own name in 1947, and two with the McShann band, he had his first hit, Aint Nobodys Business. These were recorded from a performance on May 10,1949 at a Just Jazz concert Pasadena. Another classic Witherspoon composition is Times Gettin Tougher Than Tough and he recorded with Gerry Mulligan, Leroy Vinnegar, Richard Groove Holmes and T-Bone Walker. In 1961 he toured Europe with Buck Clayton and returned to the UK on many occasions, in 1970, he appeared on Brother Jack McDuffs London Blue Note recording To Seek a New Home together with British jazz musicians, including Dick Morrissey and Terry Smith. In the 1970s he recorded the album Guilty.
with Eric Burdon and he toured with a band of his own featuring Robben Ford and Russ Ferrante. A recording from this period, featured Spoon accompanied by Robben Ford, Joe Sample, Cornell Dupree, Thad Jones and he continued performing and recording into the 1990s. In the 1995 film Georgia, Witherspoon portrayed a traveling, gun-collecting blues singer, Trucker and he played Nate Williams in The Black Godfather, and Percy in To Sleep with Anger. Witherspoon died of cancer in Los Angeles, California on September 18,1997. 1957, Wilbur De Paris Plays & Jimmy Witherspoon Sings New Orleans Blues 1957, Goin to Kansas City Blues 1959, Battle of the Blues, Vol. A. 1989, Spoon Concerts 1990, Live at Condons 1991, Call Me Baby 1992, Live at the Notodden Festival 1992, The Blues, the Whole Blues & Nothing But the
Hot Lips Page
Oran Thaddeus Page was an American jazz trumpeter and bandleader born in Dallas, United States. He was better known as Hot Lips Page by the public and he was known as a scorching soloist and powerful vocalist. Page was a member of Walter Pages Blue Devils, Artie Shaws Orchestra and Count Basies Orchestra, and he worked with Ma Rainey, Bessie Smith and Ida Cox. In his early years, who moved to Corsicana, Texas in his teens, traveled across the Southwestern United States and toured as far east as Atlanta. He played in circuses and minstrel shows and backing such blues singers as Ma Rainey, Bessie Smith, Pages main trumpet influence was Louis Armstrong, though throughout his career he cited other local trumpeters, including Harry Smith and Benno Kennedy as being early influences. In 1926, he caught the eye of the bassist Walter Page who had assumed leadership of the Oklahoma City Blue Devils. It is believed that Oran Page joined the Blue Devils circa 1927 and he played and toured with the Blue Devils until the spring of 1931, when he joined the Bennie Moten Orchestra, the leading dance band of Kansas City.
Page embarked upon a career during this period, playing with small pick up bands from Kansas City. The Reno Club, in downtown Kansas City, had a floor show and he moved to New York City in December 1936. Page toured extensively throughout the southern United States, and throughout the northeast and he appeared briefly with Bud Freemans Orchestra in 1938, and was a featured vocalist and hot soloist with Artie Shaws Symphonic Swing Orchestra in 1941 and 1942, with whom he recorded over 40 sides. From 1929, he made over 200 recordings, most as a leader, for Bluebird, Vocalion and Harmony Records and his band backed the singer Wynonie Harris on the session that produced the hit Good Rocking Tonight though Page was never credited as the leader. He was the leader of the band at the Apollo Theater during the early 1940s. He traveled to Europe in 1949 and appeared at Salle Pleyel in the first international jazz festival there and he recorded for the Mezzrow-Bechet Septet. He was one of the most flexible of trumpeters, demonstrating a broad tone, Page died in New York in November 1954, aged 46
Lester Willis Young, nicknamed Pres or Prez, was an American jazz tenor saxophonist and occasional clarinetist. Coming to prominence while a member of Count Basies orchestra, Young was one of the most influential players on his instrument, known for his hip, introverted style, he invented or popularized much of the hipster jargon which came to be associated with the music. Lester Young was born in Woodville and grew up in a musical family and his father, Willis Handy Young, was a respected teacher, his brother Lee Young was a drummer, and several other relatives performed music professionally. His family moved to New Orleans, when Lester was an infant and to Minneapolis, although at a very young age Young did not initially know his father, he learned that his father was a musician. Later Willis taught his son to play the trumpet, Lester Young played in his familys band, known as the Young Family Band, in both the vaudeville and carnival circuits. He left the band in 1927 at the age of 18 because he refused to tour in the Southern United States.
