Bentonville, Arkansas

Bentonville is the ninth-largest city in Arkansas, United States and the county seat of Benton County. The city is centrally located in the county with Rogers adjacent to the east; the city is the world headquarters of Walmart, the world's largest retailer. It is one of the four main cities in the four-county Northwest Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area, ranked 109th in terms of population in the United States with 463,204 residents in 2010, according to the United States Census Bureau; the city itself had a population of 35,301 at the 2010 Census, with an estimated population of 51,111 in 2018. The area now known as Bentonville's first known use by humans was as hunting grounds by the Osage Nation who lived in Missouri; the Osage would leave their settlements to hunt in present-day Benton County for months at a time before returning to their families. White settlers first inhabited the area around 1837 and named their settlement "Osage". By this time, the Osage had ceased using the area for hunting, the white settlers began to establish farms.

Upon establishment of Benton County on September 30, 1836, Osage was deemed a suitable site for the county seat, the town square was established as the home of county government the following year. Osage was renamed Bentonville in honor of Thomas Hart Benton, a senator from Missouri who supported Arkansas statehood. Two years after Arkansas received statehood in 1836, thousands of Cherokee people from Georgia passed through Benton County as part of the Trail of Tears route to the Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma. Although no Civil War battles were fought inside Bentonville, the city was occupied by both armies and saw all of its buildings burned, either by opposing armies or guerrilla outlaws. Bentonville was a staging point for the Confederate army prior to the Battle of Pea Ridge, fought about 12 miles northeast of town, the town saw a brief skirmish just prior to the battle; the city began to rebuild about a decade after incorporation on April 3, 1873, with many of these Reconstruction Era buildings today serving as the oldest structures in Bentonville.

After the war, the area established a vibrant apple industry, with Benton County becoming the leading apple producing county in the nation in 1901. In the 1920s and 1930s the county developed a reputation as a leader in poultry production that continued into the World War II years, which the area still maintains today; the post war economy helped. In 1950, Sam Walton bought the Harrison Variety Store on the Bentonville town square, he remodeled the building and opened "Walton’s 5 and 10 Variety Store" on March 18, 1951. This single store led to the creation of Walmart, the world's largest retailer, which still influences the community today; the late twentieth and early twenty-first century has seen a dramatic reduction in the manufacturing sector in Bentonville, corresponding with an increase in tourism and entertainment focused on the natural setting and outdoor opportunities of the area as well as the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, which opened in 2011. This has resulted in Bentonville being the fastest growing city in Arkansas, the larger Northwest Arkansas area one of the fastest growing in the United States.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 31.5 square miles, of which 31.3 square miles is land and 0.19 square miles, or 0.67%, is water. The Northwest Arkansas region consists of three Arkansas counties: Benton and Washington; the area had a population of 347,045 at the 2000 census which had increased to 463,204 by the 2010 Census. The Metropolitan Statistical Area does not consist of the usual principal-city-with-suburbs morphology; the Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport is located to the southwest of Bentonville and is used to connect all of the northwest Arkansas region to the rest of the nation. For more than the last decade, Northwest Arkansas has been one of the fastest-growing regions in the United States. Bentonville lies in the humid subtropical climate zone with influence from the humid continental climate type. Bentonville experiences all four seasons and does receive cold air masses from the north, however some of the Arctic masses are blocked by the higher elevations of the Ozarks.

July is the hottest month of the year, with an average high of 89 °F and an average low of 66 °F. Temperatures above 100 °F are common, with recent temperatures during summer months staying above 100 degrees for several weeks at a time. January is the coldest month with an average high of 46 °F and an average low of 24 °F; the city's highest temperature was 114 °F, recorded in 1954. The lowest temperature recorded was −16 °F, in 1996; as of 2017 Bentonville had a population of 49,298. The racial and ethnic composition of the population was 77.0% non-Hispanic white, 2.4% non-Hispanic black, 1.2% Native American, 5.8% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 3.9% from some other race and 2.5% from two or more races. 8.7 % of the population was Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 19,730 people, 7,458 households, 5,265 families residing in the city; the city grew in the 1990s. According to the US Census and surrounding communities in Benton County is second in growth for Arkansas and among the 100 fastest-growing counties in the United States.

