GM 4L80-E transmission
The 4L80-E was a series of automatic transmissions from General Motors. Designed for longitudinal engine configurations, the series included 4 forward gears, it was an evolution of the Turbo-Hydramatic 400, first produced in October 1963. 4L80-Es were optioned only in Chevrolet/GMC pickups and commercial vehicles, the Hummer H1. It was adopted by Rolls Royce in 1991 and modified after extensive testing, used in the Bentley Continental R, subsequently other Rolls Royce and Bentley vehicles; the 4L80 and 4L85 were built at Willow Run Transmission in Michigan. Gear ratios: The 4L80-E is rated to handle engines with up to 440 ft·lbf of torque; the 4L80-E is rated to max GVWR of 18,000 The 4L80-E uses 2 shift solenoids called Shift Solenoid A & Shift Solenoid B changed to comply with OBD II regulations to 1-2 Shift Solenoid & 2-3 Shift solenoid. By activating and deactivating the solenoids in a predetermined pattern by the PCM, 4 distinct gear ratios can be achieved; the shift solenoid pattern sometimes referred to as solenoid firing order, is as follows.
The 4L85E is rated to handle vehicles with a GVWR of up to 18,000 lbs Applications: Chevrolet Avalanche Chevrolet Suburban GMC Yukon XL Chevrolet Express with Duramax Diesel GMC Savana with Duramax Diesel Rally FighterNote: These transmissions have issues with early style 12 pin harnesses in which transmission fluid leaks around the harness and shorts the pinouts causing transmission to go into "limp mode". This issue can be rectified by cleaning the plug. List of GM transmissions
Gibson Technology is an automotive and motorsport company based at Repton, England. It was founded by Bill Gibson as'Zytek Engineering' in 1981. In 1981 Gibson founded'Zytech Group' with two main divisions: Zytek Automotive, based at Fradley, Staffordshire. In 2014, Zytek Automotive was sold to German engineering company Continental AG, whereas Zytek Engineering remained under Gibson's leadership and was renamed Gibson Technology. Zytek Automotive is a specialist powertrain and vehicle engineering enterprise, part of Continental AG, a German engineering company, since 2014, it designs and integrates electric motors into a range of cars and commercial vehicles. The current family of electric motors ranges up to 170 kW; the UK facility can accommodate up to 6,000 E-Drive integrations a year in batches as low as 100. Zytek has designed electric engines for the initial 100 smart fortwos, which took part in a market trial by selected British customers as lease vehicles from 2007 to 2009; the 70 kW integrated drivetrain installed in the Modec electric vehicle is designed and manufactured in house by Zytek, as well as the drivetrain in the E Vito Taxi.
Gordon Murray Design and Zytek Automotive developed an all-electric three-seater city car, the T.27, made possible through a GB£4.5 million investment from the government-backed Technology Strategy Board. With a total cost of £9m, the research and development project allowed the consortium to develop a prototype, unveiled at the Royal Automobile Club in June 2011; the T.27 road debut was held in November 2011 at the RAC Future Car Challenge. Gordon Murray Design is negotiating with three possible manufacturers for production of the T.27. Zytek Motorsport is the brand name used for the Zytek Groups motorsport product range and applications. In 1987, Zytek bought the British Alan Smith Racing outfit in order to expand its motorsports involvement; the team supported the Jordan Grand Prix team in Formula 3000 before the team chose to concentrate on engine development. Zytek would return to running a motorsports team in 2004 when the company entered the Le Mans Endurance Series with their first sports car, the Zytek 04S, able to finish second in the team championship in 2005 due to two overall victories.
Zytek Engineering continues to campaign in the Le Mans Series as well as in the American Le Mans Series and 24 Hours of Le Mans. In 2002, Zytek bought some of the remains of the defunct Reynard Motorsport from International Racing Management; these assets included the rights to the Reynard 02S Le Mans Prototype, of which only one had been completed since the company's demise. Zytek supplied an engine to the existing chassis, would therefore built further copies under the name Zytek 04S, offering both the chassis and engine as a complete package. Due to changes in the prototype regulations in 2006, Zytek upgraded one of their existing 04S chassis while building a third all-new car, named the 06S. Further regulation changes in 2007 required the team to build an new car, the Zytek-07s, which campaigned in both the LMP1 and LMP2 classes of the Le Mans Series. Zytek's GZ09S proved an immediate success in 2009, taking the LMP2 Le Mans Series Team Championship with Quifel-ASM and the Driver's Championship with Miguel Amaral and Olivier Pla.
