Lemuel Shaw was an American jurist who served as Chief Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Prior to his appointment he served for several years in the Massachusetts House of Representatives and as a state senator. In 1847 Shaw became the father-in-law of author Herman Melville. Shaw was born in West Barnstable, the second son of Oakes Shaw and his second wife Susanna, a daughter of John H. Hayward of Braintree; the Shaws were descendants of Abraham Shaw, who settled in Dedham. Oakes Shaw, a Congregationalist minister, was pastor of the West Church in Barnstable for forty-seven years. Lemuel was named for Dr. Hayward of Boston, father of George Hayward, the surgeon. Educated at home by his father except for a few months at Braintree, he entered Harvard in 1796. There, he taught school in winter vacations. After graduating with high honors in 1800, he taught for a year in a Boston public school, wrote articles and read proof for the Boston Gazette, a Federalist newspaper. In August 1801, he began studying law in Boston under David Everett.
Meanwhile, he learned French proficiently from a refugee, Antoine Jay, afterwards a founder in France of the liberal newspaper Le Constitutionnel. In 1802, he moved with Everett to Amherst, New Hampshire, where besides doing legal work he contributed a poem on dancing and translations from French to the Farmers' Cabinet, a local newspaper, he became engaged to Nancy Melvill, daughter of Maj. Thomas Melvill of Boston but she died soon afterward. Admitted to the bar in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, in September 1804, in Plymouth County, Massachusetts that November, Shaw began practice in Boston; when his associate left Boston after being acquitted of murder in a political quarrel, he practiced alone for fifteen years. In about 1822, Shaw took an able trial lawyer, as his junior partner, his practice became large, but he was less known as an advocate than as the adviser of important commercial enterprises. Shaw was prepared for his judicial career by numerous public positions, he was elected a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives, serving in 1811-14, 1820 and 1829, as a state senator in 1821-22.
He served as a member of the constitutional convention of 1820. He held many offices in Boston. Shaw was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1823. In 1822, with few precedents to guide him, he drafted the first charter of the city, which lasted until 1913. On the death of Chief State Justice Isaac Parker, Governor Levi Lincoln offered Shaw the appointment. Daniel Webster urged Shaw to accept, though it meant giving up a practice of $15,000 to $20,000 a year for a salary of $3,500, and for this, if nothing else, Webster thought the public owed him a debt of gratitude. Shaw's commission was issued August 30, 1830, he served 30 years, resigning August 21, 1860, his exceptionally long judicial career coincided with the development of many important industries, so that he made law on such matters as water power and other public utilities. No other state judge has so influenced commercial and constitutional law throughout the nation, his skill in expounding the fellow-servant rule delayed the replacement of that rule by workmen's compensation.
An opinion by Shaw lends itself to isolated quotations. "His words had weight rather than brilliancy or eloquence", his greatness came from his personality as well as from his intellectual powers. He preeminently a magistrate. In Shaw's time, the chief justice sat at trials. In such work he was thorough and patient, with a remarkable power to charge juries so that they understood the exact questions before them. Among his cases that excited great public interest were the trial in 1834 of the anti-Catholic rioters who destroyed the Ursuline convent in Charlestown. In 1836 his court ruled in Commonwealth v. Aves that a slave brought voluntarily into Massachusetts, a free state, was a "sojourner," or a journeyer, not taking domicile in that state. Therefore, slaves could be brought into the state only for a limited time. Abolitionists, who had brought the habeas corpus suit, wanted a rule which would have freed the girl, while southern defenders of the practice wanted the court to uphold the concept of comity and acknowledge the legality of slavery.
Shaw attempted to split the decision by applying the archaic "sojourner" status to slaves. Further, he rejected the idea. In its strict understanding comity is a vehicle for facilitating trade and amicable interactions between jurisdictions and this does not fit this factual situation as a state or jurisdiction is not required to honor comity if in doing so it is sanctioning practices repugnant to the state's own norms; this caused an uproar in the South where planters accused the Northerners of denying their equal sovereign status. Because of Boston's strong abolitionist stand, Shaw continued to oversee cases related to slave law and race, his ruling in favor of the constitutionality of school segregation in Roberts v. City of Boston established "separate but equal" as a legal doctrine in the state. In another case, he again refused to release a fugitive slave on habeas corpus grounds, as he felt bound by the Constitution and the law, as the recent Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 required states and local governments to cooperate in the capture of escaped slaves.
