A carburetor or carburettor is a device that mixes air and fuel for internal combustion engines in the proper air–fuel ratio for combustion. It is sometimes colloquially shortened to carby in Australia. To carburate or carburet means to mix the air and fuel or to equip with a carburetor for that purpose. Carburetors have been supplanted in the automotive and, to a lesser extent, aviation industries by fuel injection, they are still common on small engines for lawn mowers and other equipment. The word carburetor comes from the French carbure meaning "carbide". Carburer means to combine with carbon. In fuel chemistry, the term has the more specific meaning of increasing the carbon content of a fluid by mixing it with a volatile hydrocarbon; the first carburetor was invented by Samuel Morey in 1826. The first person to patent a carburetor for use in a petroleum engine was Siegfried Marcus with his 6 July 1872 patent for a device which mixes fuel with air. A carburetor was among the early patents by Karl Benz as he developed internal combustion engines and their components.
Early carburetors were of the surface type, in which air is combined with fuel by passing over the surface of gasoline. In 1885, Wilhelm Maybach and Gottlieb Daimler developed a float carburetor based on the atomizer nozzle; the Daimler-Maybach carburetor was copied extensively. British courts rejected the Daimler company's claim of priority in favor of Edward Butler's 1884 spray carburetor used on his Petrol Cycle. Hungarian engineers János Csonka and Donát Bánki patented a carburetor for a stationary engine in 1893. Frederick William Lanchester of Birmingham, experimented with the wick carburetor in cars. In 1896, Frederick and his brother built a gasoline-driven car in England, a single cylinder 5 hp internal combustion engine with chain drive. Unhappy with the car's performance and power, they re-designed the engine the following year using two horizontally-opposed cylinders and a newly designed wick carburetor. Carburetors were the common method of fuel delivery for most US-made gasoline engines until the late 1980s, when fuel injection became the preferred method.
This change was dictated by the requirements of catalytic converters and not due to an inherent inefficiency of carburation. A catalytic converter requires that there be more precise control over the fuel / air mixture in order to control the amount of oxygen remaining in the exhaust gases. In the U. S. market, the last cars using carburetors were: 1990: Oldsmobile Custom Cruiser, Buick Estate Wagon, Cadillac Brougham, Honda Prelude, Subaru Justy 1991: Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor with the 5.8 L V8 engine. 1991: Jeep Grand Wagoneer with the AMC 360 cu in V8 engine. 1993: Mazda B2200 1994: IsuzuIn Australia, some cars continued to use carburetors well into the 1990s. Low-cost commercial vans and 4WDs in Australia continued with carburetors into the 2000s, the last being the Mitsubishi Express van in 2003. Elsewhere, certain Lada cars used carburetors until 2006. Many motorcycles still use carburetors for simplicity's sake, since a carburetor does not require an electrical system to function.
Carburetors are still found in small engines and in older or specialized automobiles, such as those designed for stock car racing, though NASCAR's 2011 Sprint Cup season was the last one with carbureted engines. In Europe, carburetor-engined cars were being phased out by the end of the 1980s in favor of fuel injection, the established type of engine on more expensive vehicles including luxury and sports models. EEC legislation required all vehicles sold and produced in member countries to have a catalytic converter after December 1992; this legislation had been in the pipeline for some time, with many cars becoming available with catalytic converters or fuel injection from around 1990. However, some versions of the Peugeot 106 were sold with carburettor engines from its launch in 1991, as were versions of the Renault Clio and Nissan Primera and all versions of Ford Fiesta range except the XR2i when it was launched in 1989. Luxury car manufacturer Mercedes-Benz had been producing mechanically fuel-injected cars since the early 1950s, while the first mainstream family car to feature fuel injection was the Volkswagen Golf GTI in 1976.
