Elsie Houston was a Brazilian singer. Elsie Houston was born in Rio de Janeiro in 1902, she was the descendent of confederados, southern plantation owners that had come to Brazil after the American Civil War. Elsie's father was James Franklin Houston, an American dentist from Tennessee who settled in Rio de Janeiro in 1892, Arinda Galdo, a Brazilian descendant of Portuguese from Madeira Island. Elsie Houston figured in the Brazilian literary/art/music scene during a critical time in its history, it was an era of tremendous creative energy. In addition to Mário de Andrade and Patricia Galvão, Elsie Houston knew others famous members of this artists movement, including the composer Heitor Villa-Lobos, the painters Flavio de Carvalho, Anita Malfatti and Tarsila do Amaral, the leader of Brazilian modernism, Oswald de Andrade. Elsie studied with Lilli Lehmann a renowned voice teacher, she studied with another famed soprano, Ninon Vallin, first in Argentina and in Paris. Houston's relationship with Heitor Villa Lobos began in her teens.
Houston was a soloist at Villa Lobos's 1927 Paris concerts. In 1928 she married Benjamin Péret, French surrealist poet, with whom she lived in Brazil from 1929 to 1931, their son, was born in Rio de Janeiro in 1931. By the late 1930s, Elsie Houston had moved to New York City, she was a brilliant singer skilled in the interpretation of Brazilian songs. The New York Times during this era praised for her performances, she was an active supporter of young Latin American composers, performing early pieces by composers such as Jayme Ovalle and Camargo Guarnieri. She died in 1943, her death was listed as an apparent suicide
Surrealist automatism is a method of art-making in which the artist suppresses conscious control over the making process, allowing the unconscious mind to have great sway. Early 20th-century Dadaists, such as Hans Arp, made some use of this method through chance operations. Surrealist artists, most notably André Masson, adapted to art the automatic writing method of André Breton and Philippe Soupault who composed with it Les Champs Magnétiques in 1919; the Automatic Message was one of Breton's significant theoretical works about automatism. Automatism has taken on many forms: the automatic writing and drawing explored by the surrealists can be compared to similar or parallel phenomena, such as the non-idiomatic improvisation. "Pure psychic automatism" was how André Breton defined Surrealism, while the definition has proved capable of significant expansion, automatism remains of prime importance in the movement. Automatic drawing was pioneered by the English artist Austin Osman Spare who wrote a chapter, Automatic Drawing as a Means to Art, in his book, The Book of Pleasure.
Other artists who practised automatic drawing were Hilma af Klint, André Masson, Joan Miró, Salvador Dalí, Jean Arp and André Breton. The technique of automatic drawing was transferred to painting, has been adapted to other media. Pablo Picasso was thought to have expressed a type of automatic drawing in his work, in his etchings and lithographic suites of the 1960s. Automatic drawing was developed as a means of expressing the subconscious. In automatic drawing, the hand is allowed to move "randomly" across the paper. In applying chance and accident to mark-making, drawing is to a large extent freed of rational control. Hence the drawing produced may be attributed in part to the subconscious and may reveal something of the psyche, which would otherwise be repressed. Examples of automatic drawing were produced by practitioners of the psychic arts, it was thought by some Spiritualists to be a spirit control, producing the drawing while physically taking control of the medium's body. Most of the surrealists' automatic drawings were illusionistic, or more they developed into such drawings when representational forms seemed to suggest themselves.
In the 1940s and 1950s the French-Canadian group called Les Automatistes pursued creative work based on surrealist principles. They abandoned any trace of representation in their use of automatic drawing; this is a more pure form of automatic drawing since it can be entirely involuntary – to develop a representational form requires the conscious mind to take over the process of drawing, unless it is accidental and thus incidental. These artists, led by Paul-Émile Borduas, sought to proclaim an entity of universal values and ethics proclaimed in their manifesto Refus Global; as alluded to above, surrealist artists found that their use of "automatic drawing" was not automatic, rather it involved some form of conscious intervention to make the image or painting visually acceptable or comprehensible, "... Masson admitted that his'automatic' imagery involved a two-fold process of unconscious and conscious activity...." Some Romanian surrealists invented a number of surrealist techniques that purported to take automatism to an absurd point, the name given, "surautomatism", implies that the methods "go beyond" automatism, but this position is controversial.