Other cases that were notable w
Millard Fillmore was the 13th president of the United States, the last to be a member of the Whig Party while in the White House. A former U. S. Representative from New York, Fillmore was elected the nation's 12th vice president in 1848, succeeded to the presidency in July 1850 upon the death of President Zachary Taylor, he was instrumental in getting the Compromise of 1850 passed, a bargain that led to a brief truce in the battle over slavery. He failed to win the Whig nomination for president in 1852. Fillmore was born into poverty in the Finger Lakes area of New York state—his parents were tenant farmers during his formative years. Though he had little formal schooling, he rose from poverty through diligent study and became a successful attorney, he became prominent in the Buffalo area as an attorney and politician, was elected to the New York Assembly in 1828, to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1832, he belonged to the Anti-Masonic Party, but became a Whig as the party formed in the mid-1830s.
Through his career, Fillmore declared slavery an evil, but one beyond the powers of the federal government, whereas Seward was not only hostile to slavery, he argued that the federal government had a role to play in ending it. Fillmore was an unsuccessful candidate for Speaker of the House when the Whigs took control of the chamber in 1841, but was made Ways and Means Committee chairman. Defeated in bids for the Whig nomination for vice president in 1844, for New York governor the same year, Fillmore was elected Comptroller of New York in 1847, the first to hold that post by direct election; as vice president, Fillmore was ignored by Taylor in the dispensing of patronage in New York, on which Taylor consulted Weed and Seward. In his capacity as President of the Senate however, he presided over angry debates in the Senate as Congress decided whether to allow slavery in the Mexican Cession. Fillmore supported Henry Clay's Omnibus Bill. Upon becoming president in July 1850, Fillmore dismissed Taylor's cabinet and carried out his own policy priorities.
He began by exerting pressure on Congress to pass the Compromise, highlighting how it gave legislative victories to both North and South – the five-bill package was approved and enacted into law that September. The Fugitive Slave Act, expediting the return of escaped slaves to those who claimed ownership, was a controversial part of the Compromise, Fillmore felt himself duty-bound to enforce it, though it damaged his popularity and the Whig Party, torn North from South. In foreign policy, Fillmore supported U. S. Navy expeditions to open trade in Japan, opposed French designs on Hawaii, was embarrassed by Narciso López's filibuster expeditions to Cuba, he sought election to a full term in 1852, but was passed over by the Whigs in favor of Winfield Scott. As the Whig Party broke up after Fillmore's presidency, many in Fillmore's conservative wing joined the Know Nothings, forming the American Party. In his 1856 candidacy as that party's nominee, Fillmore had little to say about immigration, focusing instead on the preservation of the Union, won only Maryland.
In retirement, Fillmore was active in many civic endeavors—he helped in founding the University of Buffalo and served as its first chancellor. During the American Civil War, Fillmore denounced secession and agreed that the Union must be maintained by force if necessary, but was critical of the war policies of Abraham Lincoln. After peace was restored, he supported the Reconstruction policies of President Andrew Johnson. Though he is obscure today, Fillmore has been praised by some, for his foreign policy, criticized by others, for his enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Act and his association with the Know Nothings. Historians and scholars have ranked Fillmore as one of the worst presidents, debate continues on to this day concerning whether Fillmore escalated the civil war by signing the Compromise of 1850. Millard Fillmore was born January 7, 1800 in a log cabin, on a farm in what is now Moravia, Cayuga County, in the Finger Lakes region of New York, his parents were Phoebe and Nathaniel Fillmore—he was the second of eight children and the oldest son.
Nathaniel Fillmore was the son of Nathaniel Fillmore Sr. a native of Franklin, Connecticut who became one of the earliest settlers of Bennington when it was founded in the territory called the New Hampshire Grants. Nathaniel Fillmore and Phoebe Millard moved from Vermont in 1799, seeking better opportunities than were available on Nathaniel's stony farm, but the title to their Cayuga County land proved defective, the Fillmore family moved to nearby Sempronius, where they leased land as tenant farmers, Nathaniel taught school. Historian Tyler Anbinder described Fillmore's childhood as, "...one of hard work, frequent privation, no formal schooling". Over time Nathaniel became more successful in Sempronius, though during Millard’s formative years the family endured severe poverty. Nathaniel became sufficiently regarded that he was chosen to serve in local offices including justice of the peace. In hopes his oldest son would learn a trade, he convinced Millard at age 14 not to enlist for the War of 1812 and apprenticed him to cloth maker Benjamin Hungerford in Sparta.