In 1933 Young settled in Kansas City, where after playing briefly in several bands and his playing in the Basie band was characterized by a relaxed style which contrasted sharply with the more forceful approach of Coleman Hawkins, the dominant tenor sax player of the day. Young left the Basie band to replace Hawkins in Fletcher Hendersons orchestra and he soon left Henderson to play in the Andy Kirk band before returning to Basie. While with Basie, Young made small-group recordings for Milt Gablers Commodore Records, The Kansas City Sessions. Although they were recorded in New York, they are named after the group, the Kansas City Seven, and comprised Buck Clayton, Dicky Wells, Young, Freddie Green, Rodney Richardson, Young played clarinet as well as tenor in these sessions. Young is described as playing the clarinet in a liquid, nervous style, as well as the Kansas City Sessions, his clarinet work from 1938–39 is documented on recordings with Basie, Billie Holiday, Basie small groups, and the organist Glenn Hardman.
Billie and Lester met at a Harlem jam session in the early 30s and worked together in the Count Basie band, at one point Lester moved into the apartment Billie shared with her mother, Sadie Fagan. Holiday always insisted their relationship was strictly platonic and she gave Lester the nickname Prez after President Franklin Roosevelt, the greatest man around in Billies mind. Playing on her name, he would call her Lady Day and their famously empathetic classic recordings with Teddy Wilson date from this era. After Youngs clarinet was stolen in 1939, he abandoned the instrument until about 1957 and that year Norman Granz gave him one and urged him to play it. Young left the Basie band in late 1940 and he subsequently led a number of small groups that often included his brother, drummer Lee Young, for the next couple of years and broadcast recordings from this period exist. During this period Young accompanied the singer Billie Holiday in a couple of studio sessions and his studio recordings are relatively sparse during the 1942 to 1943 period, largely due to the recording ban by the American Federation of Musicians.
Small record labels not bound by union contracts continued to record, in December 1943 Young returned to the Basie fold for a 10-month stint, cut short by his being drafted into the army during World War II
Arthur Art Tatum, Jr. was an American jazz pianist. Tatum is widely acknowledged as the greatest jazz pianist of all time and he was hailed for the technical proficiency of his performances, which set a new standard for jazz piano virtuosity. Critic Scott Yanow wrote, Tatums quick reflexes and boundless imagination kept his improvisations filled with ideas that put him way ahead of his contemporaries. For a musician of such stature, there is little published information available about Tatums life, only one full-length biography has been published, Too Marvelous for Words, by James Lester. Lester interviewed many of Tatums contemporaries for the book and drew from many articles published about him, Tatum was born in Toledo, Ohio. His father, Arthur Tatum, Sr. was a guitarist and an elder at Grace Presbyterian Church and he had two siblings and Arlene. From infancy he suffered from cataracts which left him blind in one eye, a number of surgical procedures improved his eye condition to a degree but some of the benefits were reversed when he was assaulted in 1930.
A child with perfect pitch, Tatum learned to play by ear, in a Voice of America interview, he denied the widespread rumor that he learned to play by copying piano roll recordings made by two pianists. He developed a very fast playing style, without losing accuracy, as a child he was very sensitive to the pianos intonation and insisted it be tuned often. While playing piano was the most obvious application of his mental and physical skills, in 1925, Tatum moved to the Columbus School for the Blind, where he studied music and learned braille. He subsequently studied piano with Overton G. Rainey at either the Jefferson School or the Toledo School of Music, who was visually impaired, probably taught Tatum in the classical tradition, as Rainey did not improvise and discouraged his students from playing jazz. In 1927, Tatum began playing on Toledo radio station WSPD as Arthur Tatum, Toledos Blind Pianist, during interludes in Ellen Kays shopping chat program, by the age of 19, Tatum was playing at the local Waiters and Bellmens Club.