In 2009 Zytek Engineering became the first manufacturer to score a podium with a hybrid LMP. The car, run by Corsa Motorsports, finished on the podium on its debut at Lime Rock; the Zytek Q10 Hybrid is a non-invasive parallel hybrid system, consisting of a motor-generator and inverter. Its purpose is to recover energy wasted during deceleration and subsequently use this energy to assist the internal combustion engine during acceleration; the Z11SN has won the LMP2 category of the 24 Hours of Le Mans in both 2011 and 2014, the Le Mans Series in 2011, in the hands of Greaves Motorsport and Team Jota. In 2017 the rebranded company became the supplier of a 4.2-litre, normally-aspirated V8 engine, producing 600 hp, for the LMP2 Class for the European Le Mans Series, FIA World Endurance Championship and WeatherTech SportsCar Championship. Two of the many LMP2 cars powered by Gibson engines finished on the overall podium, one had led the race overall for some time until a recovering factory Porsche reclaimed the lead.
In 2018, Gibson's new LMP1 engine, the 4.5 litre aspirated GL458, was installed into Rebellion Racing's pair of Rebellion R13s and DragonSpeeds BR Engineering BR1. The engine brought Rebellion's R13s to a 3-4 finish behind the Toyota TS050 Hybrids. In February of 2019, ByKolles Racing announced that they would be switching to the Gibson GL458, dropping the Nissan Nismo VRX30A 3.0 litre twin-turbo V6, for their CLM P1/01. Gordon Murray Zytek Automotive Gibson Technology
A sedan — saloon — is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with separate compartments for engine and cargo. Sedan's first recorded use as a name for a car body was in 1912; the name comes from a 17th century development of a litter, the sedan chair, a one-person enclosed box with windows and carried by porters. Variations of the sedan style of body include: close-coupled sedan, club sedan, convertible sedan, fastback sedan, hardtop sedan, notchback sedan and sedanet/sedanette; the current definition of a sedan is a car with a closed body with the engine and cargo in separate compartments. This broad definition does not differentiate sedans from various other car body styles, but in practice the typical characteristics of sedans are: a B-pillar that supports the roof two rows of seats a three-box design with the engine at the front and the cargo area at the rear a less steeply sloping roofline than a coupé, which results in increased headroom for rear passenger and a less sporting appearance.
A rear interior volume of at least 33 cu ft It is sometimes suggested that sedans must have four doors. However, several sources state that a sedan can have four doors. In addition, terms such as sedan and coupé have been more loosely interpreted by car manufacturers since 2010; when a manufacturer produces two-door sedan and four-door sedan versions of the same model, the shape and position of the greenhouse on both versions may be identical, with only the B-pillar positioned further back to accommodate the longer doors on the two-door versions. A sedan chair, a sophisticated litter, was an enclosed box with windows used to transport one seated person. Porters at the front and rear carried the chair with horizontal poles. Litters date back to long before ancient Egypt and China. Sedan chairs were developed in the 1630s. Reputable etymologists suggest the name of the chair probably came through Italian dialects from the Latin sedere meaning to sit; the same experts report that the first recorded use of sedan for an automobile body occurred in 1912 when a new Studebaker model was described by its manufacturers as a sedan.
The same American dictionary provides this description: "Sedan an enclosed automobile for four or more people, having two or four doors". There were enclosed automobile bodies before 1912. Long before that time the same enclosed but horse-drawn carriages were known as broughams in the United Kingdom, they were berlinas in France and Italy. Both names are still used there for sedans. There is an unsubstantiated claim that the body of a particular 1899 Renault Voiturette Type B was the first motor vehicle, a sedan, it was a two-door two-seater vehicle with an extra external seat for a footman/mechanic. Georgano claims the earliest usage matching a modern definition of a sedan was a 1911 Speedwell sedan manufactured in the United States. In American English and Latin American Spanish, the term sedan is used. In British English, a car of this configuration is called a saloon. Hatchback sedans are known as hatchbacks. Super saloon is used to describe a high performance saloon car where sports saloon would have been used in the past.
Saloon has been used by British car manufacturers in the United States, for example, the Rolls-Royce Park Ward. In Australia and New Zealand sedan is now predominantly used, they were simply cars. In the 21st century saloon is still found in the long-established names of particular motor races. In other languages, sedans are known as berlina though they may include hatchbacks; these names, like sedan, all come from forms of passenger transport used before the advent of automobiles. In German sedans are berlines or limousines and limousines are stretch-limousines. In the United States notchback sedan distinguishes models with a horizontal trunklid; the term is only referred to in the marketing when it is necessary to distinguish between two sedan body styles of the same model range. Several sedans have a fastback profile, but instead of a trunk lid, the entire back of the vehicle lifts up. Examples include the Chevrolet Malibu Maxx, Audi A5 Sportback and Tesla Model S; the names "hatchback" and "sedan" are used to differentiate between body styles of the same model.