Fillmore was relegated to menial labor. His father placed him in the same trade at a mill in New Hope. Seeking to better him
An apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and some accompanying study. Apprenticeship enables practitioners to gain a license to practice in a regulated profession. Most of their training is done while working for an employer who helps the apprentices learn their trade or profession, in exchange for their continued labor for an agreed period after they have achieved measurable competencies. Apprenticeships last 3 to 7 years. People who complete an apprenticeship reach the "journeyman" or professional certification level of competence. Although the formal boundaries and terminology of the apprentice/journeyman/master system do not extend outside guilds and trade unions, the concept of on-the-job training leading to competence over a period of years is found in any field of skilled labor. In early modern usage, the clipped form prentice was common; the system of apprenticeship first developed in the Middle Ages and came to be supervised by craft guilds and town governments.
A master craftsman was entitled to employ young people as an inexpensive form of labour in exchange for providing food and formal training in the craft. Most apprentices were males, but female apprentices were found in crafts such as seamstress, cordwainer and stationer. Apprentices began at ten to fifteen years of age, would live in the master craftsman's household. Most apprentices aspired to becoming master craftsmen themselves on completion of their contract, but some would spend time as a journeyman and a significant proportion would never acquire their own workshop. In Coventry those completing seven-year apprenticeships with stuff merchants were entitled to become freemen of the city. Subsequently, governmental regulation and the licensing of technical colleges and vocational education formalized and bureaucratized the details of apprenticeship. Australian Apprenticeships encompass all traineeships, they cover all industry sectors in Australia and are used to achieve both'entry-level' and career'upskilling' objectives.
There were 475,000 Australian Apprentices in-training as at 31 March 2012, an increase of 2.4% from the previous year. Australian Government employer and employee incentives may be applicable, while State and Territory Governments may provide public funding support for the training element of the initiative. Australian Apprenticeships combine time at work with formal training and can be full-time, part-time or school-based. Australian Apprentice and Traineeship services are dedicated to promoting retention, therefore much effort is made to match applicants with the right apprenticeship or traineeship; this is done with the aid of aptitude tests and information on'how to retain an apprentice or apprenticeship'. Information and resources on potential apprenticeship and traineeship occupations are available in over sixty industries; the distinction between the terms apprentices and trainees lies around traditional trades and the time it takes to gain a qualification. The Australian government uses Australian Apprenticeships Centres to administer and facilitate Australian Apprenticeships so that funding can be disseminated to eligible businesses and apprentices and trainees and to support the whole process as it underpins the future skills of Australian industry.
Australia has a unusual safety net in place for businesses and Australian Apprentices with its Group Training scheme. This is where businesses that are not able to employ the Australian Apprentice for the full period until they qualify, are able to lease or hire the Australian Apprentice from a Group Training Organisation, it is a safety net, because the Group Training Organisation is the employer and provides continuity of employment and training for the Australian Apprentice. In addition to a safety net, Group Training Organisations have other benefits such as additional support for both the Host employer and the trainee/apprentice through an industry consultant who visits to make sure that the trainee/apprentice are fulfilling their work and training obligations with their Host employer. There is the additional benefit of the trainee/apprentice being employed by the GTO reducing the Payroll/Superannuation and other legislative requirements on the Host employer who pays as invoiced per agreement.
Apprenticeship training in Austria is organized in a dual education system: company-based training of apprentices is complemented by compulsory attendance of a part-time vocational school for apprentices. It lasts two to four years – the duration varies among the 250 recognized apprenticeship trades. About 40 percent of all Austrian teenagers enter apprenticeship training upon completion of compulsory education; this number has been stable since the 1950s. The five most popular trades are: Retail Salesperson, Car Mechanic, Cook. There are many smaller trades with small numbers of apprentices, like "EDV-Systemtechniker", completed by fewer than 100 people a year; the Apprenticeship Leave Certificate provides the apprentice with access to two different vocational careers. On the one hand, it is a prerequisite for the admission to the Master Craftsman Exam and for qualification tests, on the other hand it gives access to higher education via the TVE-Exam or the Higher Education Entrance Exam which are prerequisites for taking up studies at colleges, universities, "Fachhochschulen", post-secondary courses and post-secondary colleges.