In 1931, vocalist Adelaide Hall commenced a tour that lasted almost two years, during which she discovered Tatum in Toledo and employed him as one of her stage pianists. In 1932, Hall returned to New York with Tatum and introduced him to Harlem on stage at the Lafayette Theatre, in August 1932, she made four recordings using Tatum as one of her pianists including the songs Strange As It Seems and You Gave Me Everything But Love. Tatum drew inspiration from the pianists James P. Johnson and Fats Waller, who exemplified the stride piano style, Tatum identified Waller as his main influence, but according to pianist Teddy Wilson and saxophonist Eddie Barefield, Art Tatums favorite jazz piano player was Earl Hines. He used to buy all of Earls records and would improvise on them, hed play the record but hed improvise over what Earl was doing. Course, when you heard Art play you didnt hear nothing of anybody, but he got his ideas from Earls style of playing – but Earl never knew that. A major event in his rise to success was his appearance at a cutting contest in 1933 at Morgans bar in New York City that included Waller, Johnson
Kansas City, Missouri
Kansas City is the largest city in Missouri and the sixth largest city in the Midwest. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city had an population of 475,378 in 2015. It is the city of the Kansas City metropolitan area. Kansas City was founded in the 1830s as a Missouri River port at its confluence with the Kansas River coming in from the west, on June 1,1850 the town of Kansas was incorporated, shortly after came the establishment of the Kansas Territory. Confusion between the two ensued and the name Kansas City was assigned to them soon thereafter. Most of the city lies within Jackson County, but portions spill into Clay, along with Independence, it serves as one of the two county seats for Jackson County. Major suburbs include the Missouri cities of Independence and Lees Summit and the Kansas cities of Overland Park and Kansas City. The city is composed of neighborhoods, including the River Market District in the north, the 18th and Vine District in the east. Kansas City is known for its cuisine, its craft breweries, Kansas City, Missouri was officially incorporated as a town on June 1,1850, and as a city on March 28,1853.
The territory straddling the border between Missouri and Kansas at the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri rivers was considered a place to build settlements. The Antioch Christian Church, Dr. James Compton House, the first documented European visitor to Kansas City was Étienne de Veniard, Sieur de Bourgmont, who was the first European to explore the lower Missouri River. Criticized for his response to the Native American attack on Fort Détroit, Bourgmont lived with a Native American wife in a village about 90 miles east near Brunswick, where he illegally traded furs. In the documents, he describes the junction of the Grande Riv des Cansez and Missouri River, French cartographer Guillaume Delisle used the descriptions to make the areas first reasonably accurate map. The Spanish took over the region in the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the French continued their fur trade under Spanish license. After the 1804 Louisiana Purchase and Clark visited the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri rivers, in 1831, a group of Mormons from New York settled in what would become the city.
They built the first school within Kansas Citys current boundaries, but were forced out by mob violence in 1833, in 1833 John McCoy established West Port along the Santa Fe Trail,3 miles away from the river. In 1834 McCoy established Westport Landing on a bend in the Missouri to serve as a point for West Port. Soon after, the Kansas Town Company, a group of investors, began to settle the area, in 1850, the landing area was incorporated as the Town of Kansas
Ray Brown (musician)
Raymond Matthews Ray Brown was an American jazz double bassist and cellist, known for extensive work with Oscar Peterson and Ella Fitzgerald, among others. Ray Brown was born in Pittsburgh and took lessons from the age of eight. After noticing how many attended his high school, he thought of taking up the trombone but was unable to afford one. With a vacancy in the school jazz orchestra, he took up the upright bass. A major early influence on Browns bass playing was Jimmy Blanton, as a young man Brown became increasingly well known in the Pittsburgh jazz scene, with his first experiences playing in bands with the Jimmy Hinsley Sextet and the Snookum Russell band. After graduating high school, having heard stories about the jazz scene on 52nd Street in New York City. He arrived in New York at the age of 20, met up with Hank Jones, with whom he had worked, and was introduced to Dizzy Gillespie. Gillespie hired Brown on the spot, and he played with such established musicians as Art Tatum. From 1946 to 1951 Brown played in Gillespies band, along with the vibraphonist Milt Jackson, drummer Kenny Clarke, and pianist John Lewis formed the rhythm section of the Gillespie band.
