Bengali known by its endonym Bangla, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Bengalis in South Asia in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, presently divided between Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Assam's Barak Valley. It is the official and most spoken language of Bangladesh and second most spoken of the 22 scheduled languages of India, behind Hindi. With 228 million native speakers and another 37 million as second language speakers, Bengali is the fifth most-spoken native language and the seventh most spoken language by total number of speakers in the world; the official and de facto national language of Bangladesh is Modern Standard Bengali. It serves as the lingua franca of the nation, with 98% of Bangladeshis being fluent in Bengali as their first language. Within India, Bengali is the official language of the states of West Bengal and the Barak Valley region of the state of Assam, it is the most spoken language in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal, is spoken by significant populations in other states including in Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Uttarakhand.
Bengali is spoken by the significant global Bengali diaspora communities in Pakistan, the United Kingdom, the United States, the Middle East. Bengali has developed over the course of more than 1,300 years. Bengali literature, with its millennium-old literary history, has extensively developed since the Bengali Renaissance and is one of the most prolific and diverse literary traditions in Asia; the Bengali language movement from 1948 to 1956 demanding Bengali to be an official language of Pakistan fostered Bengali nationalism in East Bengal leading to the emergence of Bangladesh in 1971. In 1999, UNESCO recognised 21 February as International Mother Language Day in recognition of the language movement; the Bengali language is the quintessential element of Bengali identity and binds together a culturally diverse region. Modern Standard Bengali is confined to formal situations, existing in a diglossic relationship with vernacular Bengali varieties, which are used for everyday speech in different geographic regions.
Sanskrit was practised by Hindu priests in Bengal since the first millennium BCE. But, the local people were speaking in some varieties of Prakrita languages. Dr. Suniti Kumar Chatterjee coined it as "eastern variety of Magadhi Prakrita". During the Gupta Empire, Bengal was a hub of Sanskrit literature; the Middle Indo-Aryan dialects were influential in Bengal in the first millennium when the region was a part of the Magadha Realm. These dialects were called Magadhi Prakrit spoken in current Bihar state of India; the Magdhi Prakrita evolved into Ardha Magadhi and become more distinct from the languages of Bengal day by day. Ardha Magadhi began to give way to what are called Apabhraṃśa languages at the end of the first millennium. Bengali language evolved as a distinct language by the course of time. Along with other Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, Bengali evolved circa 1000–1200 CE from Sanskrit and Magadhi Prakrit; the local Apabhraṃśa of the eastern subcontinent, Purbi Apabhraṃśa or Abahatta evolved into regional dialects, which in turn formed three groups of the Bengali–Assamese languages, the Bihari languages, the Odia language.
Some argue that the points of divergence occurred much earlier – going back to 500, but the language was not static: different varieties coexisted and authors wrote in multiple dialects in this period. For example, Ardhamagadhi is believed to have evolved into Abahatta around the 6th century, which competed with the ancestor of Bengali for some time. Proto-Bengali was the language of the Sena dynasty. During the medieval period, Middle Bengali was characterised by the elision of word-final অ ô, the spread of compound verbs and Arabic and Persian influences. Bengali was an official court language of the Sultanate of Bengal. Muslim rulers promoted the literary development of Bengali. Bengali became the most spoken vernacular language in the Sultanate; this period saw borrowing of Perso-Arabic terms into Bengali vocabulary. Major texts of Middle Bengali include Chandidas' Shreekrishna Kirtana; the modern literary form of Bengali was developed during the 19th and early 20th centuries based on the dialect spoken in the Nadia region, a west-central Bengali dialect.
Bengali presents a strong case of diglossia, with the literary and standard form differing from the colloquial speech of the regions that identify with the language. The modern Bengali vocabulary contains the vocabulary base from Magadhi Prakrit and Pali tatsamas and reborrowings from Sanskrit and other major borrowings from Persian, Austroasiatic languages and other languages in contact with. During this period, there were two main forms of written Bengali: চলিতভাষা Chôlitôbhasha. In 1948 the Government of Pakistan tried to impose Urdu as the sole state language in Pakistan, starting the Bengali language movement; the Bengali Language Movement was a popular ethno-linguistic movement in the former East Bengal, a result of the strong linguistic consciousness of the Bengalis to gain and protect spoken and written Bengali's recognition as a state language of the Dominion of Pakistan. On the day of 21 February 1952 five students and political activists were killed during protests near the campus of the University of Dhaka.
In 1956 Bengali was made a state language of Pakistan. The day has since been obse
Andrea C. Ferrari earned a PhD in electrical engineering from the University of Cambridge after obtaining a Laurea in nuclear engineering at Polytechnic University of Milan, in Italy, he is the Founder and Director of the Cambridge Graphene Centre at the University of Cambridge, the EPSRC Doctoral Training Centre in Graphene Technology. Prof. Ferrari is the Science and Technology Officer and the Chair of the Management Panel of the Graphene Flagship, one of the biggest research initiatives funded by the European Commission. Professor Andrea C. Ferrari is a Fellow of the American Physical Society, the Institute of Physics, the Materials Research Society, the Optical Society. Among others, he has received the following awards: Royal Society Wolfson Research Merit Award Royal Society Mercer Award for Innovation Marie Curie Excellence Award Philip Leverhulme Prize EU-40 Materials Prize. Professor Ferrari has received 3 European Research Council grants. In 2017 he participated in a research of heat-dissipating shoes.
In 2018 he experimented with spintronics device functionalities in graphene heterostructures and worked with European Space Agency's space-like applications to develop a zero gravity graphene. He works in collaboration with the National Inter-University Consortium for Telecommunications and IMEC. Andrea C. Ferrari publications indexed by Google Scholar
The Willow Biomass Project is a collaborative effort by members of the Salix Consortium to grow willow and other sustainable woody crops in upstate New York. The project, funded through the U. S. Department of Energy's Biomass Power for Rural Development Program, seeks to commercialize willow bioenergy crops as a renewable source of biofuel. To date, the project has planted willow on at least 465 acres of leased land and 25 acres of farmer-contracted land. Willow was chosen for the project for several reasons, it provides a similar amount of energy per ton as other hardwoods, but can be cultivated every few years at low cost. It propagates easily from cuttings, has a quick growth cycle, tends to regrow following harvest. SUNY-ESF estimates; the Salix Consortium was an association of 20 New York universities and corporations, including Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, NYS Energy Research and Development Authority, Cornell University's Departments of Biological and Agricultural Engineering and Ornithology, Antares Group, Inc. and others.