The person responsible for overseeing the training in
Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body levels charges against a government official. It does not mean removal from office. Once an individual is impeached, he or she must face the possibility of conviction by a legislative vote, which judgment entails removal from office; because impeachment and conviction of officials involve an overturning of the normal constitutional procedures by which individuals achieve high office and because it requires a supermajority, they are reserved for those deemed to have committed serious abuses of their office. In the United States, for example, impeachment at the federal level is limited to those who may have committed "Treason, Bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors". Impeachment exists under constitutional law in many countries around the world, including Brazil, the Republic of Ireland, the Philippines, South Korea and the United States; the word "impeachment" derives from Old French empeechier from Latin word impedicare expressing the idea of becoming caught or entrapped, has analogues in the modern French verb empêcher and the modern English impede.
Medieval popular etymology associated it with derivations from the Latin impetere. Impeachment was first used in the British political system; the process was first used by the English "Good Parliament" against Baron Latimer in the second half of the 14th century. Following the British example, the constitutions of Virginia and other states thereafter adopted the impeachment mechanism, but they restricted the punishment to removal of the official from office; as well, in private organizations, a motion to impeach can be used to prefer charges. The Austrian Federal President can be impeached by the Federal Assembly before the Constitutional Court; the constitution provides for the recall of the president by a referendum. Neither of these courses has been taken; this is because while the President is vested with considerable powers on paper, they act as a ceremonial figurehead in practice, are thus hardly in a position to abuse their powers. The President of the Federative Republic of Brazil, state governors and municipal mayors may be impeached by the Chamber of Deputies and tried and removed by the Federal Senate.
Upon conviction, the officeholder has his political rights revoked for eight years—which has the effect of barring him from running for any office. Fernando Collor de Mello, the 32nd President of Brazil, resigned in 1992 amidst impeachment proceedings. Despite his resignation, the Senate nonetheless voted to convict him and bar him from holding any office for eight years, due to evidence of bribery and misappropriation. In 2016, the Chamber of Deputies initiated an impeachment case against President Dilma Rousseff on allegations of budgetary mismanagement. Following her conviction, she was replaced by Vice President Michel Temer, who had served as acting president while Rousseff's case was pending; the President of Bulgaria can be removed only for violation of the constitution. The process is started by a two-thirds majority vote of the Parliament to impeach the President, whereupon the Constitutional Court decides whether the President is guilty of the crime of which he is charged. If he is found guilty, he is removed from power.
No Bulgarian President has been impeached. The same procedure can be used to remove the Vice President of Bulgaria, which has never happened; the process of impeaching the President of Croatia can be initiated by a two-thirds majority vote in favor in the Sabor and is thereafter referred to the Constitutional Court, which must accept such a proposal with a two-thirds majority vote in favor in order for the president to be removed from office. This has, never occurred in the history of the Republic of Croatia. However, in case of a successful impeachment motion a president's constitutional term of five years would be terminated and an election called within 60 days of the vacancy occurring. During the period of vacancy the presidential powers and duties would be carried out by the Speaker of the Croatian Parliament in his/her capacity as Acting President of the Republic. Prior to 2013 the President of the Czech Republic could be impeached only for an act of high treason; the process has to start in the Senate of the Czech Republic which only has the right to impeach the president, this passes the case to the Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic which has to decide whether the President is guilty or not.
