Partition of India
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions and Pakistan. The Dominion of India is today the Republic of India and Dominion of Pakistan, the partition involved the division of two provinces and the Punjab, based on district-wise Hindu or Muslim majorities. It involved the division of the British Indian Army, the Royal Indian Navy, the Indian Civil Service, the railways, and the central treasury, between the two new dominions. The partition was set forth in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj, the two self-governing countries of India and Pakistan legally came into existence at midnight on 14–15 August 1947. The violent nature of the created an atmosphere of hostility. The term partition of India does not cover the secession of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971, nor the earlier separations of Burma and Ceylon from the administration of British India. It does not cover the incorporation of the enclaves of French India into India during the period 1947–1954, nor the annexation of Goa, other contemporaneous political entities in the region in 1947, Bhutan and The Maldives were unaffected by the partition.
The Hindu elite of Bengal, among many who owned land in East Bengal that was leased out to Muslim peasants. The pervasive protests against Curzons decision took the form predominantly of the Swadeshi campaign led by two-time Congress president, Surendranath Banerjee, sporadically—but flagrantly—the protesters took to political violence that involved attacks on civilians. The violence, was not effective, as most planned attacks were either preempted by the British or failed, the unrest spread from Calcutta to the surrounding regions of Bengal when Calcuttas English-educated students returned home to their villages and towns. Since Calcutta was the capital, both the outrage and the slogan soon became nationally known. In conjunction, they demanded proportional legislative representation reflecting both their status as rulers and their record of cooperating with the British. This led, in December 1906, to the founding of the All-India Muslim League in Dacca, although Curzon, by now, had resigned his position over a dispute with his military chief Lord Kitchener and returned to England, the League was in favour of his partition plan.
In the three decades since that census, Muslim leaders across northern India, had intermittently experienced public animosity from some of the new Hindu political and social groups. In 1905, when Tilak and Lajpat Rai attempted to rise to positions in the Congress. It was not lost on many Muslims, for example, that the rallying cry, World War I would prove to be a watershed in the imperial relationship between Britain and India. Indias international profile would thereby rise and would continue to rise during the 1920s, back in India, especially among the leaders of the Indian National Congress, it would lead to calls for greater self-government for Indians. Secretary of State for India and Viceroy Lord Chelmsford presented a report in July 1918 after a long fact-finding trip through India the previous winter
Presidencies and provinces of British India
Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent. Collectively, they were called British India, in one form or other they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods. During 1612–1757, the East India Company set up factories in several locations, mostly in coastal India and its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Holland and France. By the mid-18th century, three Presidency towns, Madras and Calcutta had grown in size, during the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company gradually acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called Presidencies. However, it increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it gradually lost its mercantile privileges, following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Companys remaining powers were transferred to the Crown.
In the new British Raj, sovereignty extended to a few new regions, however, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into Provinces. In 1608, the English East India Company established a settlement at Surat, and it was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, and in 1612 the company joined other already established European trading companies in Bengal. Company rule in Bengal, ended with the Government of India Act 1858 following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857 and these rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in area and population, in 1910, for example, it covered approximately 54% of the area, in addition, there were Portuguese and French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh.
The term British India applied to Burma for a time period, starting in 1824, a small part of Burma. This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma commenced being administered as a separate British colony, British India did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka, which was a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate. It included the Colony of Aden in the Arabian Peninsula, the original seat of government was at Allahabad, at Agra from 1834 to 1868. Bombay Presidency, East India Companys headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay in 1687, the East India Company, which was incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612. The company rented a trading outpost in Madras in 1639, meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640.
Almost a half-century later, after Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly, by the mid-18th century the three principal trading settlements, now called the Madras Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, and the Bengal Presidency were each administered by a Governor. After Robert Clives victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, in 1772, the Company obtained the Nizāmat of Bengal and thereby full sovereignty of the expanded Bengal Presidency
Treaty of Allahabad
The Treaty marks the political and constitutional involvement and the beginning of British rule in India. Based on the terms of the agreement, Alam granted the East India Company Diwani rights, thus East India Company got appointed as the imperial tax collector for the Eastern province. These rights allowed the Company to collect revenue directly from the people of Bengal, Bihar, in return, the Company paid an annual tribute of twenty-six lakhs of rupees while securing for Shah Alam II the districts of Kora and Allahabad. The tribute money paid to the emperor was for the maintenance of the Emperors court in Allahabad, the accord dictated that Shah Alam be restored to the province of Varanasi as long as he continued to pay certain amount of revenue to the Company. Awadh was returned to Shuja-ud-Daulah, but Allahabad and Kora were taken from him, the Nawab of Awadh had to pay fifty-three lakhs of rupees as war indemnity to the East India Company. The Nawab of Awadh, Shuja ud Daulah, was made to pay a war indemnity of 5 million rupees to the Company.
