24 Hours of Le Mans
The 24 Hours of Le Mans is the world's oldest active sports car race in endurance racing, held annually since 1923 near the town of Le Mans, France. It is considered one of the most prestigious automobile races in the world and has been called the "Grand Prix of Endurance and Efficiency"; the event represents one leg of the Triple Crown of Motorsport. The race is organized by the Automobile Club de l'Ouest and is held on the Circuit de la Sarthe, which contains a mix of closed public roads and dedicated sections of racing track, in which racing teams must balance the demands of speed with the cars' ability to run for 24 hours without mechanical failure. Of the 60 cars which qualified for the 2018 race, 41 cars ran the full duration. Since 2012, the 24 Hours of Le Mans has been a part of the FIA World Endurance Championship; because of the decision to run a World Endurance Championship super-season in the period May 2018 to June 2019, the 24 Hours of Le Mans will be run twice in the same season: it will be both the second and the last round of the season.
In 2011 it was a part of the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup, it formed a part of the World Sportscar Championship from 1953 until that series' final season in 1992. Over time, Le Mans has influenced events that have sprung up all around the globe, popularizing the 24-hour format at locations such as Daytona, Nürburgring, Spa-Francorchamps, Bathurst; the American Le Mans Series and Europe's Le Mans Series of multi-event sports car championships were spun off from 24 Hours of Le Mans regulations. Other races include the Le Mans Classic, a race for historic Le Mans race cars from years' past held on the Circuit de la Sarthe, a motorcycle version of the race, held on the shortened Bugatti version of the same circuit, a kart race, a truck race, a parody race 24 Hours of LeMons; the 2019 24 Hours of Le Mans will be held on June 15–16 at the Circuit de la Sarthe, Le Mans, France. At a time when Grand Prix motor racing was the dominant form of motorsport throughout Europe, Le Mans was designed to present a different test.
Instead of focusing on the ability of a car company to build the fastest machines, the 24 Hours of Le Mans would instead concentrate on the ability of manufacturers to build sporty yet reliable cars. This encouraged innovation in producing reliable and fuel-efficient vehicles, because endurance racing requires cars that last and spend as little time in the pits as possible. At the same time, the layout of the track necessitated cars with better aerodynamics and stability at high speeds. While this was shared with Grand Prix racing, few tracks in Europe had straights of a length comparable to the Mulsanne. Additionally, because the road is public and thus not as meticulously maintained as permanent racing circuits, racing puts more strain on the parts, increasing the importance of reliability; the oil crisis in the early 1970s led organizers to adopt a fuel economy formula known as Group C that limited the amount of fuel each car was allowed. Although it was abandoned, fuel economy remains important as new fuel sources reduce time spent during pit stops.
Such technological innovations have had a trickle-down effect and can be incorporated into consumer cars. This has led to faster and more exotic supercars as manufacturers seek to develop faster road cars in order to develop them into faster GT cars. Additionally, in recent years hybrid systems have been championed in the LMP category as rules have been changed to their benefit and to further push efficiency; the race is held in June, leading at times to hot conditions for drivers in closed vehicles with poor ventilation. The race begins in mid-afternoon and finishes the following day at the same hour the race started the previous day. Over the 24 hours, modern competitors cover distances well over 5,000 km; the record is 2010's 5,410 km, six times the length of the Indianapolis 500, or 18 times longer than a Formula One Grand Prix. Drivers and racing teams strive for speed and avoiding mechanical damage, as well as managing the cars' consumables fuel and braking materials, it tests endurance, with drivers racing for over two hours before a relief driver can take over during a pit stop while they eat and rest.
Current regulations mandate. Competing teams race in groups called "classes", or cars of similar specification, while competing for outright placing amongst all classes; the race showcased cars as they were sold to the general public called "Sports Cars", in contrast with the specialised racing cars used in Grand Prix motor racing. Over time, the competing vehicles evolved away from their publicly available road car roots, today the race is made of two overall classes: prototypes, Grand Touring cars; these are further broken down into 2 sub-classes each, constructors' prototypes, privateer prototypes and 2 subclasses of GT cars. Competing teams have had a wide variety of organization, ranging from competition departments of road car manufacturers to professional motor racing teams to amateur teams; the race has spent long periods as a round of the World S
Bentley 3 Litre
The Bentley 3 Litre was a car chassis manufactured by Bentley. The company's first it was developed from 1919 and made available to customers' coachbuilders from 1921 to 1929; the Bentley was much larger than the 1368 cc Bugattis that dominated racing at the time, but double the size of engine and strength compensated for the extra weight. The 4000 lb car won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1924, with drivers John Duff and Frank Clement, again in 1927, this time in Super Sports form, with drivers S. C. H. "Sammy" Davis and Dudley Benjafield. Its weight and speed prompted Ettore Bugatti to call it "the fastest lorry in the world." The 3 Litre was delivered as a running chassis to the coachbuilder of the buyer's choice. Bentley referred many customers to their near neighbour Vanden Plas for bodies. Dealers might order a short cost-saving run of identical bodies to their own distinctive design. Most bodies took the simplest and cheapest form, but as it was all "custom" coachwork there was plenty of variation.