The notion of automatism is rooted in the artistic movement of the same name founded by Montreal artist Paul-Emile Borduas in 1942. He, as well as a dozen other artists from Quebec's artistic scene much under restrictive and authoritarian rule in that period, signed the Global Refusal manifesto, in which the artists called upon North American society, to take notice and act upon the societal evolution projected by these new cultural paradigms opened by the Automatist movement as well as other influences in the 1940s; the computer, like the typewriter, can be used to produce automatic poetry. The practice of automatic drawing performed with pencil or pen and paper, has been adapted to mouse and monitor, other automatic methods have been either adapted from non-digital media, or invented for the computer. For instance, filters have been automatically run in some bitmap editor programs such as Photoshop and GIMP, computer-controlled brushes have been used to "simulate" automatism. Grandview — a software application created in 2011 for the Mac — displays one word at a time across the entire screen as a user types, facilitating automatic writing.
Asemic writing Automatic writing Cut-up technique Free improvisation Intuitive music Scribbling Pareidolia Surrealist music Pseudohallucination An automatic drawing by Jean Arp What is an automatic drawing? Automatic Drawing
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Leon Trotsky was a Russian revolutionary, Marxist theorist, Soviet politician whose particular strain of Marxist thought is known as Trotskyism. Supporting the Menshevik-Internationalists faction within the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, he joined the Bolsheviks just before the 1917 October Revolution becoming a leader within the Communist Party, he would go on to become one of the seven members of the first Politburo, founded in 1917 to manage the Bolshevik Revolution. During the early days of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the Soviet Union, he served first as People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and as the founder and commander of the Red Army, with the title of People's Commissar of Military and Naval Affairs, he became a major figure in the Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War. After leading a failed struggle of the Left Opposition against the policies and rise of Joseph Stalin in the 1920s and against the increasing role of bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, Trotsky was removed as Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs, removed from the Politburo, removed from the Central Committee, expelled from the Communist Party, exiled to Alma–Ata, exiled from the Soviet Union.
As the head of the Fourth International, Trotsky continued to oppose the Stalinist bureaucracy in the Soviet Union while in exile. Trotsky was assassinated in Mexico City by a Spanish-born NKVD agent. On 20 August 1940, Mercader attacked Trotsky with an ice axe and Trotsky died the next day in a hospital. Mercader acted upon instruction from Stalin and was nearly beaten to death by Trotsky's bodyguards, spent the next 20 years in a Mexican prison for the murder. Stalin presented Mercader with an Order of Lenin in absentia. Trotsky's ideas formed the basis of Trotskyism, a major school of Marxist thought that opposes the theories of Stalinism, he was written out of the history books under Stalin, was one of the few Soviet political figures, not rehabilitated by the government under Nikita Khrushchev in the 1950s. Leon Trotsky was born Lev Davidovich Bronstein on 7 November 1879, the fifth child of a Ukrainian-Jewish family of wealthy farmers in Yanovka or Yanivka, in the Kherson governorate of the Russian Empire, a small village 24 kilometres from the nearest post office.