Moreover, the two signed an alliance by which the Company promised to support the Nawab against an outside attack provided he paid for services of the troops sent to his aid and this alliance made the Nawab dependent on the Company. This was a point in Indian history. List of treaties Wikisource, Text of Allahabad Treaty
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she adopted the title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, both the Duke of Kent and King George III died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne aged 18, after her fathers three brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was already a constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments, Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together, after Alberts death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength and her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration. Her reign of 63 years and seven months is known as the Victorian era and it was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover and her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victorias father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, until 1817, Edwards niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent. In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen and her brother Leopold was Princess Charlottes widower.
The Duke and Duchess of Kents only child, was born at 4.15 a. m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace and she was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of the Dukes eldest brother, the Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarences daughters died as infants. Victorias father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old, a week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son, George IV. The Duke of York died in 1827, when George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, William IV, and Victoria became heir presumptive
Battle of Buxar
British army was engaged in the fighting numbered 7,071 comprising 857 British,5,297 Indian sepoys and 918 Indian cavalry. The alliance armys numbers were estimated to be over 40,000, according to other sources, the combined army of the Mughals and Mir Qasim consisting of 40,000 men was defeated by a British army comprising 10,000 men. The lack of basic co-ordination among the three desperate allies was responsible for their decisive defeat, according to the British and Rohilla cavalry were present and fought during the battle in various skirmishes. But by midday the battle was over and Shuja-ud-Daula blew up large tumbrils, Mir Qasim fled with his 3 million rupees worth of Gemstones and even committed suicide. Mirza Najaf Khan reorganised formations around Shah Alam II, who retreated and he claimed that the three Indian allies suffered 2,000 dead and that many more were wounded. Another source says there were 69 European and 664 sepoy casualties on the British side and 6,000 casualties on the Mughal side.
The victors captured 133 pieces of artillery and over 1 million rupees of cash, the British victory at Buxar had at one fell swoop, disposed of the three main scions of Moghul power in Upper India. Mir Kasim disappeared into an impoverished obscurity, Shah Alam realigned himself with the British, and Shah Shuja fled west hotly pursued by the victors. The whole Ganges valley lay at the Companys mercy, Shah Shuja eventually surrendered, Battle of Plassey A detailed description of the Battle of Buxar
Cornwallis in India
He oversaw the consolidation of British control over much of peninsular India, setting the stage for the British Raj. He was instrumental in enacting administrative and legal reforms that fundamentally altered civil administration, returned to England in 1793, he was engaged in administrative and diplomatic postings until 1798, when he was posted to the Kingdom of Ireland as Lord Lieutenant and Commander-in-Chief. In 1801, he was posted to India. He arrived in July 1805 and died in October in Ghazipur, Lord Charles Cornwallis was a British army officer, civil administrator, and diplomat. His career was primarily military in nature, including a series of campaigns during the War of American Independence from 1776 to 1781 that culminated in his surrender at Yorktown. The area encompassed by modern India was significantly fractured following the decline of the Mughal Empire in the first half of the 18th century and its civil head, the Governor-General of Fort William, ranked ahead of those of Madras and Bombay.
Cornwallis quickly established himself as a transformational leader, British colonial administration was dominated in the 1760s and 1770s by Warren Hastings, the first man to hold the title of Governor-General. Company policy, as implemented by Hastings, had involved the company in intrigues and shifting alliances involving France, the Marathas, Cornwallis was first considered for a posting to India during the ministry of the Earl of Shelburne in the spring of 1782. Shelburne asked Cornwallis if he wanted to go to India as governor general, Shelburne was a weak leader, and was turned out of power in early 1783, replaced by a coalition government dominated by men Cornwallis disliked, Charles James Fox and Lord North. Cornwallis, who normally avoided politics, became more vocal in opposition to the Fox-North ministry, with the ascendancy of William Pitt the Younger to power in December 1783, doors to new positions were opened to the earl. Pitt first offered him the Lord Lieutenancy of Ireland, which he politely refused and he made it clear that, were he posted to India, he would want the supreme military command in addition to civil control.