Therefore the term "hatchback sedan" is not used, to avoid confusion. There have been many sedans with a fastback style. Hardtop sedans were a popular body style in the United States from the 1950s to the 1970s. Hardtops are manufactured without a B-pillar leaving uninterrupted open space or, when closed, glass along the side of the car; the top was intended to look like a convertible's top but it was fixed and made of hard material that did not fold. All manufacturers in the United States from the early 1950s into the 1970s provided at least a 2-door hardtop model in their range and, if their engineers could manage it, a 4-door hardtop as well; the lack of side-bracing demanded a strong and heavy chassis frame to combat unavoidable flexing. The fashion may have delayed the introduction of unibody construction. In 1973 the US government passed Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 216 creating a standard roof strength test to measure the integrity of roof structure in motor vehicles to come into effect some years later.
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps.
In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses. In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons, the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source.
However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure. Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour. In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in 1629. In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he
The Bentley Arnage is a large luxury car produced by Bentley Motors in Crewe, England from 1998 to 2009. The Arnage, its Rolls-Royce-branded sibling, the Silver Seraph, were introduced in the Spring of 1998, were the first new designs for the two marques since 1980. Another break from the past was to be found under the bonnet, for decades home to the same 6.75-litre V8 engine, a powerplant which could trace its roots back to the 1950s. The new Arnage was to be powered by a BMW V8 engine, with Cosworth-engineered twin-turbo installation, the Seraph was to employ a BMW V12 engine; the Arnage is over 5.4 meters long, 1.9 metres wide, has a kerb weight of more than 2.5 metric tonnes. For a brief period it was the fastest four-door saloon on the market. In September 2008, Bentley announced that production of the model would cease during 2009. Following the uplift in sales for all of Rolls-Royce, resurgence of the Bentley marque, the then-owner, set about preparing a new model to replace the derivatives of the Rolls-Royce Silver Spirit/Bentley Mulsanne which it had been selling since 1980.
In a complete switch from tradition, these new cars would have bodies built at the Crewe factory, with its internal combustion engines built elsewhere. A number of potential engines were examined, including the GM Premium V engine, a Mercedes-Benz V8 engine, before, in late 1994, Vickers selected a pair of BMW power plants, it was decided that the Rolls-Royce model, to be called the Silver Seraph, would use BMW's aspirated V12 engine while the more-sporting Bentley model would use a special twin-turbo version of the 4.4-litre BMW V8, developed by Vickers subsidiary, Cosworth Engineering. On its introduction in the spring of 1998, the Arnage was available as a single model with this 4,398 cubic centimetres BMW V8 engine, with twin turbochargers, developing 354 PS and 420 lb⋅ft of torque; the BMW V8 Arnage was renamed the Arnage Green Label for the 2000 model year. In addition, from 2000–2001, a special edition "Birkin" was produced. During the takeover battle in 1998 between BMW and Volkswagen Group for ownership of Rolls Royce and Bentley Motors, BMW had threatened to stop supply of their engines if Volkswagen Group won.
While the threat was withdrawn in conjunction with BMW acquiring the right to manufacture the Rolls-Royce marque at a new location, it was clear that Volkswagen could not accept the business and reputation risks associated with having their rival as a long-term business partner. Furthermore, customers were nervous about engine and part availability and orders for new cars dropped precipitously. Volkswagen's response was to prepare the old pushrod 6.75-litre 16-valve engine from the Turbo R for the Arnage, designed for the lighter and smaller BMW 32-valve V8 unit. Coupled with an outdated 4-speed automatic, the engine was thirsty, would not meet government-imposed emissions standards without hasty modifications; the revised version of the car was launched as the Arnage Red Label in October 1999. At the same time, but without the fanfare, Bentley made several minor modifications to the original BMW engined cars, designated them as the "Arnage Green Label" for the 2000 model year; as part of the modification process, both Red and Green Label cars received stiffer body shells and larger wheels and brakes.