Lewis and Jackson eventually formed the Modern Jazz Quartet, Brown became acquainted with singer Ella Fitzgerald when she joined the Gillespie band as a special attraction for a tour of the southern United States in 1947. Around this time Brown was appearing in Jazz at the Philharmonic concerts and it was at a Jazz at the Philharmonic concert in 1949 that Brown first worked with the jazz pianist Oscar Peterson, in whose trio Brown would play from 1951 to 1966. Between 1957 and 1959, Brown appeared on Blossom Dearies first five recordings for Verve Records, after leaving the Trio he became a manager and promoter as well as a performer. In 1966, he settled in Los Angeles, where he was in high demand working for television show orchestras. He accompanied some of the artists of the day, including Tony Bennett, Billy Eckstine, Frank Sinatra, Sarah Vaughan. Also in Los Angeles he composed music for films and television shows, from 1974 to 1982, Brown performed and recorded a series of albums with guitarist Laurindo Almeida and flautist Bud Shank, and drummer Shelly Manne under the name The L. A.
Four. Brown guested as a player on Razor Boy, the second track on Steely Dans second album, Countdown to Ecstasy. Brown appeared on four tracks from the soundtrack to Clint Eastwoods biopic about Charlie Parker, although all of the saxophone parts are Birds original playing, the accompaniment was re-recorded in order to beef up the sound, using Brown and, among others, John Guerin on drums. In the 1980s and 1990s Brown led his own trios and continued to refine his bass playing style, in his years he recorded and toured extensively with pianist Gene Harris
Earl Kenneth Hines, universally known as Earl Fatha Hines, was an American jazz pianist and bandleader. He was one of the most influential figures in the development of piano and. The trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie wrote, The piano is the basis of modern harmony and this little guy came out of Chicago, Earl Hines. He changed the style of the piano and you can find the roots of Bud Powell, Herbie Hancock, all the guys who came after that. If it hadnt been for Earl Hines blazing the path for the generation to come. There were individual variations but the style of, the modern piano came from Earl Hines. The pianist Lennie Tristano said, Earl Hines is the one of us capable of creating real jazz. Horace Silver said, He has a unique style. No one can get that sound, no other pianist, Erroll Garner said, When you talk about greatness, you talk about Art Tatum and Earl Hines. Count Basie said that Hines was the greatest piano player in the world, Hines was born in Duquesne, Pennsylvania,12 miles from the center of Pittsburgh, in 1903.
His father, Joseph Hines, played cornet and was the leader of the Eureka Brass Band in Pittsburgh, Hines intended to follow his father on cornet, but blowing hurt him behind the ears, whereas the piano did not. The young Hines took lessons in playing classical piano, by the age of eleven he was playing the organ in his Baptist church. He had an ear and a good memory and could replay songs after hearing them in theaters and park concerts. That astonished a lot of people and theyd ask where I heard these numbers, Hines said that he was playing piano around Pittsburgh before the word jazz was even invented. With his fathers approval, Hines left home at the age of 17 to take a job playing piano with Lois Deppe and His Symphonian Serenaders in the Liederhaus and he got his board, two meals a day, and $15 a week. Deppe, a well-known baritone concert artist who sang both classical and popular songs, used the young Hines as his concert accompanist and took him on his trips to New York. In 1921 Hines and Deppe became the first African Americans to perform on radio, Hiness first recordings were accompanying Deppe – four sides recorded for Gennett Records in 1923, still in the very early days of sound recording.
Only two of these were issued, one of which was a Hines composition, Congaine, a keen snappy foxtrot, which featured a solo by Hines
James Columbus Jay McShann was a jazz pianist and bandleader. He led bands in Kansas City, that included Charlie Parker, Bernard Anderson, Ben Webster, McShann was born in Muskogee and was nicknamed Hootie. Musically, his education came from Earl Hiness late-night broadcasts from Chicagos Grand Terrace Cafe, When Fatha went off the air and he began working as a professional musician in 1931, performing around Tulsa and neighboring Arkansas. His first recordings were all with Charlie Parker, the first as the Jay McShann Orchestra on August 9,1940, the band played both swing and blues numbers but played blues on most of its records, its most popular recording was Confessin the Blues. The group disbanded when McShann was drafted into the Army in 1944, the big-band era being over, he was unable to successfully restart his career after the war ended. After World War II McShann began to lead small groups featuring the blues shouter Jimmy Witherspoon, Witherspoon started recording with McShann in 1945 and fronting McShanns band, he had a hit in 1949 with Aint Nobodys Business.