His parents were his wife Anna Lvovna. Trotsky's father was born in Poltava, moved to Bereslavka, as it had a large Jewish community; the language spoken at home was a mixture of Ukrainian. Trotsky's younger sister, who grew up to be a Bolshevik and a Soviet politician, married the prominent Bolshevik Lev Kamenev; some authors, notably Robert Service, have claimed that Trotsky's childhood first name was the Yiddish Leiba. The American Trotskyist David North said that this was an assumption based on Trotsky's Jewish birth, contrary to Service's claims, there is no documentary evidence to support his using a Yiddish name, when that language was not spoken by his family. Both North and Walter Laqueur in their books say that Trotsky's childhood name was Lyova, a standard Russian diminutive of the name Lev. North has compared the speculation on Trotsky's given name to the undue emphasis given to his having a Jewish surname; when Trotsky was eight, his father sent him to Odessa to be educated. He was enrolled in a German-language school, which became Russified during his years in Odessa as a result of the Imperial government's policy of Russification.
As Isaac Deutscher notes in his biography of Trotsky, Odessa was a bustling cosmopolitan port city unlike the typical Russian city of the time. This environment contributed to the development of the young man's international outlook. Although Trotsky spoke French and German to a good standard, he said in his autobiography My Life that he was never fluent in any language but Russian and Ukrainian. Raymond Molinier wrote. Trotsky became involved in revolutionary activities in 1896 after moving to the harbor town of Nikolayev on the Ukrainian coast of the Black Sea. At first a narodnik, he opposed Marxism but was won over to Marxism that year by his future first wife, Aleksandra Sokolovskaya. Instead of pursuing a mathematics degree, Trotsky helped organize the South Russian Workers' Union in Nikolayev in early 1897. Using the name'Lvov,' he wrote and printed leaflets and proclamations, distributed revolutionary pamphlets, popularized socialist ideas among industrial workers and revolutionary students.
In January 1898, more than 200 members of the union, including Trotsky, were arrested. He was held for the next two years in prison awaiting trial, first in Nikolayev Kherson Odessa, in Moscow. In the Moscow prison he came into contact with other revolutionaries and heard about Lenin and read Lenin's book, The Development of Capitalism in Russia. Two months into his imprisonment, on 1–3 March 1898, the first Congress of the newly formed Russian Social Democratic Labor Party was held. From on Trotsky identified as a member of the party. While in the prison in Moscow, in the summer of 1899, Trotsky married Aleksandra Sokolovskaya, a fellow Marxist; the wedding ceremony was performed by a Jewish chaplain. In 1900, he was sentenced to four years in exile in Siberia; because of their marriage and his wife were allowed to be exiled to the same location
British Columbia Coast
The British Columbia Coast or BC Coast is Canada's western continental coastline on the North Pacific Ocean. The usage is synonymous with the term West Coast of Canada. In a sense excluding the urban Lower Mainland area adjacent to the Canada–United States border, considered "The Coast," the British Columbia Coast refers to one of British Columbia's three main regions, the others being the Lower Mainland and The Interior; the aerial distance from Victoria on the Strait of Juan de Fuca to Stewart, British Columbia on the Alaska border at the head of the Portland Canal is 965 kilometres in length. However, because of its many deep inlets and complicated island shorelines—and 40,000 islands of varying sizes, including Vancouver Island and Haida Gwaii —the total length of the British Columbia Coast is over 25,725 kilometres, making up about 10% of the Canadian coastline at 243,042 kilometres; the coastline's geography, shared with Southeast Alaska and adjoining parts of northwest Washington, is most comparable to that of Norway and its indented coastline of fjords, a landscape found in southern Chile.
The dominant landforms of the BC Coast are the Insular Mountains, comprising most of Vancouver Island and Haida Gwaii, the Coast Mountains, which extend beyond into Alaska and the Yukon. The British Columbia Coast is part of the Pacific temperate rain forests ecoregion as defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature. In the system used by Environment Canada, established by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, the area is defined as the Pacific Maritime Ecozone. In the geoclimatic zones system used by the British Columbia Ministry of Forests the bulk of the region comprises the Coastal Western Hemlock biogeoclimatic zone, although small areas flanking the Strait of Georgia at the coast's southern extremity are classed in the Coastal Douglas-fir zone; the great fjords of the British Columbia Coast rival those of Norway in length and depth but have higher mountain scenery with a more alpine flavour. Many of the islands offshore are much larger than those along the Norwegian coast, many large enough to have major fjords of their own, as well as their own mountain ranges.