When informed that Pitt was agreeable to this demand, he went through a period of soul-searching and this, was not the only troubling issue. When Parliament took up consideration of assignments in India in August 1784, passed over for other military postings, Pitt placated him with the post of Constable of the Tower. After refusing another inadequate entreaty from Pitt to take a post in India in February 1785, departing London in May, he arrived at Madras on 22 August 1786, after a most prosperous and expeditious passage, and at Calcutta on 12 September. Although he was accorded a welcome suitable to his rank, the acting governor-general and he attempted to reserve for his own use the Government House, which was normally reserved for the governor-general. Cornwallis, after having his oaths of office administered, immediately announced his intention to occupy the residence, Cornwallis was charged by the directors of the British East India Company to overhaul and reform its administration in India.
The company had paid its functionaries in India relatively little. As long as the company was profitable, this door to corruption
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, sometimes referred to as the Lion City or the Little Red Dot, is a sovereign city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the tip of peninsular Malaysia. Singapores territory consists of one island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its size by 23%. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, after early years of turbulence, and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed rapidly as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global commerce and transport hub, the country has been identified as a tax haven. Singapore ranks 5th internationally and first in Asia on the UN Human Development Index and it is ranked highly in education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety, and housing, but does not fare well on the Democracy index. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied, 38% of Singapores 5.6 million residents are permanent residents and other foreign nationals.
There are four languages on the island, Mandarin, Tamil. English is its language, most Singaporeans are bilingual. Singapore is a multiparty parliamentary republic, with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government. The Peoples Action Party has won every election since self-government in 1959, however, it is unlikely that lions ever lived on the island, Sang Nila Utama, the Srivijayan prince said to have founded and named the island Singapura, perhaps saw a Malayan tiger. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name, the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE, literally island at the end in Malay. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama and these Indianized Kingdoms, a term coined by George Cœdès were characterized by surprising resilience, political integrity and administrative stability. In 1613, Portuguese raiders burned down the settlement, which by was part of the Johor Sultanate.
The wider maritime region and much trade was under Dutch control for the following period, in 1824 the entire island, as well as the Temenggong, became a British possession after a further treaty with the Sultan. In 1826, Singapore became part of the Straits Settlements, under the jurisdiction of British India, prior to Raffles arrival, there were only about a thousand people living on the island, mostly indigenous Malays along with a handful of Chinese. By 1860 the population had swelled to over 80,000, many of these early immigrants came to work on the pepper and gambier plantations
Indian independence movement
The Indian independence movement encompassed all activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule and the British Indian Empire in the Indian subcontinent. The movement spanned a total of 190 years, the early part of the 20th century saw a more radical approach towards political self-rule proposed by leaders such as the Lal, Bal and Aurobindo Ghosh, V. O. Chidambaram Pillai. The last stages of the struggle from the 1920s onwards saw Congress adopt Mohandas Karamchand Gandhis policy of nonviolence and civil resistance. Nationalist like Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh and Vinayak Damodar Sawarkar preached armed revolution to achieve self-rule, feminists such as Sarojini Naidu and Begum Rokeya promoted the emancipation of Indian women and their participation in national politics. Babasaheb Ambedkar championed the cause of the sections of Indian society within the larger self-rule movement. The period of the Second World War saw the peak of the campaigns by the Quit India Movement led by Congress, the Indian self-rule movement was a mass-based movement that encompassed various sections of society.
It underwent a process of constant ideological evolution, in 1971, East Pakistan declared independence as the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh. European traders first reached Indian shores with the arrival of the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama in 1498 AD at the port of Calicut, in search of the lucrative spice trade. Just over a century later, the Dutch and English established trading outposts on the subcontinent, the decline of the Mughal empire in the first half of the eighteenth century provided the British with the opportunity to establish a firm foothold in Indian politics. After the defeat of Tipu Sultan, most of South India came either under the Companys direct rule, the Company subsequently gained control of regions ruled by the Maratha Empire, after defeating them in a series of wars. The Punjab was annexed in 1849, after the defeat of the Sikh armies in the First, in 1835, English was made the medium of instruction in Indias schools and many Indians increasingly disliked British rule.