The stiffer body shell was needed because of the extra weight of the British engine. The larger brakes were needed for the same reason. Despite the larger brakes, braking performance worsened with the extra weight of the 6.75 engine. The braking performance of the'99 Green Label from 70–0 was 172 feet while the Arnage T's performance was 182 feet from the same speed; the rest of the revisions included: Making a pop up Alpine navigation system standard. Adding park distance control to the front and rear. Increasing the rear seat leg room. Adding power folding exterior mirrors. Modifying the steering rack to reduce steering effort at low speeds; the lens covers. The public relations department at Bentley pointed to customer demand as the driving force behind the reversion to the old two valve per cylinder 6.75-litre unit for the Red Label. This explanation appears to have been acceptable to all but a few of the motoring press who welcomed the return of the old unit after criticising the BMW motor as at best insipid and, at worst, underpowered.
In reality, the outgoing BMW-powered Arnage was technically more modern more fuel efficient, had 32 valves with double overhead camshafts, twin-turbo and Bosch engine management technology – as opposed to 16-valve, single turbo and a pushrod motor with less advanced engine management. The Red Label's increase in motive power shaved less than a second of the 0 to 60 mph time. However, the BMW twin turbo unit remained noticeably more agile and responsive from a driver's perspective, due to its more responsive DOHC engine, better weight balance and 600 lb lower curb weight; the Green Label was more reliable and less expensive to service in the long term. The key limiting factor of the BMW engine's output was the ZF 5HP30 transmission, not rated to handle more than the 413 lb⋅ft torque that the twin turbo engine was tuned to produce. Vickers had outsourced the production of the old 6.75-litre Rolls-Royce engine for use in the continued Continental and Azure models to Cosworth, so reverting to the old standby engine was a natural choice for the company.
The Red Label model reverted to the o
Motor Trend is an American automobile magazine. It first appeared in September 1949, issued by Petersen Publishing Company in Los Angeles, bearing the tagline "The Magazine for a Motoring World". Petersen Publishing was sold to British publisher EMAP in 1998, who sold the former Petersen magazines to Primedia in 2001; as of 2017, it is published by Motor Trend Group. It has a monthly circulation of over one million readers; the contents of Motor Trend magazines are divided up into departments. Motor Trend magazine provides its readers with written "road tests" of vehicles; these road tests are published monthly, are meant to give readers information about the featured vehicle, certain aspects of the vehicle, what the readers can expect if the featured vehicle is purchased. There are two main types of Motor Trend vehicle comparisons. Regular comparisons compare two to three vehicles, what each is like to own, etc. On Motor Trend's YouTube channel, Motor Trend puts up their best comparison of the month on a series called "Head 2 Head," where Motor Trend editors compare cars via YouTube.
"Big Test" comparisons feature anywhere from five to seven vehicles, all being compared against each other. In a way, a vehicle comparison is like a large road test featuring many vehicles, rather than just one; the Trend provides readers with the latest. This section may feature news about manufacturers, etc. "Newcomers", along with short informative articles about them, can be found in this section. Motor Trend keeps a fleet of long-term test cars at their headquarters in California; the majority of the Motor Trend editors are each assigned a car, their duty is to drive that car on a daily basis and report on what's happening. Each month, one to two new vehicles are added to the fleet, to replace the one to two vehicles leaving the fleet; each long-term test lasts one calendar year. Not every vehicle receives a printed update each month; this section is located towards the end of the magazine. Other types of articles are sometimes featured in the Motor Trend magazine. There is one special feature per month.
For example, in one issue of the magazine, there may be a special feature about Motor Trend's "Real MPG" testing. For these tests, Motor Trend measures the "real-world" fuel economy of a vehicle in a number of conditions, compares their results to the EPA estimated fuel economy that manufacturers provide dealerships, who provide it to their customers. One of the earliest and most enduring of the magazine's creations was its Car of the Year award, given continuously since its inception, although the phrase itself would not become entrenched until well into the 1950s, it predates the European Car of the Year award begun in 1964. The first winner was the 1949 Cadillac; the award has gone through several splits and permutations over the years, being called the Golden Wheels Award for a while in the 1970s and having given rise to Truck of the Year and Import Car of the Year as well as SUV of the Year. It is still coveted by manufacturers and is covered by the mainstream press as the most important distinction awarded in the American auto industry.
Some recent COTY award winners include the Chevrolet Volt, Volkswagen Passat, Tesla Model S, Cadillac CTS, Volkswagen Golf, Chevrolet Camaro,Chevrolet Bolt EV, Alfa Romeo Giulia and Genesis G70. The magazine releases a special edition every October listing the latest new vehicles. In September the issue looks at the latest cars for the next coming calendar year, whilst in October the magazine looks at off-roaders, MPVs and sport-utility vehicles. Truck Trend magazine presents features and the latest news about the truck, SUV, crossover segments. Additionally, the Readers' Rides section allows readers to post images and information about their own vehicles. Truck Trend began in 1995 as "Truck Trends," a section of Motor Trend itself, it became the stand-alone publication Truck Trend in 1997. Motor Trend Classic, which took a break from publishing in the late 2000s, was restarted in 2010, it includes articles about significant classic cars from around the world made during the last 60 years. Publication was suspended again, as of 2014, Motor Trend Classic was no longer being published.