This is of course more true of the large islands farther offshore, Vancouver Island and Graham and Moresby Islands in Haida Gwaii, which together form the Insular Mountains, distinct from the Coast Mountains of the mainland. Here are the most important fjords, inlets and sounds, including those important for reasons other than their size, listed south to north: The many fjord-like waterways between the coast and the islands, within the archipelago, cannot be listed here, there are many more others that are not so much fjord-like as flooded valleys between what had been mountain peaks many thousands of years ago, when the shoreline was lower; the waterway route through these islands between Vancouver and Prince Rupert, between Seattle and Alaska, is known as the Inside Passage. It has played a role in U. S.-Canada relations more than once, from the Klondike Gold Rush to the Salmon War of the 1990s. Major and important waterways are: Vancouver Island Haida Gwaii Graham Island Moresby Island Louise Island Lyell Island Kunghit Island Porcher Island Pitt Island McCauley Island Banks Island Gil Island Gribbell Island Hawkesbury Island Princess Royal Island Aristazabal Island Price Island Swindle Island Campbell Island Denny Island Hunter Island King Island Calvert Island Caamano Island Malcolm Island Broughton Archipelago Broughton Island Gilford Island Knight Inlet West/East Cracroft Islands Knight Inlet Hardwicke Island Johnstone Strait Discovery Islands East Thurlow Island West Thurlow Island Sonora Island Maurelle Island Read Island Raza Island Quadra Island Cortes Island East Redonda Island West Redonda Island Hernando Island Stuart Island Rendezvous Islands Nelson Island Northern Gulf Islands: Savary Island Texada Island Lasqueti Island Hornby Island Denman Island The above list ends at the northern Strait of Georgia, the last several forming a group known as the northern Gulf Islands.
The southern Gulf Islands are as follows: Gabriola Island Valdes Island Thetis Island Kuiper Island Saltspring Island Prevost Island Galiano Island Mayne Island North Pender Island South Pender Island Saturna Island Sidney Island James IslandThe Gulf Islands continue southeast across the Haro Straits as the San Juan Islands. The islands of Howe Sound are classed among the southern Gulf Islands, but they adjoin the mainland rather than Vancouver Island and are considered separately, they are: Bowen Island Gambier Island Anvil Island Keats island Bowyer IslandThe islands of the Fraser River estuary are: Barnston Island Lulu Island Sea Island Westham Island Iona Island Deas Island Annacis Island Research from the 1990s has indicated that the Ice Age-era coastline of the British Columbia Coast was lower by about 100 metres. The effect of the waterlevel on the coastline was such that the Queen Charlotte Strait, between Haida Gwaii and the northern end of Vancouver Island, was a coastal plain, as were all the straits inland from it, except for those that were mountain valleys.
Underwater archaeology has shown the presence of permanent human habitations and other activity at the 100-metre contour, the Ice Age existence of such a coastal plain has put a new light on Ice Age populations in North America as well as on the strong likeli
Varian Mackey Fry was an American journalist. Fry ran a rescue network in Vichy France that helped 2,000 to 4,000 anti-Nazi and Jewish refugees to escape Nazi Germany and the Holocaust, he was the first American to be recognized as "Righteous Among the Nations", an honorific given by the State of Israel to non-Jews who risked their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust. Varian Fry was born in New York City, his parents were a manager of the Wall Street firm Carlysle and Mellick. The family moved to Ridgewood, New Jersey, in 1910, he enjoyed bird-watching and reading. During World War I, at 9 years of age and friends conducted a fund-raising bazaar for the American Red Cross that included a vaudeville show, an ice cream stand and fish pond, he was educated at Hotchkiss School from 1922 to 1924, when he left the school due to hazing rituals. He attended the Riverdale Country School, graduating in 1926. An able, multi-lingual student, Fry scored in the top 10% on the entrance exams to Harvard University and, while a Harvard undergraduate, founded Hound & Horn, an influential literary quarterly, in 1927 with Lincoln Kirstein.