With the British now dominating most of the subcontinent, many British increasingly disregarded local customs, Puli Thevan was one of the opponents of the British rule in India. He was in conflict with the Nawab of Arcot who was supported by the British and his prominent exploits were his confrontations with Marudhanayagam, who rebelled against the British in the late 1750s and early 1760s. Nelkatumseval the present Tirunelveli Dist of Tamil Nadu state of India was the headquarters of Puli Thevan, kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja was one of the earliest freedom fighters in India. He was the regent of the princely state of Kottiyur or Cotiote in North Malabar, near Kannur. He fought a war with tribal people from Wynad supporting him. He was caught by the British and his fort was razed to the ground, Rani Velu Nachiyar, was a queen of Indian Sivaganga in 1760–1790. She was the first queen to fight against the British in India, Rani Nachiyar was trained in war match weapons usage, martial arts like Valari, horse riding and archery
New Imperialism or Neo-imperialism was a period of colonial expansion by European powers, the United States, and the Empire of Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The period is distinguished by a pursuit of overseas territorial acquisitions. At the time, states focused on building their empires with new advances and developments, making their territory bigger through conquest. During the era of New Imperialism, the Western powers conquered almost all of Africa, the new wave of imperialism reflected ongoing rivalries among the great powers, the economic desire for new resources and markets, and a civilizing mission ethos. Many of the colonies established during this era gained independence during the era of decolonization that followed World War II, the qualifier new is used to differentiate between imperialism which generally refers to the first wave of European colonization between the 15th and early 19th centuries. In the first wave of colonization, European powers conquered and colonized the Americas and established outposts in Africa, the American Revolution and the collapse of the Spanish Empire in Latin America around 1820 ended the first era of European imperialism.
Especially in Great Britain these revolutions helped show the deficiencies of mercantilism, in 1846, the Corn Laws were repealed and manufacturers gained, as the regulations enforced by the Corn Laws had slowed their businesses. With the repeal in place, the manufacturers were able to trade more freely. Thus, Britain began to adopt the concept of free trade, the establishment of nation-states in Germany and Italy resolved territorial issues that had kept potential rivals embroiled in internal affairs at the heart of Europe, to Britains advantage. The years from 1871 to 1914 would be marked by an unstable peace. The imposition of rule in terms of effective occupation necessitated routine recourse to armed force against indigenous states and peoples. One of the goals of the conference was to reach agreements over trade, however, of all of the 15 nations in attendance of the Berlin Conference, none of the countries represented were African. The main dominating powers of the conference were France, Great Britain and they remapped Africa without considering the cultural and linguistic borders that were already established.
At the end of the conference, Africa was divided into 50 different colonies, the attendants established who was in control of each of these newly divided colonies. They planned, noncommittally, to end the trade in Africa. In Britain, the age of new imperialism marked a time for significant economic changes, because the country was the first to industrialize, Britain was technologically ahead of many other countries throughout the majority of the nineteenth century. However, by the end of the century, other countries such as Germany, the United States, Russia. After several decades of monopoly, the country was battling to maintain a dominant economic position while other became more involved in international markets
Eastern Bengal and Assam
Eastern Bengal and Assam was an administrative subdivision of the British Raj between 1905 and 1912. Headquartered in the city of Dacca, it covered territories in what are now Bangladesh, as early as 1868, British administrators saw the need for an independent administration in the eastern portion of the Bengal Presidency. They felt that Fort William in Calcutta, the capital of British India, was already overburdened, by 1903, it dawned on the colonial government on the necesscity of partitioning Bengal and creating prospects for Assams commercial expansion. The British promised increased investment in education and jobs in the new province called Eastern Bengal, Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India, proposed the Partition of Bengal and put it into effect on 16 October 1905. Dacca, the former Mughal capital of Bengal, regained its status as a seat of government, Sir Joseph Bampfylde Fuller was the provinces first Lieutenant Governor. He served for a year in office, and resigned in 1906 after disagreements with Lord Minto and he was succeeded by Sir Lancelot Hare, who in turn was succeeded by Sir Charles Stuart Bayley.
The partition stoked controversy among hardline Hindu nationalists, who described it as an attempt to divide, the merchant class in Calcutta feared losing their economic influence in the region. In 1906, the All India Muslim League was formed in Dacca during the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference and this in turn sparked the creation of the All India Hindu Mahasabha. At the Delhi Durbar in 1911, King George V announced that the British government had decided to annul the partition, the move by the colonial government was seen as an appeasement of hardline communal forces. Eastern Bengal was reunited with western Bengali districts, and Assam was made a chief commissioners province, the partition had enjoyed general support among the Bengali and Assamese population in the region. Eastern Bengal and Assam had an area of 111,569 sq m and was situated between 20°45 and 28°17 N. and between 87°48 and 97°5 E. It was bounded by Tibet and the Kingdom of Bhutan to the north, British Burma to the east, within these limits, were the princely states of Hill Tippera, Cooch Behar and Manipur.
The Viceroy represented the British monarch and the Lieutenant Governor was the chief administrator, Dacca was the provincial capital, with the Legislative Council and the High Court. Five commissioners acted under the Lieutenant Governor, the Eastern Bengal and Assam Legislative Council was composed of 40 members. Elected councillors included representatives of municipalities, district boards, Muslim electorates, the gentry, the tea industry, the jute industry. Nominated members included government officials and commercial leaders, the High Court of Dacca was subordinate to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London. Shillong was the capital of Eastern Bengal and Assam. There were 4 administrative divisions in the province, including the Assam Valley Division, Chittagong Division, Dacca Division, Rajshahi Division, Cooch Behar fell under the jurisdiction of Rajshahi Division, Manipur under the Assam Valley Division and Hill Tippera under Chittagong Division
Nawabs of Bengal and Murshidabad
The Nawabs of Bengal were the rulers of the provinces of Bengal and Orissa. Between 1717 and 1765, they served as the rulers of the subah of Bengal, they were only nominally subordinate to the Mughal Empire. Siraj ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal was betrayed in the Battle of Plassey by Mir Jafar and he lost to the British, who took over the charge of Bengal in 1757, installed Mir Jafar on the Masnad and established itself to a political power in Bengal. In 1765 the system of Dual Government was established, in which the Nawabs ruled on behalf of the British and were mere puppets to the British, in 1772 the system was abolished and Bengal was brought under direct control of the British. In 1793, when the Nizamat of the Nawab was away from them. The last Nawab of Bengal, Mansur Ali Khan abdicated on 1 November 1880 in favour of his eldest son and they had little or no say in the share of the revenue collected and were ceased to use any force. After Indian Independence in 1947 it was declared that the states must accede to either India or Pakistan.
Murshidabad became a part of East Pakistan for two days, as it had a Muslim majority and it became a part of India on 17 August 1947, following which the Pakistani flag was brought down from the Hazarduari Palace and the Indian tricolour was hoisted atop it. After merging with India, they had no power as the Government of India took over all the states in India. The house of the Nawabs appeared to have come to end in 1969 with Waris Ali Mirza being the last reigning Nawab and with no clear succession. Although he left three sons and three daughters there was no successor to the title after his death because he disinherited one. During the first partition of Bengal in the early 20th century a new province, in 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, and the new provinces in the east became, Bengal Province. The Nawab thus gained rule over Orissa, which were part of Bengal. The majority of modern Bengal is inhabited by Bengali people who speak the Bengali language, the early Sultans of Bengal ruled until 1282 which was followed by the rule of several successive dynasties.
Ilyas Shah founder of the Ilyas Shahi dynasty, took charge of the Bengal. He was one of the independent rulers of Bengal, the Mughal Empire emerged as a powerful Empire in northern India. Babur, who was related to two legendary warriors – Timur and Genghis Khan, invaded north India and defeated Ibrahim Lodi of the Lodi dynasty, babur thus became the first Mughal emperor. He was succeeded by his son, Humayun, at the same time, Sher Shah Suri of the Suri dynasty rose to prominence and established himself as the ruler of the present day Bihar by defeating Ghiyasuddin Shah