Customers included Prince George, Duke of Kent, Gertrude Lawrence, Beatrice Lillie. The 3.0 L straight-4 engine was designed by ex-Royal Flying Corps engineer Clive Gallop and was technically advanced for its time. It was one of the first production car engines with 4 valves per cylinder, dry-sump lubrication and an overhead camshaft; the four valve SOHC Hemi design, with a bevel-geared shaft drive for the camshaft, was based on the pre-war 1914 Mercedes Daimler M93654 racing engine. Just before the outbreak of the war Mercedes had placed one of the winning Grand Prix cars in their London showroom in Long Acre. At the suggestion of W. O. Bentley being commissioned in the Royal Naval Air Service, the vehicle was confiscated in 1915 by the British army, dismantled at Rolls-Royce and subjected to scrutiny. A notable difference to both the Mercedes and the aero engines was the cast-iron monobloc design, the Aluminium enclosed camshaft, which contributed to its durability, but having the valve-head and block in one-piece made for a complicated and labour intensive casting and machining.
This was a feature shared during that time by the Bugattis which the car was to compete with. The engine was among the first with two spark plugs per cylinder, pent-roof combustion chambers, twin carburetters, it was undersquare, optimized for low-end torque, with a bore of 80 mm and a stroke of 149 mm. Untuned power output was around 70 hp, allowing the 3 Litre to reach 80 mph; the Speed Model could reach 90 mph. A four-speed gearbox was fitted; the chassis from a Humber was designed by Frederick Tasker Burgess chief designer at Humber who had worked with W. O. during the war producing the aero engines BR1 and BR2. It should be noted that Bentley did not deliver complete vehicles, but – as was customary – provided only a rolling chassis. Only the rear wheels had brakes until 1924. There were three main variants of the 3 litre and they became known by the colours used on the radiator badge. There was a definite rule controlling badge colours but astonishingly it has since been established that given "special circumstances" the factory would indeed supply a "wrong" colour.
This was the standard model with 117.5 in wheelbase from 1921 to 1929 or long 130.0 in wheelbase from 1923 to 1929. This used a 5.3:1 high compression engine in the 117.5 in wheelbase chassis and was made from 1924 to 1929. Made between 1924 and 1929 this was the high performance model with 6.3:1 compression ratio and short 108 in wheelbase chassis. 100 mph performance was guaranteed. The 3 Litre chassis was shown at the 1919 London Motor Show, but the engine had not yet been finished, it took two years to get the engine right, with the first customer delivery in September 1921. Production lasted through 1929, by which time the car had been surpassed by Bentley's own 4½ Litre car. Experimental: 3 3 Litre: 1088 Speed Model: 513 Super Sports: 18Car rebuilt and superchargedIn the winter of 1926/7 the factory's service department created the first supercharged Bentley when chassis number 220 FR5189 had a Roots type blower fitted to its 3-litre engine; this pre-dated the Birkin supercharged Bentleys by two years.
Like the 4½ litre supercharged cars its blower was crankshaft-driven and mounted in front of the radiator between the dumb irons. Unlike them its carburettor was mounted on the left side of the engine block. A rather circuitous intake tract carries the fuel-air mixture forward from there to the blower. On 4½ litre cars the carburettor is mounted on the blower, as done on other supercharged British cars with front-mounted blowers; the oldest surviving production Bentley is 3 Litre chassis number 3. The first Bentley sold, it was delivered to its original owner in 1921. Bodied by UK coachbuilder R. Harrison & Son, chassis number 3 has engine number 4 and UK registration AX 3827. In 2011 it sold at auction for $962,500 including buyer's premium. An original, unrestored 1927 3 Litre Speed Model, chassis #1209 DE, is a part of the permanent collection at the Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum in Philadelphia, PA, USA; the car retains all of its original components and is the only Bentley to compete in pre-war road racing competition in the USA.