He had to repeat his senior year. Through Kirstein's sister, Mina, he met his future wife, Eileen Avery Hughes, an editor of Atlantic Monthly, seven years his senior and had been educated at Roedean School and Oxford University, they married on June 2, 1931. While working as a foreign correspondent for the American journal The Living Age, Fry visited Berlin in 1935, witnessed Nazi abuse against Jews on more than one occasion, which "turned him into an ardent anti-Nazi", he said in 1945, "I could not remain idle as long as I had any chances at all of saving a few of its intended victims."Following his visit to Berlin, Fry wrote about the savage treatment of Jews by Hitler's regime in the New York Times in 1935. He wrote books about foreign affairs for Headline Books, owned by the Foreign Policy Association, including The Peace that Failed, it describes the troubled political climate following World War I, the break-up of Czechoslovakia and the events leading up to World War II. Disturbed by what he saw, Fry helped raise money to support European anti-Nazi movements.
After the invasion of France in June 1940, which the Germans occupied, he went to Marseille in August 1940 as an agent of the newly formed Emergency Rescue Committee in an effort to help persons wishing to flee the Nazis, circumvent the processes by French authorities who would not issue exit visas. Fry had $3,000 and a short list of refugees under imminent threat of arrest by agents of the Gestapo Jews. Clamoring at his door came anti-Nazi writers, avant-garde artists and hundreds of others seeking any chance to escape France; some historians noted it was a miracle that a white American Protestant would risk everything to help the Jews. Beginning in 1940, in Marseille, despite the watchful eye of the collaborationist Vichy regime, Fry and a small group of volunteers hid people at the Villa Air-Bel until they could be smuggled out. More than 2,200 people were taken across the border to Spain and to the safety of neutral Portugal from which they made their way to the United States. Fry helped other exiles escape on ships leaving Marseille for the French colony of Martinique, from which they too could go to the United States.
Among Fry's closest associates were Americans Miriam Davenport, a former art student at the Sorbonne, the heiress Mary Jayne Gold, a lover of the arts and the "good life" who had come to Paris in the early 1930s. When the Nazis seized France in 1940, Gold went to Marseille, where she worked with Fry and helped finance his operation. Working with Fry was a young academic named Albert O. Hirschman. Instrumental in getting Fry the visas he needed for the artists and political dissidents on his list, was Hiram Bingham IV, an American Vice Consul in Marseille who fought against anti-Semitism in the State Department and was responsible for issuing thousands of visas, both legal and illegal. From his isolated position in Marseille, Fry relied on the Unitarian Service Committee in Lisbon to help the refugees he sent; this office, staffed by American Unitarians under the direction of Robert Dexter, helped refugees to wait in safety for visas and other necessary papers, to gain ship passage from Lisbon.
Fry was forced to leave France in September 1941 after officials both of the Vichy government and at the United States State Department had become angered by his covert activities. In 1942, the Emergency Rescue Committee and the American branch of the European-based International Relief Association joined forces under the name the International Relief and Rescue Committee, shortened to the International Rescue Committee; the IRC is a leading nonsectarian, nongovernmental international relief and development organization that still operates today. Among those Fry aided were: Fry wrote and spoke critically against U. S. immigration policies relating to the issue of the fate of Jews in Europe. In a December 1942 issue of The New Republic, he wrote a scathing article titled: "The Massacre of Jews in Europe". Although by 1942 Fry had been terminated from his position at the Emergency Rescue Committee, American private rescuers acknowledged that his program in France had been uniquely effective, recruited him in 1944 to provide behind-the-scenes guidance to the Roosevelt administration's late-breaking rescue program, the War Refugee Board.
Fry published a book in 1945 about his time in France under the title Surrender on Demand, first published by Random House, 1945
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog