Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Franklin was a leading writer, political philosopher, Freemason, scientist, humorist, civic activist and diplomat; as a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As an inventor, he is known for the lightning rod and the Franklin stove, among other inventions, he founded many civic organizations, including the Library Company, Philadelphia's first fire department and the University of Pennsylvania. Franklin earned the title of "The First American" for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies; as the first United States Ambassador to France, he exemplified the emerging American nation. Franklin was foundational in defining the American ethos as a marriage of the practical values of thrift, hard work, community spirit, self-governing institutions, opposition to authoritarianism both political and religious, with the scientific and tolerant values of the Enlightenment.

In the words of historian Henry Steele Commager, "In a Franklin could be merged the virtues of Puritanism without its defects, the illumination of the Enlightenment without its heat." To Walter Isaacson, this makes Franklin "the most accomplished American of his age and the most influential in inventing the type of society America would become."Franklin became a successful newspaper editor and printer in Philadelphia, the leading city in the colonies, publishing the Pennsylvania Gazette at the age of 23. He became wealthy publishing this and Poor Richard's Almanack, which he authored under the pseudonym "Richard Saunders". After 1767, he was associated with the Pennsylvania Chronicle, a newspaper, known for its revolutionary sentiments and criticisms of British policies, he pioneered and was the first president of Academy and College of Philadelphia which opened in 1751 and became the University of Pennsylvania. He organized and was the first secretary of the American Philosophical Society and was elected president in 1769.

Franklin became a national hero in America as an agent for several colonies when he spearheaded an effort in London to have the Parliament of Great Britain repeal the unpopular Stamp Act. An accomplished diplomat, he was admired among the French as American minister to Paris and was a major figure in the development of positive Franco-American relations, his efforts proved vital for the American Revolution in securing shipments of crucial munitions from France. He was promoted to deputy postmaster-general for the British colonies in 1753, having been Philadelphia postmaster for many years, this enabled him to set up the first national communications network. During the revolution, he became the first United States Postmaster General, he was active in community affairs and colonial and state politics, as well as national and international affairs. From 1785 to 1788, he served as governor of Pennsylvania, he owned and dealt in slaves but, by the late 1750s, he began arguing against slavery and became an abolitionist.

His life and legacy of scientific and political achievement, his status as one of America's most influential Founding Fathers, have seen Franklin honored more than two centuries after his death on coinage and the $100 bill and the names of many towns, educational institutions, corporations, as well as countless cultural references. Benjamin Franklin's father, Josiah Franklin, was a tallow chandler and candlemaker. Josiah Franklin was born at Ecton, England on December 23, 1657, the son of blacksmith and farmer Thomas Franklin and Jane White. Benjamin's father and all four of his grandparents were born in England. Josiah Franklin had a total of seventeen children with his two wives, he married his first wife, Anne Child, in about 1677 in Ecton and emigrated with her to Boston in 1683. Following her death, Josiah was married to Abiah Folger on July 9, 1689, in the Old South Meeting House by Reverend Samuel Willard, would have ten children with her. Benjamin, their eighth child, was Josiah Franklin's fifteenth child overall, his tenth and final son.

Benjamin Franklin's mother, Abiah Folger, was born in Nantucket, Massachusetts Bay Colony, on August 15, 1667, to Peter Folger, a miller and schoolteacher, his wife, Mary Morrell Folger, a former indentured servant. Mary Folger came from a Puritan family, among the first Pilgrims to flee to Massachusetts for religious freedom, sailing for Boston in 1635 after King Charles I of England had begun persecuting Puritans, her father Peter was "the sort of rebel destined to transform colonial America." As clerk of the court, he was jailed for disobeying the local magistrate in defense of middle-class shopkeepers and artisans in conflict with wealthy landowners. Benjamin Franklin followed in his grandfather's footsteps in his battles against the wealthy Penn family that owned the Pennsylvania Colony. Benjamin Franklin was born on Milk Street, in Boston, Massachusetts, on January 17, 1706, baptized at Old South Meeting House, he was one of seventeen children born to Josiah Franklin, one of ten born by Josiah's second wife, Abiah Folger.

Among Benjamin's siblings were his older brother James and his younger sister Jane. Josiah wanted Ben to attend school with the clergy but only had enough money to send him to school for two years, he did not graduate.

Administrative divisions of Nicosia

Nicosia within the city limits is divided into 29 administrative units, according to the latest census. This unit is termed in English as quarter, parish, enoria or mahalla; these units are: Ayios Andreas, Nebethane, Phaneromeni, Ayios Savvas, Ayios Antonios, St. John, Taht-el-kale, Ayios Kassianos, Kaïmakli, Panayia, St Constantine & Helen, Ayioi Omoloyites, Arab Ahmet, Yeni Jami, Ibrahim Pasha, Mahmut Pasha, Abu Kavouk, St. Luke, Abdi Chavush, Iplik Pazar and Korkut Effendi, Ayia Sophia, Haydar Pasha and Yenişehir/Neapolis; some of these units were independent Communities. Ayioi Omoloyites was annexed in 1944, while Kaïmakli and Omorfita were annexed in 1968. Pallouriotissa annexed in 1968, was subsequently divided into the neighbourhoods of Panayia, St Constantine & Helen; the municipality of Strovolos, established in 1986, is the second largest municipal authority in Cyprus in terms of population after Limassol and encompasses the southern suburbs of the capital adjacent to Nicosia municipality.