Reality television: My brother, my Bentley
Lorraine-Dietrich was a French automobile and aircraft engine manufacturer from 1896 until 1935, created when railway locomotive manufacturer Société Lorraine des Anciens Etablissements de Dietrich et Cie de Lunéville branched into the manufacture of automobiles. The Franco-Prussian War divided the company's manufacturing capacity, one plant in Niederbronn-les-Bains, the other in Lunéville, Lorraine. In 1896, managing director of the Lunéville plant, Baron de Turckheim, bought the rights to a design by Amédée Bollée; this used a front-mounted horizontal twin engine with sliding clutches and belt drive. It had a folding top, three acetylene headlights, unusual for the period, plate glass windshield. While the company started out using engines from Bollée, de Dietrich produced the entire vehicle themselves. In 1898, de Dietrich debuted the Torpilleur racer, which featured a four-cylinder engine and independent suspension in front, for the Paris-Amsterdam Trial; the response was substantial. The 1899 torpilleur was less successful, despite underslung chassis, a rear-mounted monobloc four, twin carburettors.
The Bollée-inspired design was supplanted by a licence-built Belgian Vivinus voiturette at Niederbronn and a Marseilles-designed Turcat-Méry at Lunéville, following a 1901 deal with that cash-strapped company. In 1902, de Dietrich hired 21-year-old Ettore Bugatti, who produced prize-winning cars in 1899 and 1901, he designed an overhead valve 24 hp four-cylinder with four-speed transmission to replace the Vivinus, he created their 30/35 of 1903, before quitting to join Mathis in 1904. The same year, management at Niederbronn quit car production, leaving it to Lunéville, with the Alsace market being sold a Turcat-Méry badge-engineered as a de Dietrich. At the time, this was seen with some disdain, Lunéville put the cross of Lorraine on the grille to distinguish them. Under the skin they were little different, nor would they be until 1911. For all that, the Lorraine-Dietrich was a prestige marque, ranking with Crossley and Itala, while attempting to break into the "super-luxury" market between 1905 and 1908 with a handful of ₤4,000 six-wheeler limousines de voyage.
Like Napiers and Mercedes, Lorraine-Dietrich's reputation was built in part on racing, "consistent if not distinguished", including Charles Jarrott's third in the 1903 Paris-Madrid Rally and a 1-2-3 in the 1906 Circuit des Ardennes, led by ace works driver Arthur Duray. De Dietrich bought out Isotta Fraschini in 1907, producing two OHC cars to Isotta Fraschini designs, including a 10 hp created by Bugatti; that year, Lorraine-Dietrich took over Ariel Mors Limited of Birmingham, for the sole British model, a 20 hp four, shown at the Olympia Motor Show in 1908, offered as bare chassis, Salmons & Sons convertible, Mulliner cabriolet. For 1908, de Dietrich offered a line of chain-driven touring fours, the 18/28 hp, 28/38 hp, 40/45 hp, 60/80 hp, priced between ₤550 and ₤960, a 70/80 hp six at ₤1,040; the British version differed. That year, the names of the aero-engine divisions were changed to Lorraine-Dietrich. By 1914, all de Dietrichs were shaft-driven, numbered a 12/16, an 18/20, a new 20/30 tourers, a sporting four-cylinder 40/75, all built at Argenteuil, Seine-et-Oise.
After World War I, with Lorraine restored to France, the company restarted manufacture of automobiles and aero-engines. Their 12-cylinder aero-engines were used by Breguet, IAR, Aero, among others. In 1919, new technical director Marius Barbarou introduced a new model in two wheelbases, the A1-6 and B2-6, joined three years by the B3-6, with either short or long wheelbase. All fell in the 15 CV fiscal horsepower category, sharing the 3,445 cc six cylinder engine, which had overhead valves, hemispherical head, aluminium pistons, four-bearing crankshaft; the performance was such in 1923, three tourers "put up a passable showing" at the first 24 Hours of Le Mans, leading to the creation for 1924 of the 15 Sport, with twin carburetion, larger valves, Dewandre-Reprusseau servo-assisted four-wheel brakes. The 15 CV Sport did better in 1925, winning Le Mans, followed home by a sister in third, while in 1926, Bloch and Rossignol won at an average 106 km/h, leading a 1-2-3 sweep by Lorraines. Lorraine-Dietrich thus became the first marque to win Le Mans twice and the first to win in two consecutive years.