Ford's first fuel-injected car was the Ford Capri RS 2600 in 1970. General Motors launched its first fuel-injected car in 1957 as an option available for the first generation Corvette. Saab switched to fuel injection across its whole range from 1982; the carburetor works on Bernoulli's principle: the faster air moves, the lower its static pressure, higher the dynamic pressure is. The throttle linkage does not directly control the flow of liquid fuel. Instead, it actuates carburetor mechanisms which meter the flow of air being carried into the engine; the speed of this flow, therefore its pressure, determines the amount of fuel drawn into the airstream. When carburetors are used in aircraft with piston engines, special designs and features are needed to prevent fuel starvation during inverted flight. Engines used an early form of fuel injection known as a pressure carburetor. Most production carbureted engines, as opposed to fuel-injected, h
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. The term transmission refers to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device. In British English, the term transmission refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft and final drive shafts. In American English, the term refers more to the gearbox alone, detailed usage differs; the most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, inappropriate for starting and slower travel; the transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process. Transmissions are used on pedal bicycles, fixed machines, where different rotational speeds and torques are adapted. A transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies.
This switching may be done automatically. Directional control may be provided. Single-ratio transmissions exist, which change the speed and torque of motor output. In motor vehicles, the transmission is connected to the engine crankshaft via a flywheel or clutch or fluid coupling because internal combustion engines cannot run below a particular speed; the output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, which drives the wheels. While a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the only mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include power transformation. Hybrid configurations exist. Automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in response to speed and throttle input. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, steam engines, in support of pumping and hoisting.
Most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the output shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft, this reduction in speed produces a mechanical advantage, increasing torque. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in shaft speed with a reduction of torque; some of the simplest gearboxes change the physical rotational direction of power transmission. Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios. In this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque. However, the highest gears may be "overdrive" types. Gearboxes have found use in a wide variety of different—often stationary—applications, such as wind turbines. Transmissions are used in agricultural, construction and automotive equipment. In addition to ordinary transmission equipped with gears, such equipment makes extensive use of the hydrostatic drive and electrical adjustable-speed drives.
The simplest transmissions called gearboxes to reflect their simplicity, provide gear reduction, sometimes in conjunction with a right-angle change in direction of the shaft. These are used on PTO-powered agricultural equipment, since the axial PTO shaft is at odds with the usual need for the driven shaft, either vertical, or horizontally extending from one side of the implement to another. More complex equipment, such as silage choppers and snowblowers, have drives with outputs in more than one direction; the gearbox in a wind turbine converts the slow, high-torque rotation of the turbine into much faster rotation of the electrical generator. These are more complicated than the PTO gearboxes in farm equipment, they weigh several tons and contain three stages to achieve an overall gear ratio from 40:1 to over 100:1, depending on the size of the turbine. The first stage of the gearbox is a planetary gear, for compactness, to distribute the enormous torque of the turbine over more teeth of the low-speed shaft.
Durability of these gearboxes has been a serious problem for a long time. Regardless of where they are used, these simple transmissions all share an important feature: the gear ratio cannot be changed during use, it is fixed at the time. For transmission types that overcome this issue, see Continuously variable transmission known as CVT. Many applications require the availability of multiple gear ratios; this is to ease the starting and stopping of a mechanical system, though another important need is that of maintaining good fuel efficiency. The need for a transmission in an automobile is a consequence of the characteristics of the internal combustion engine. Eng
Rolls-Royce–Bentley L-series V8 engine
The Rolls-Royce–Bentley L-series V8 engine was introduced in 1959 and is still in production. Built in Crewe, it was used on most Rolls-Royce and Bentley automobiles in the four decades after its introduction and is still used in the Bentley Mulsanne. With BMW's acquisition of the rights to use the Rolls Royce name in 1998, Rolls-Royce Motor Cars began using BMW supplied V12 engines but Bentley Motors Limited under Volkswagen ownership continued to use modified versions of the L series on its Arnage and Mulsanne models, with VAG W-12 engines being used in its Flying Spur and Continental models; the first engine of V8 configuration was developed in 1904 by the Marmon Motor Car Company in the United States. It was experimental and did not find its way into a passenger vehicle. Rolls-Royce premiered the world's second V8 engine in 1905 for their Rolls-Royce V-8 Legalimit – governed not to exceed the legal speed limit in Britain at the time of 20 mph, it was not a success, with only three made and just one sold, soon returned to the factory to be scrapped.
It was another decade. Rolls-Royce acquired Bentley in 1931 and continued to use Bentley engines alongside their own for a time, although none was a V8. Prior to World War II, Rolls-Royce had developed a 7.3-litre V-12 for the Phantom III, succeeded by the inlet-over-exhaust B60 straight-6 and B80 straight-8 series of engines. The B80 powered the Phantom IV limousine, whilst the 4.3-litre B60 was used until 1955 to power the Rolls-Royce Silver Wraith and Silver Dawn and the Bentley Mark VI. The B60's bore was enlarged in 1955, increasing the displacement to 4.9 litres, that engine being known as the B61. The need for a new engine was recognised by Rolls Royce in the early 1950s and its development began in 1952, bearing no relation to the 1905 Rolls-Royce V8; the result was a series of V8 engines known as the L series, more the "L410" for its bore size of 4.1 in, in keeping with company practice. Developments of the L410 continued in production powering Rolls-Royces up to 1998 and Bentleys into the 21st century.
Bentley, under Volkswagen ownership since 1998, continues to develop the L410 for its range of cars. Rolls-Royce ceased using the L410 with the switch to BMW ownership of that brand in March 1998 and introduction of a BMW sourced V12 engine in the Rolls-Royce Silver Seraph. Since 1998 therefore and use of the L410 engine can be said to have been a Bentley enterprise; the factory nomenclature for the L-series V8 engines, in chronological order, is as follows: L380 1950s 5,204 cc initial development version L410 1959 6,230 cc production version powering Silver Cloud II, S2 series L425 1965 7,439 cc experimental version L410B 1965 6,230 cc updated production version powering Silver Shadow and T series L410 1970 6,750 cc production version, capacity increase achieved by'stroking' to 3.9-inch L410E 1970s 7,269 cc development version with 4.2-inch stroke L380 1970s 5,352 cc "Thermodynamically Optimised Porsche" experimental version L410D 1982 6,750 cc turbocharged production version installed in Bentley Mulsanne L410I 1986 6,750 cc fuel injected version L410IT 1987 6,750 cc fuel injected production version in Bentley Mulsanne Turbo L410ITI 1991 6,750 cc fuel injected, intercooled production version of Bentley Turbo R & S and Continental R & S L410MT 1997 6,750 cc low pressure turbo L410MT/S 1997 6,750 cc turbo L675 1998 6,750 cc development name for Arnage version of the turbo reverted to "L410" L410TT 2007 6,750 cc production version introducing twin MHI turbochargers with intercooler L410HT 2009 6,750 cc variable cam phasing "high-torque" production version for 2009 Mulsanne LM 841 c1963-4 6,230 cc 240 bhp marinised version of the engine available with port or starboard crank rotations The engine was of an overhead valve design, angled at 90 degrees, featured a central camshaft and wedge-shaped combustion chambers.
As released, the bore x stroke was 4.1 in × 3.6 in and displaced 6,230 cc, rounded up to describe it as the six and a quarter litre engine. When new, the Rolls-Royce/Bentley V8 was rumoured to be an American engine design licence-built, but it was developed in-house by Rolls-Royce and Bentley engineers; this can be seen in its design characteristics, with features like an aluminium alloy cylinder block with wet liners, gear-driven camshaft, outboard spark plugs and porting inspired by the Rolls-Royce Merlin aircraft engine. The bore spacing of 4 3⁄4 in was unlike any American V8 engine and the firing order was 1-5-4-8-6-3-7-2 something uncommon in any period American OHV V8; the deep skirted crankcase design is rare with American V8 engines. Rolls-Royce however did use General Motors transmissions in their vehicles, notably the Hydramatic in Silver Cloud and the Turbo-Hydramatic in the Silver Shadow; the marine version of the engine was sold directly as a "complete power pack". It was rated as being able to produce 220 bhp at 4000 rpm continuously for 12 hours, with peak power of 240 bhp at 4200 rpm.
It was available with either direction of crankshaft rotation to suit starboard propellors. Engine cooling was closed loop glycol with heat exchangers to pumped sea water, it was supplied complete with a BorgWarner "velvet drive" gearbox. Rolls-Royce Silver Cloud II and III R
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Cheshire is a county in North West England, bordering Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east and Shropshire to the south and Flintshire and Wrexham county borough to the west. Cheshire's county town is the City of Chester. Other major towns include Crewe, Ellesmere Port, Northwich, Runcorn and Winsford The county covers 905 square miles and has a population of around 1 million, it is rural, with a number of small towns and villages supporting the agricultural and other industries which produce Cheshire cheese, salt and silk. Cheshire's name was derived from an early name for Chester, was first recorded as Legeceasterscir in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, meaning "the shire of the city of legions". Although the name first appears in 980, it is thought that the county was created by Edward the Elder around 920. In the Domesday Book, Chester was recorded as having the name Cestrescir, derived from the name for Chester at the time. A series of changes that occurred as English itself changed, together with some simplifications and elision, resulted in the name Cheshire, as it occurs today.
Because of the close links with the land bordering Cheshire to the west, which became modern Wales, there is a history of interaction between Cheshire and North Wales. The Domesday Book records Cheshire as having two complete Hundreds that became the principal part of Flintshire. Additionally, another large portion of the Duddestan Hundred became known as Maelor Saesneg when it was transferred to North Wales. For this and other reasons, the Welsh language name for Cheshire is sometimes used. After the Norman conquest of 1066 by William I, dissent and resistance continued for many years after the invasion. In 1069 local resistance in Cheshire was put down using draconian measures as part of the Harrying of the North; the ferocity of the campaign against the English populace was enough to end all future resistance. Examples were made of major landowners such as Earl Edwin of Mercia, their properties confiscated and redistributed amongst Norman barons. William I made Cheshire a county palatine and gave Gerbod the Fleming the new title of Earl of Chester.
When Gerbod returned to Normandy in about 1070, the king used his absence to declare the earldom forfeit and gave the title to Hugh d'Avranches. Because of Cheshire's strategic location on Welsh Marches, the Earl had complete autonomous powers to rule on behalf of the king in the county palatine; the earldom was sufficiently independent from the kingdom of England that the 13th-century Magna Carta did not apply to the shire of Chester, so the earl wrote up his own Chester Charter at the petition of his barons. Cheshire in the Domesday Book is recorded as a much larger county, it included two hundreds and Exestan, that became part of North Wales. At the time of the Domesday Book, it included as part of Duddestan Hundred the area of land known as English Maelor in Wales; the area between the Mersey and Ribble formed part of the returns for Cheshire. Although this has been interpreted to mean that at that time south Lancashire was part of Cheshire, more exhaustive research indicates that the boundary between Cheshire and what was to become Lancashire remained the River Mersey.
With minor variations in spelling across sources, the complete list of hundreds of Cheshire at this time are: Atiscross, Chester, Exestan, Middlewich, Roelau, Tunendune and Wilaveston. Feudal baronies or baronies by tenure were granted by the Earl as forms of feudal land tenure within the palatinate in a similar way to which the king granted English feudal baronies within England proper. An example is the barony of Halton. One of Hugh d'Avranche's barons has been identified as Robert Nicholls, Baron of Halton and Montebourg. In 1182 the land north of the Mersey became administered as part of the new county of Lancashire, thus resolving any uncertainty about the county in which the land "Inter Ripam et Mersam" was. Over the years, the ten hundreds consolidated and changed names to leave just seven—Broxton, Eddisbury, Nantwich and Wirral. In 1397 the county had lands in the march of Wales added to its territory, was promoted to the rank of principality; this was because of the support the men of the county had given to King Richard II, in particular by his standing armed force of about 500 men called the "Cheshire Guard".
As a result, the King's title was changed to "King of England and France, Lord of Ireland, Prince of Chester". No other English county has been honoured in this way, although it lost the distinction on Richard's fall in 1399. Through the Local Government Act 1972, which came into effect on 1 April 1974, some areas in the north became part of the metropolitan counties of Greater Manchester and Merseyside. Stockport, Hyde and Stalybridge in the north-east became part of Greater Manchester. Much of the Wirral Peninsula in the north-west, including the county boroughs of Birkenhead and Wallasey, joined Merseyside as the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral. At the same time the Tintwistle Rural District was transferred to Derbyshire; the area of south Lancashire not included within either the Merseyside or Greater Manchester counties, including Widnes and the county b
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps.
In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses. In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons, the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source.
However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure. Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour. In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in 1629. In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he
The Bentley S3 is a four-door luxury car produced by Bentley from late 1962 until 1965. The S3 was similar to the S2, with the most-visible exterior difference being a four-headlamp layout reflecting that introduced on the Rolls-Royce Silver Cloud III the same model year; the interior was modified with individual seats for front passengers and increased leg room in the rear. The 6.2 L V8 engine continued with minor modifications. The power steering was improved. Bentley S3 saloon: £6,126, over triple the British-built top of the range Jaguar Mark X £2,022. Park Ward Continental sports saloon: £8,495, a premium of about 40% over an S3. Bentley S3: 1286 Bentley S3 long wheelbase: 32 The S3 was first announced and displayed at the Paris Motor Show October 1962. Exterior Twin paired headlamps. Stepped up wattage from 120 to 150 increasing forward visibility by at least 250 yards and giving a better spread on dipped beam Radiator lowered 1½ inches allowing a lower bonnet line. Interior Front passengers now sit behind a fascia brow padded for extra safety and they have individual split-bench seats.
Operating Lighter power steering More powerful engine, Horse-power increased 7 percent by employing a higher compression ratio, 9:1 instead of 8:1 and larger carburettors to give higher performance - improved acceleration and a top speed of 115 mph with no loss of economy. In 1959, Rolls-Royce acquired H. J. Co. coachbuilders. In 1961, HJM was merged with Park Ward, in the possession of Rolls-Royce since 1939, to form Mulliner, Park Ward Ltd.. When production of the S3 Continentals commenced there were more differences than the adaption of the previous HJM design by Mulliner Park Ward: The cars were built at the former Park Ward premises in Willesden, North London; the HJM facilities were abandoned. The S3 Continental was coachbuilt. Most bodies were of available in fixed head or drop head coupe form. Of the 328 coachbuilt S3, nearly 100 were by MPW. Again, fixed head or a drop head; the most prominent visual difference from the S2 configuration was the four canted headlights. For the first time, this body was offered on the Rolls-Royce Silver Cloud, as well as the S3 chassis.
The final S3 was delivered in 1966, when the new Rolls-Royce Silver Shadow and Bentley T-series were available. Like earlier Continentals, the sportier S3 bodywork was manufactured from aluminum, unlike the heavier, steel bodied S3 saloon. This, combined with higher gearing and the better compression ratios made for a markedly faster car. Four-doored Continentals bodied by H. J. Mulliner were known as the "Flying Spur", although four-door Continentals by other coachbuilders are sometimes erroneously referred to as "Flying Spurs" as well. Another elegant four-door saloon for the S3 Continental came from James Young). Despite being desirable the expensive Continentals sold in much smaller quantities than the S3 saloon by a factor of four. Bentley S3 Continental: 311 Dalton, Lawrence: "Rolls Royce - The Elegance Continues", Dalton-Watson Ltd. Publishers, England, ISBN 0-901564-05-2 Walker, Nick: A-Z of British Coachbuilders, 1919–1960.