As well as writing material, Witherspoon continued recording with McShanns band. McShann had a rhythm and blues hit with Hands Off, featuring a vocal by Priscilla Bowman. In the late 1960s, McShann became popular as a singer as well as a pianist and he continued recording and touring through the 1990s. In 1979, he appeared prominently in The Last of the Blue Devils, McShann died on December 7,2006, in Kansas City, Missouri, at the age of 90. He was survived by his companion of more than 30 years, Thelma Adams, the Rolling Stones recorded a cover version of Confessin the Blues on the album Five by Five. The song was written by McShann and Walter Brown in the 1940s, crime-fiction writer Elmore Leonard featured McShann as a character in his 2005 novel The Hot Kid
Raymond Scott was an American composer, band leader, engineer, recording studio maverick, and electronic instrument inventor. Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies animated shorts, Scotts melodies may be heard in contemporary shows like Ren and Stimpy, The Simpsons, Animaniacs, The Oblongs, and Batfink. The only music Scott actually composed to accompany animation were three 20-second electronic commercial jingles for County Fair Bread in 1962, Scott was born in Brooklyn, New York to Russian Jewish immigrants and Sarah Warnow. His older brother, Mark Warnow, a conductor, violinist, a 1931 graduate of the Juilliard School of Music, where he studied piano and composition, under his birth name, began his professional career as a pianist for the CBS Radio house band. His older brother Mark conducted the orchestra, Harry reportedly adopted the pseudonym Raymond Scott to spare his brother charges of nepotism when the orchestra began performing the pianists idiosyncratic compositions. In 1935 he married Pearl Zimney, in late 1936, Scott recruited a band from among his CBS colleagues, calling it the Raymond Scott Quintette.
It was a group, but the puckish Scott thought Quintette sounded crisper. The original sidemen were Pete Pumiglio, Bunny Berigan, Louis Shoobe, Dave Harris and they made their first recordings in New York on February 20,1937, for the Master Records label, owned by music publisher/impresario Irving Mills. The Quintette represented Scotts attempt to revitalize Swing music through tight, busy arrangements and reduced reliance on improvisation. He called this musical style descriptive jazz, and gave his works unusual titles like New Years Eve in a Haunted House, Dinner Music for a Pack of Hungry Cannibals, while popular with the public, jazz critics disdained it as novelty music. Scott believed strongly in composing and playing by ear and he composed not on paper, but on his band — by humming phrases to his sidemen, or by demonstrating riffs and rhythms on the keyboard and instructing players to interpret his cues. It was all done by ear, with no written scores, who was a savvy sound engineer, recorded the bands rehearsals on discs and used the recordings as references to develop his compositions.
He reworked, resequenced, or deleted passages, or added themes from other discs to construct finished works. Although Scott rigidly controlled the bands repertoire and style, he took piano solos, preferring to direct the band from the keyboard and leaving solos. He had a penchant for adapting classical motifs in his compositions, the public, who bought his records by the millions, seemed indifferent to any controversy. One of Scotts best-known compositions is The Toy Trumpet, a cheerful pop confection that is recognizable to many people who cannot name the title or composer. In the 1938 film Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, Shirley Temple sings a version of the song with lyrics, trumpeter Al Hirts 1964 rendition with Arthur Fiedler and The Boston Pops has become a standard. Another oft-recorded Scott classic, In An Eighteenth-Century Drawing Room, is a pop adaptation of the theme from Mozarts Piano Sonata in C, K.545
52nd Street (Manhattan)
52nd Street is a 1. 9-mile long one-way street traveling west to east across Midtown Manhattan, New York City. It was known as the center of jazz performance from the 1930s to the 1950s. Following the repeal of Prohibition in 1933, 52nd Street replaced 133rd street as Swing Street of the city, the blocks of 52nd Street between Fifth Avenue and Seventh Avenue became renowned for the abundance of jazz clubs and lively street life. The street was convenient to musicians playing on Broadway and the nightclubs and was the site of a CBS studio. Musicians who played for others in the evening played for themselves on 52nd Street. Although musicians from all schools performed there, after Mintons Playhouse in uptown Harlem, in fact, a tune called 52nd Street Theme by Thelonious Monk became a bebop anthem and jazz standard. By the late 1940s the jazz scene began moving elsewhere around the city, by the 1960s, most of the legendary clubs were razed or fell into disrepair. The last club there closed its doors in 1968, the street is full of banks and department stores and shows little trace of its jazz history.