This publicity contributed to touring 15s being bodied by Gaston Grummer Argenteuil's director, who produced coachwork for the likes of Aurora, Olympia and Chiquita. The 15 CV was joined by the 12 CV, a 2,297 cc four-cylinder car, the 30 CV, with a 6,107 cc six cylinder engine, while the 15 CV survived until 1932; the de Dietrich family sold its share in the company, which became known as Lorraine from 1928 on. The 15 CV was supplanted by the 20 CV, which had a 4,086 cc engine, of which just a few hundred were made. Automobile production b
British International Motor Show
The British International Motor Show was held between 1903 and 2008 in London at Crystal Palace and Earl's Court before moving to the National Exhibition Centre in Birmingham in 1978, where it stayed until May 2004. It returned to London, for July 2006 and July 2008, at the new location of ExCeL; the 2010 and 2012 shows were subsequently cancelled. The event is recognised by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles; the London Motor Show relaunched at Battersea Park from 5 to 8 May 2016. The last London Motor Show was held on 17 to 20 May 2018 at ExCeL; the next one will which take place from 16 to 19 May 2019 once again at ExCeL. Britain's first motor show—for horseless carriages—was held in South Kensington in 1896 at the Imperial Institute under the auspices of Lawson's Motor Car Club; the first British Motor Show organised by the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders was held at Crystal Palace, London in 1903, the same year that the speed limit was raised from 14 miles per hour to 20 miles per hour by the Motor Car Act 1903 and two years before the formation of The Automobile Association.
After the 1903 event it moved to Olympia in London, where it was held for the next 32 years before moving to Earl's Court, London from 1937 until 1976, except for the period of World War II during which time there were no shows. From 1978 until 2004, it was held every second year at the National Exhibition Centre, with the 2004 event being held in May, rather than the traditional October, to avoid a clash with the Paris Motor Show; the July 2006 and July 2008 shows returned in ExCeL, prior to the cancellation of the 2010 and 2012 shows, due to the recession. Motorexpo, the World's largest free to visit motor show started in 1996 and is held annually at Canary Wharf in London, Brookfield Place in New York and Brookfield Place/First Canadian Place in Toronto. London Motorfair, an alternative London Motor Show, was held at Earls Court biannually from 1977 to 1999. In December 2014, it was announced by Prince Michael of Kent, the cousin of Queen Elizabeth II, that the London Motor Show will return in May 2016, to Battersea Park.
The 2016 London Motor Show featured the United Kingdom’s land speed record attempt car, known as Bloodhound, designed to reach 1,000 mph. In May 2017, the London Motor Show once again returned to Battersea Park, featuring reveals from MG, David Brown and Liberty Walk amongst others. Prince Michael of Kent was Patron once again, with brand ambassadors Tiff Needell, Ben Collins and Jodie Kidd. In 2018, The London Motor Show was hosted at ExCeL London from 17–20 May and featured a "Built in Britain" display featuring JCB, Bentley, Aston Martin, Rolls Royce and many other British companies. James May and Richard Hammond, former stars of Top Gear and current stars of The Grand Tour, appeared at the event supporting DriveTribe their online motoring social media site; the cars listed are those announced in the late summer lead-up during it. Manufacturers did announce other cars at times to suit them and as that practice grew the public lost interest and the motor show finished its long run in the mid-1970s.
The 2006 British International Motor Show featured concerts by: 19 July, A-Ha 20 July, Van Morrison 21 July, UB40 22 July, Roxy Music 24 July, Simple Minds 26 July, Katherine Jenkins, with the National Symphony Orchestra of London 27 July, Jools Holland, his Rhythm and Blues OrchestraThe 2016 and 2017 London Motor Shows took place in Battersea Park. The 2018 London Motor Show will take place in ExCel. British motor industry The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders – Official website of the organisers The London Motor Show - Official website of the London Motor Show
A manual transmission known as a manual gearbox, a standard transmission or colloquially in some countries as a stick shift, is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. It uses a driver-operated clutch engaged and disengaged by a foot pedal or hand lever, for regulating torque transfer from the engine to the transmission. A conventional 5-speed manual transmission is the standard equipment in a base-model vehicle, while more expensive manual vehicles are equipped with a 6-speed transmission instead; the number of forward gear ratios is expressed for automatic transmissions as well. Manual transmissions feature a driver-operated clutch and a movable gear stick. Most automobile manual transmissions allow the driver to select any forward gear ratio at any time, but some, such as those mounted on motorcycles and some types of racing cars, only allow the driver to select the next-higher or next-lower gear; this type of transmission is sometimes called a sequential manual transmission.