Strovolos is divided into six parishes: Chryseleousa, Ayios Demetrios, Apostle Barnabas and Ayios Makarios, Ayios Vasilios and Stavros. Beyond Strovolos on the south-western fringes of the metropolis lies the municipality of Lakatamia, created in 1986 out of the two Communities of Lower Lakatamia and Upper Lakatamia. After being declared a municipality Lakatamia was, for administrative purposes, divided into the following four parishes: Ayia Paraskevis, St. Nicholas, Ayios Mamas, Archangel-Anthoupolis. Contrary to other Municipalities, Lakatamia Municipality has its own water supply, it has jurisdiction over the water supply and sees to the construction and functioning of water supply systems within its boundaries. South of Strovolos lies the municipality of Latsia, established in 1986. Latsia is divided into three parishes: Ayios Eleftherios and Archangel Michael. East of Latsia lies Yeri, which became a municipality in 2011; the built up area of Yeri just touches Latsia near their mutual boundary and thus the new municipality is conurbated with Nicosia.

The municipality of Aglandjia, established in 1986, encompasses the south-eastern suburbs of the capital adjacent to Nicosia municipality. The Nicosia-Limassol highway forms the boundary with Strovolos to the west; the name of the municipality has various spellings, but derives from the Turkish word'Eğlence - Entertainment'. The older English spelling is Eylenja; the western suburbs are encompassed in the municipalities of Ayios Dometios and Engomi, both established in 1986. The municipality of Ayios Dometios is divided into the parishes of St. Paul; the town of Gönyeli is now conurbated with the northern suburbs. A village authority, it now functions as a municipality within the same area Gönyeli is divided into the Neighbourhoods of Baraj, Çarşı, Baz and Yeni Kent; the suburbs to the north of the city have not been erected into municipalities. The village authority of Hamitköy was urbanized and continued to exist until 1 September 2008, when it was included within the borders of Nicosia Turkish Municipality as a Nicosia neighbourhood headed by a muhtar.

Ortakeuy Village authority has been redefined as a neighbourhood of Nicosia Turkish Municipality. After the invasion the Greek Cypriot inhabitants of Mia Milia were displaced to other parts of Cyprus and the area was resettled by displaced Turkish Cypriots from other areas; the Mia Milia Village Council of the Republic of Cyprus continues to operate in exile, but the Nicosia Turkish Municipality considers it one of its neighbourhooods. The ethnically mixed Village of Trakhonas has suffered several displacements of both its Greek and Turkish Cypriot inhabitants since the 1960s and since the invasion has been urbanised, it does not function as a local government unitThe settlement of Anthoupolis is an enclave created within Lakatamia after the invasion of 1974 and is directly administered by the government and not the municipality within which it is situated

Society for the Preservation of Carter Railroad Resources

The Society for the Preservation of Carter Railroad Resources is a non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of railroad artifacts created by the Carter Brothers of California. The society operates The Railroad Museum at Ardenwood, a heritage railroad located at Ardenwood Historic Farm Regional Park in Fremont, California; the Society's permanent collection consists of 6 flatcars, 1 caboose, 3 combination cars, 5 boxcars, 1 ballast car, a horse drawn street car, an assortment of other small cars. In addition, the Society has a 1927 7-ton Plymouth switch locomotive in its collection and a 1972 5-ton Plymouth switch locomotive used for MOW and operations. Thomas and Martin Carter were Irish immigrants who began making railroad equipment in 1874 building wooden cars for the South Pacific Coast Railroad; the Carter Brother's business lasted until 1902 during which time they built over 5,000 railroad cars for narrow gauge lines. They built cable cars and in years 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge equipment.

Their rolling stock was used on railroads all over the western United States and Latin and South America. The Society operates the Railroad museum at Ardenwood in Ardenwood Historic Farm Regional Park, California. A 1.25 miles -long, 3 ft narrow gauge track is laid along three sides of the park and the society's collection of Carter Brother's rolling stock is kept here. The collection is housed in the 3-bay Wissel Car Barn located in the Trudy Frank Railyard at the eastern end of track. From April to December passenger trains are hauled by one of the Museum's gasoline switching locomotives between Ardenwood Station and Deerpark Station on three days a week and on special event days; the Society holds an annual Rail Fair each Labor Day weekend during which trains are hauled by visiting steam locomotives brought in by truck. Ardenwood Historic Farm Regional Park is 210-acre farm operated by the East Bay Regional Park District; the outer part of the farm is a modern organic farm and the inner historic core is operated using the farming methods of the 1880s to 1920s.

In the center of the park is the Patterson House and Gardens, a restored Queen Anne style House built in the 19th century by the farms owners, George Washington and Clara Patterson. "Official SPCRR website". "Official East Bay Regional Park District website"