The block from 5th to 6th Avenues is formally co-named Swing Street, the 21 Club is the sole surviving club on 52nd Street that existed during the 1940s. The venue for the original Birdland at 1674 Broadway, which came into existence in 1949, is now a gentlemens club, the current Birdland is on 44th Street, between 8th and 9th Avenues. This is a list of places within one block of 52nd Street. The route begins at the West Side Highway, Duncan Center on the block after moving from its original location. The Duncan Center is named for a patrolman who was shot while chasing a car in the neighborhood on May 17,1930. Closed Midtown Branch of Saint Vincents Catholic Medical Center The Manhattan School – Public School 35, radio City Station Post Office The Link, 43–story, 215–unit, glass tower condominium, opened in 2007 on site of the S. I. R. Building at 310 W 52nd, known as the Palm Gardens Building, occupied the building from 1974 until 2004. Cheetah, the club that had once been at 53rd and Broadway.
Cheetah became a popular Latin-American dance club that helped popularize Salsa to mainstream America. C, sixth Avenue to Fifth Avenue is signed Swing Street AXA Financial Center 43-story 174 m 571 ft completed in 1963. It has a large Thomas Hart Benton mural in lobby, CBS Building, headquarters of the network and popularly referred to as Black Rock 31 West 52nd Street 30-floor 125 m 411 ft completed in 1986 originally for the E. F. Hutton headquarters
Gerald Joseph Gerry Mulligan was an American jazz saxophonist, clarinetist and arranger. Mulligans pianoless quartet of the early 1950s with trumpeter Chet Baker is still regarded as one of the more important cool jazz groups, Mulligan was a skilled pianist and played several other reed instruments. Several of his compositions, such as Walkin Shoes and Five Brothers, have become jazz standards, Gerry Mulligan was born in Queens Village, New York, the son of George and Louise Mulligan. His father was a Wilmington, Delaware native of Irish descent, his mother a Philadelphia native of half Irish, Gerry was the last of four sons, Phil and Gerry. George Mulligans career as an engineer necessitated frequent moves through numerous cities, when Gerry was less than a year old, the family moved to Marion, where his father accepted a job with the Marion Power Shovel Company. With the demands of a home and four young boys to raise, Mulligans mother hired an African-American nanny named Lily Rose. Black musicians sometimes came through town, and because many motels would not take them, the young Mulligan occasionally met such musicians staying at Roses home.
The familys moves continued with stops in southern New Jersey, Chicago and Kalamazoo, when the school moved into a new building and established music courses, Mulligan decided to play clarinet in the schools nascent orchestra. When Gerry Mulligan was 14, his family moved to Detroit and to Reading, while in Reading, Mulligan began studying clarinet with dance-band musician Sammy Correnti, who encouraged Mulligans interest in arranging. Mulligan began playing professionally in dance bands in Philadelphia, an hour. The Mulligan family next moved to Philadelphia, where Gerry attended the West Philadelphia Catholic High School for Boys and organized a big band. When Mulligan was sixteen, he approached Johnny Warrington at local radio station WCAU about writing arrangements for the house band. Warrington was impressed and began buying Mulligans arrangements, Mulligan dropped out of high school during his senior year to pursue work with a touring band. He contacted bandleader Tommy Tucker when Tucker was visiting Philadelphias Earle Theatre, while Tucker did not need an additional reedman, he was looking for an arranger and Mulligan was hired at $100 a week to do two or three arrangements a week.
At the conclusion of Mulligans three-month contract, Tucker told Mulligan that he should move on to another band that was a little less tame. Mulligan went back to Philadelphia and began writing for Elliot Lawrence, Mulligan moved to New York City in January 1946 and joined the arranging staff on Gene Krupas bebop-tinged band. Notable arrangements of Mulligans work with Krupa include Birdhouse, Disc Jockey Jump, Mulligan next began arranging for the Claude Thornhill Orchestra, occasionally sitting in as a member of the reed section. Thornhills arranging staff included Gil Evans, whom Mulligan had met while working with the Krupa band