In a manual transmission, the flywheel is attached to the engine's crankshaft and spins along with it. The clutch disc is in between the pressure plate and the flywheel, is held against the flywheel under pressure from the pressure plate; when the engine is running and the clutch is engaged, the flywheel spins the clutch plate and hence the transmission. As the clutch pedal is depressed, the throw out bearing is activated, which causes the pressure plate to stop applying pressure to the clutch disk; this makes the clutch plate stop receiving power from the engine, so that the gear can be shifted without damaging the transmission. When the clutch pedal is released, the throw out bearing is deactivated, the clutch disk is again held against the flywheel, allowing it to start receiving power from the engine. Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking selected gear pairs to the output shaft inside the transmission. Conversely, most automatic transmissions feature epicyclic gearing controlled by brake bands and/or clutch packs to select gear ratio.
Automatic transmissions that allow the driver to manually select the current gear are called manumatics. A manual-style transmission operated by computer is called an automated transmission rather than an automatic though no distinction between the two terms need be made. Contemporary automobile manual transmissions use four to six forward gear ratios and one reverse gear, although consumer automobile manual transmissions have been built with as few as two and as many as seven gears. Transmissions for heavy trucks and other heavy equipment have 8 to 25 gears so the transmission can offer both a wide range of gears and close gear ratios to keep the engine running in the power band. Operating aforementioned transmissions use the same pattern of shifter movement with a single or multiple switches to engage the next sequence of gear selection. French inventors Louis-Rene Panhard and Emile Levassor are credited with the development of the first modern manual transmission, they demonstrated their three-speed transmission in 1894 and the basic design is still the starting point for most contemporary manual transmissions.
This type of transmission offered multiple gear ratios and, in most cases, reverse. The gears were engaged by sliding them on their shafts, which required careful timing and throttle manipulation when shifting, so the gears would be spinning at the same speed when engaged; these transmissions are called sliding mesh transmissions or sometimes crash boxes, because of the difficulty in changing gears and the loud grinding sound that accompanied. Newer manual transmissions on 4+-wheeled vehicles have all gears mesh at all times and are referred to as constant-mesh transmissions, with "synchro-mesh" being a further refinement of the constant mesh principle. In both types, a particular gear combination can only be engaged when the two parts to engage are at the same speed. To shift to a higher gear, the transmission is put in neutral and the engine allowed to slow down until the transmission parts for the next gear are at a proper speed to engage; the vehicle slows while in neutral and that slows other transmission parts, so the time in neutral depends on the grade and other such factors.
To shift to a lower gear, the transmission is put in neutral and the throttle is used to speed up the engine and thus the relevant transmission parts, to match speeds for engaging the next lower gear. For both upshifts and downshifts, the clutch is released; some drivers use the clutch only for starting from a stop, shifts are done without the clutch. Other drivers will depress the clutch, shift to neutral engage the clutch momentarily to force transmission parts to match the engine speed depress the clutch again to shift to the next gear, a process called double clutching. Double clutching is easier to get smooth, as speeds that are close but not quite matched need to speed up or slow down only transmission parts, whereas with the clutch engaged to the engine, mismatched speeds are fighting the rotational inertia and power of the engine. Though automobile and light truck transmissions are now universally synchronized, transmissions for heavy trucks and machinery, motor
Pebble Beach, California
Pebble Beach is an unincorporated community on the Monterey Peninsula in Monterey County, California. In addition to lying at sea leveland being a small coastal residential community of single-family homes, Pebble Beach is a resort destination and home to the famous golf courses of Cypress Point Club, Monterey Peninsula Country Club, Pebble Beach Golf Links; the Pebble Beach Golf Links, The Inn at Spanish Bay, The Lodge at Pebble Beach and four of the eight golf courses inside the Pebble Beach community are among the local assets owned by the Pebble Beach Company. Residents pay road fees for maintenance as well as Monterey County property taxes. Application of the property tax revenues is the realm of the Pebble Beach Community Services District, a public agency, independent of local private facilities, e.g. golf courses, with an elected Board of Directors that manages essential functions including fire protection and emergency medical services, supplemental law enforcement, wastewater collection and treatment, recycled water distribution, garbage collection and recycling.
The community's post office is named Pebble Beach. S. Census Bureau aggregates census returns from Pebble Beach as part of the larger census-designated place of Del Monte Forest; however and visitors associate and identify with the name Pebble Beach. Area open space is administered by the Del Monte Forest Conservancy, a non-profit organization designated by Monterey County and the California Coastal Commission to acquire and manage certain properties by conservation easement and, as well, by fee title; the Conservancy is governed by a self-elected volunteer board of up to 12 members working with a small part-time group of contractors and volunteers to preserve the open space within the Del Monte Forest and non-forested sites of Pebble Beach. All board members must be property residents of Pebble Beach; the ZIP Code is 93953, the community is inside area code 831. The name Pebble Beach was given to a rocky cove and beach strand, a prominent coastal segment of the Rancho Pescadero Mexican land grant, awarded to Fabián Barreto in 1836.
Barreto died and the land went through several owners. In the 1850s, Chinese immigrants formed a series of fishing settlements along Carmel Bay including one at Stillwater Cove, next to Pebble Beach, they collected various fish. In 1860, David Jack bought the Mexican land grant sold it in 1880 to the Pacific Improvement Company, a consortium of The Big Four "railroad barons."By 1892, the PIC laid out a scenic road that they called the 17-Mile Drive, meandering along the beaches and among the forested areas between Monterey and Carmel. The drive was offered as a pleasure excursion to guests of the PIC-owned Hotel Del Monte, it was intended to attract wealthy buyers of large and scenic residential plots on PIC land. Sightseers riding horses or carriages along the 17-Mile Drive sometimes stopped at Pebble Beach to pick up agate and other stones polished smooth by the waves, they commented on a few unusual tree formations known as the Witch Tree and the Ostrich Tree—the latter formed by two trees leaning on each other.
At that time, the Chinese fishing community continued in existence despite mounting anti-Chinese sentiment among Monterey residents of European heritage. At roadside stands, Chinese-American girls sold polished pebbles to tourists. In the 1900s, the automobile began replacing horses on 17-Mile Drive, by 1907 there were only automobiles. Adverse sentiments by local non-Chinese towards the Chinese fisherman and villagers of Pebble Beach was ironic in view of the vital contribution Chinese laborers made to the development of the Central Pacific Railroad, the fundamental fount of capital for the "Big Four," founders of PIC. In 1908, architect Lewis P. Hobart was hired by PIC manager A. D. Shepard to design the Pebble Beach Lodge, a rustic log-cabin-style one-story inn completed by 1909; the rambling lodge, featuring private patio nooks and a wide pergola made of local logs, was positioned halfway along 17-Mile Drive, overlooking Pebble Beach. The great hall or assembly room was 35 by 70 feet wide and was flanked by massive fireplaces at each end.
A tavern and kitchen supplied food and drink, cottages could be rented for overnight guests. Operated under the same management as the Hotel Del Monte, food service was available at all hours, including fresh local abalone chowder; the lodge was built as the community center for the wealthy residents of the Del Monte Forest, was popular as a rest stop for 17-Mile Drive motorists. Samuel Finley Brown Morse, a distant cousin to Samuel F. B. Morse known as the inventor of Morse Code, was hired in the 1910s to manage the PIC. In 1916, Morse convinced the PIC to create a golf course at the edge of Pebble Beach and Stillwater Cove; the lodge burned down on December 17, 1917, while the course was under construction, a different structure replaced it: the Del Monte Lodge. Hobart worked with Clarence Tantau to create a luxurious multi-story hotel, Hobart designed a signature "Roman Plunge" pool to the east of the hotel; the golf course and the new lodge held a grand opening on February 22, 1919. Morse formed the Del Monte Properties Company on February 27, 1919, acquired the extensive holdings of the PIC, which included the Del Monte Forest, the Del Monte Lodge and the Hotel Del Monte.