If the Court decides that the President is guilty the President loses his office and the ability to be elected President of the Czech Republic again. No Czech president has been impeached, members of the Senate sought to impeach President Vaclav Klaus in 2013; this case was dismissed by the court reasoning. In 2013 the constitution changed; the President can be impeached not only for high treason but for a serious infringement of the Constitution. The President of France can be impeached by the French Parliament for willfully violating the Constitution or the national laws; the process of impeachment is written in the 68th article of the French Constitution. A group
Mount Auburn Cemetery
Mount Auburn Cemetery is the first rural, or garden, cemetery in the United States, located on the line between Cambridge and Watertown in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, 4 miles west of Boston. It is the burial site of many prominent members of the Boston Brahmins, as well being a National Historic Landmark. Dedicated in 1831 and set with classical monuments in a rolling landscaped terrain, it marked a distinct break with Colonial-era burying grounds and church-affiliated graveyards; the appearance of this type of landscape coincides with the rising popularity of the term "cemetery," derived from the Greek for "a sleeping place," instead of graveyard. This language and outlook eclipsed the previous harsh view of death and the afterlife embodied by old graveyards and church burial plots; the 174-acre cemetery is important both for its role as an arboretum. It is Watertown's largest contiguous open space and extends into Cambridge to the east, adjacent to the Cambridge City Cemetery and Sand Banks Cemetery.
It was designated a National Historic Landmark District in 2003 for its pioneering role in 19th-century cemetery development. The land that became Mount Auburn Cemetery was named Stone's Farm, though locals referred to it as "Sweet Auburn" after the 1770 poem "The Deserted Village" by Oliver Goldsmith. Mount Auburn Cemetery was inspired by Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris and was itself an inspiration to cemetery designers, most notably at Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn and Abney Park in London. Mount Auburn Cemetery was designed by Henry Alexander Scammell Dearborn with assistance from Jacob Bigelow and Alexander Wadsworth. Bigelow came up with the idea for Mount Auburn as early as 1825, though a site was not acquired until five years later. Bigelow, a medical doctor, was concerned about the unhealthiness of burials under churches as well as the possibility of running out of space. With help from the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, Mount Auburn Cemetery was founded on 70 acres of land authorized by the Massachusetts Legislature for use as a garden or rural cemetery.
The original land cost $6,000. The main gate was built in the Egyptian Revival style and cost $10,000; the first president of the Mount Auburn Association, Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story, dedicated the cemetery in 1831. Story's dedication address, delivered on September 24, 1831, set the model for many more addresses in the following three decades. Garry Wills focuses on it as an important precursor to President Lincoln's Gettysburg Address; the cemetery is credited as the beginning of the American public gardens movement. It set the style for other suburban American cemeteries such as Laurel Hill Cemetery, Mount Hope Cemetery, America's first municipal rural cemetery, it can be considered the link between Capability Brown's English landscape gardens and Frederick Law Olmsted's Central Park in New York. Mount Auburn was established at a time when Americans had a sentimental interest in rural cemeteries, it is still accepting attitude toward death. Many of the more traditional monuments feature symbols of blissful sleep.
In the late 1830s, its first unofficial guide, Picturesque Pocket Companion and Visitor's Guide Through Mt. Auburn, was published and featured descriptions of some of the more interesting monuments as well as a collection of prose and poetry about death by writers including Nathaniel Hawthorne and Willis Gaylord Clark; because of the number of visitors, the cemetery's developers regulated the grounds: They had a policy to remove "offensive and improper" monuments and only "proprietors" could have vehicles on the grounds and were allowed within the gates on Sundays and holidays. In the 1840s, Mount Auburn was considered one of the most popular tourist destinations in the nation, along with Niagara Falls and Mount Vernon. A 16-year-old Emily Dickinson wrote about her visit to Mount Auburn in a letter in 1846. 60,000 people visited the cemetery in 1848 alone. The cemetery has three notable buildings on its grounds. Washington Tower was designed by Bigelow and built in 1852–54. Named for George Washington, the 62-foot tower was built of Quincy granite and provides excellent views of the area.
Bigelow Chapel was built in the 1840s and rebuilt in the 1850s of Quincy granite, was renovated in 1899 under the direction of architect Willard Sears to accommodate a crematorium. Its interior was again renovated in 1924 by Collins. Through all of these alterations, stained glass windows by Scottish firm of Allan & Ballantyne were preserved. In 1870 the cemetery trustees, feeling the need for additional function space, purchased land across Mount Auburn Street and constructed a reception house; this building was supplanted in the 1890s by the construction of the Story Chapel and Administration Building, adjacent to the main gate. The first reception house was designed by Nathaniel J. Bradlee, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the second building was designed by Willard Sears, is built of Potsdam sandstone in what Sears characterized as "English Perpendicular Style". The chapel in this building was redecorated in 1929 by Allen and Co
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students