Motor Trend On Demand is an online television service. It features television series from Motor Trend, Automobile Magazine, Hot Rod, Super Street and Four Wheeler, such as Roadkill. In 2015, TEN bought Torque. TV and integrated it into the service, adding coverage of motorsports competitions such as Blancpain GT Series, Pirelli World Challenge, Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters, V8 Supercars, British Touring Car Championship, TCR International Series, FIA European Formula 3 Championship, European Le Mans Series, Australasian Safari, Endurance FIM World Championship, Motocross World Championship, AMA EnduroCross Championship, FIM SuperEnduro World Championship. In April 2018, following the acquisition of a majority stake in TEN by Discovery Communications, it was announced that its U. S. cable channel Velocity would rebrand as Motor Trend Network in the year. In Italy, the channel Motor Trend began broadcasting on April 29, 2018 at 6:00 am with the Car Crash TV in place of Focus, whose brand has meanwhile passed into the hands of Mediaset.
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details used classification schemes in use worldwide; this following table summarises common classifications for cars. Microcars and their Japanese equivalent— kei cars— are the smallest category of automobile. Microcars straddle the boundary between car and motorbike, are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, resulting in relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Engine size is 700 cc or less, microcars have three or four wheels. Microcars are most popular in Europe, where they originated following World War II; the predecessors to micro cars are Cycle cars. Kei cars have been used in Japan since 1949. Examples of microcars and kei cars: Honda Life Isetta Tata Nano The smallest category of vehicles that are registered as normal cars is called A-segment in Europe, or "city car" in Europe and the United States.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines this category as "minicompact", however this term is not used. The equivalents of A-segment cars have been produced since the early 1920s, however the category increased in popularity in the late 1950s when the original Fiat 500 and BMC Mini were released. Examples of A-segment / city cars / minicompact cars: Fiat 500 Hyundai i10 Toyota Aygo The next larger category small cars is called B-segment Europe, supermini in the United Kingdom and subcompact in the United States; the size of a subcompact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Since the EPA's smaller minicompact category is not as used by the general public, A-segment cars are sometimes called subcompacts in the United States. In Europe and Great Britain, the B-segment and supermini categories do not any formal definitions based on size. Early supermini cars in Great Britain include Vauxhall Chevette.
In the United States, the first locally-built subcompact cars were the 1970 AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. Examples of B-segment / supermini / subcompact cars: Chevrolet Sonic Hyundai Accent Volkswagen Polo The largest category of small cars is called C-segment or small family car in Europe, compact car in the United States; the size of a compact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of 100–109 cu ft. Examples of C-segment / compact / small family cars: Peugeot 308 Toyota Auris Renault Megane In Europe, the third largest category for passenger cars is called D-segment or large family car. In the United States, the equivalent term is intermediate cars; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency defines a mid-size car as having a combined passenger and cargo volume of 110–119 cu ft. Examples of D-segment / large family / mid-size cars: Chevrolet Malibu Ford Mondeo Kia Optima In Europe, the second largest category for passenger cars is E-segment / executive car, which are luxury cars.
In other countries, the equivalent terms are full-size car or large car, which are used for affordable large cars that aren't considered luxury cars. Examples of non-luxury full-size cars: Chevrolet Impala Ford Falcon Toyota Avalon Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows; the equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Mini MPV is the smallest size of MPVs and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Examples of Mini MPVs: Fiat 500L Honda Fit Ford B-Max Compact MPV is the middle size of MPVs; the Compact MPV size class sits between large MPV size classes. Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets.
Examples of Compact MPVs: Renault Scenic Volkswagen Touran Ford C-Max The largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to a Large MPV. Examples of Large MPVs: Dodge Grand Caravan Ford S-Max Toyota Sienna The premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars, it became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples of premium compact cars: Audi A3 Buick Verano Lexus CT200h A compact executive car is a premium car larger than a premium compact and smaller than an executive car. Compact executive cars are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.
In North American terms, close equivalents are "luxury compact" and "entry-level luxury car", although the latter is used for the smaller premium compact cars. Examples of compact executive cars: Audi A4 BMW 3 Series Buick Regal An executive car is a premium car larger than a compact executive and smaller than an full-size luxury car. Executive cars are classified as E-segment cars in the European car classification. In the United States and several other coun