Morse brought his son on board as president in 1948. The lodge was expanded with a shopping arcade. In 1954, Morse's son-in-law was named president of the Del
Thrupp & Maberly
Thrupp & Maberly was a British coachbuilding business based in the West End of London, England. Coach-makers to Queen Victoria they operated for more than two centuries until 1967 when they closed while in the ownership of Rootes Group; this family coachbuilding firm was started near Worcester about 1740. The founder's son, Joseph Thrupp, came to London about 1765 and ran a coach making business in George Street, Grosvenor Square. Though his best known coachbuilder descendant was George Athelstane Thrupp Joseph left a number of notable descendants who were not coach, carriage or harness makers. Joseph's London business was continued by his nephew Henry East Thrupp, father of coach builder Robert, together with Joseph's much younger fourth son Charles Joseph Thrupp, who left his nine surviving children £30,000; those nine children included George Athelstane Thrupp and it was G A Thrupp's sister, who married business partner George Henry Maberly in 1869. A decade before, at the beginning of 1858, coachbuilder George Maberly had merged his own 70 Welbeck Street business with Thrupps becoming their partner.
The firm's name was changed to Thrupp & Maberly. His son George Henry Maberly was taken into George Athelstane Thrupp's partnership. Head of his family's coachbuilding firm George Athelstane Thrupp became a leader of his craft known to his fellows throughout the world, he was a founder of the Coach-makers' Benevolent Institution and helped form the Institute of British Carriage Manufacturers and the technical schools for coach artisans which were taken over by the Regent Street Polytechnic. He served as Master of the Coachmakers' and Coach Harness Makers' Company in 1883George Athelstane Thrupp's publications included: A History of the Art of Coachbuilding published in 1877 a series of lectures delivered in 1876 to the Society of Arts, his son George Herbert Thrupp joined Thrupp & Maberly but his sister's son, Gerald Clare Maberly, became a barrister. For many years this business operated from 269 Oxford Street, with access from the side street, George Street. In 1914 their premises which had included their workshops were purchased by the store on the opposite side of Oxford Street, Selfridge & Co, to open Selfridge's household department though war seems to have disrupted Selfridge's plans and Thrupp & Maberly's showroom remained at that address until 1916.
That year they moved the showroom along to 475 Oxford Street moved again in late 1921 to 20 North Audley Street, all in the same locality. When the Rootes brothers took control Thrupp & Maberly was moved a mile further south and set up in Rootes' new premises in the new Devonshire House, opening there 22 September 1926. There again they advertised they were by appointment to H. M. the King official retailers of Rolls-Royce cars and special coach builders to the Daimler Company. In 1928 ownership passed to a new member of the Rootes Group. In 1863 they advertised they were Coach Harness-Makers by Appointment to the Queen; as far back as the 1880s Thrupp & Maberly began its move from making horse-drawn carriages to making car bodies watching developments in electric cars, fitting Immisch motors in carriages to order and in 1896 supplying an electric car to the Queen of Spain. By the spring of 1897 Thrupp & Maberley held the British licence for the Duryea Motor Wagon. More commissions followed and the business grew leading to large numbers of bodies being made for staff cars during World War I.
After the 1914-1918 war Thrupp & Maberly produced a range of bespoke bodies for up-market British and European marques. In 1924, the works were moved to new premises at 108 Cricklewood Lane, London, with a showroom at 20 North Audley Street in the West End of London, which in 1925 was bought by the remarkable salesmen the Rootes brothers; the Rootes brothers interests were in distribution and repair and not manufacture. Thrupp & Maberly remained a prestige coachbuilder, concentrating on luxury bodies for Rolls-Royce and Bentley automobiles. In 1929, they built the body for the Golden Arrow; the Rootes brothers bought Humber, with it Hillman in 1928, from 1932 bodies were made for the top of the range Humbers. Additional premises were obtained in 1936 in the old Darracq works in Warple Way, London, adjacent to a company called British Light Steel Pressings, with whom they merged in 1939. During the Second World War they again built staff cars on Humber chassis; when peacetime production resumed after the end of the Second World War the Acton works was disposed of, as the market for luxury coach-built vehicles was in decline, they concentrated on special bodies for Rootes Group vehicles, including making all the catalogued open-top Humbers.
By the mid-1960s, this work was in decline, the Cricklewood factory closed in 1967 when employee numbers had fallen to 1,000. At the time of its sale in January 1968 the Cricklewood factory on Edgware Road by the North Circular Road contained 120,000 square feet on a site of six acres. West End addresses1. 33 George Street, Grosvenor Square. A.k.a. 269 Oxford Street a.k.a. 425 Oxford Street following re-numbering of Oxford StreetBoth showrooms and workshops were on the corner of Oxford and George Streets until 1916 The multi-storey premises included their workshops which were accessed from George Street. The workshops were demolished in 19