The population density was 928.9 people per square mile (358

Covered Market, Oxford

The Covered Market is a historic market with permanent stalls and shops in a large covered structure in central Oxford, England. The market is located to the north of the High Street towards the western end between Cornmarket Street and Turl Street. To the north is Market Street. Most of the entrances are from the High Market Street, it is possible to gain access from Cornmarket via the Golden Cross alley, with its small up-market shops. The Covered Market was opened on 1 November 1774 and is still active today, it was started in response to a general wish to clear'untidy and unsavoury stalls' from the main streets of central Oxford. John Gwynn, the architect of Magdalen Bridge, drew up the plans and designed the High Street front with its four entrances. In 1772, the newly formed Market committee, half of whose members came from the town and half from the university, accepted an estimate of nine hundred and sixteen pounds ten shillings, for the building of twenty butchers' shops. Twenty more soon followed, after 1773 meat was allowed to be sold only inside the market.

From this nucleus the market grew, with stalls for garden produce, pig meat, dairy products and fish. Today the covered market is still home to numerous traders, around half of which are food retailers, including traditional market shops selling fresh food such as greengrocers and butchers. There are newer gift shops and sandwich shops. Most of the shops now are quite a bit larger than the original stall sizes, so the number of businesses in the covered market is smaller than in the past, it is a bustling area on Saturdays. The Covered Market may be accessed via the four entrances on the High Street, via Golden Cross, from three entrances on Market Street. In 2017, Oxford City Council, which owns the Covered Market, announced a £1.6m investment in the fabric of the building, including roof repairs, improved public conveniences, external paving and new signage. In May 2017, the Covered Market received'the Royal seal of approval' when it was visited by Prince Charles and the Duchess of Cornwall.

The Oxford Covered Market Virtual Tour of the Oxford City Covered Market The Covered Market, High Street, Oxford Covered Market Video Tour Walk the avenues of The Oxford Covered Market on Google Street View

Earl Brydges

Earl William Brydges was an American lawyer and politician from New York. He was Temporary President and Majority Leader of the State Senate from 1966 to 1972. Earl William Brydges was born on May 1905 in Niagara Falls, New York, he graduated from Niagara University and the University at Buffalo law school in 1926. He served for many years on Niagara University's board of trustees, he was admitted to the bar in 1927. Brydges served on the Board of Education in New York during the 1940s, he was active in educational advocacy organizations in Western New York. He was a member of the New York State Senate from 1949 to 1972, sitting in the 167th, 168th, 169th, 170th, 171st, 172nd, 173rd, 174th, 175th, 176th, 177th, 178th and 179th New York State Legislatures. For the majority of his Senate career, Brydges focused on educational policy and mental health issues, his focus within the area of mental health was on improving services for the mentally retarded and special education students. His education policy focus was on K-12 education policy statewide.

Brydges served as Chairman of the Senate Education Committee and Chairman of the Senate Special Committee on Mental Health. In 1965, when the Republican Party lost the majority in the State Senate for the only time since 1939, Brydges was elected Minority Leader of the Senate. Court ordered voting rights redistricting lead to senators serving one year terms in 1965 and 1966; the Republican Party regained the majority in 1966, Brydges became Majority Leader. He was a delegate to the New York State Constitutional Convention of 1967; as Majority Leader, Brydges worked with Gov. Nelson Rockefeller on policy development and legislation, his main focus continued on educational issues, along with upstate economic development. He worked with Rockefeller to create the State University of New York system and to develop new school state aid funding formulas. Brydges worked with Rockfeller in the creation of new state agencies and reorganization of the New York City mass transit system; as Majority Leader, Brydges remained an advocate for Western New York and tourism development in Niagara County.

He was an early supporter of casino gambling in Niagara Falls. In 1972, Brydges passed legislation to legalize casino gaming in New York State through an amendment to the state constitution; the casino amendment did not pass in the end, since the state constitution requires the passage of legislation in two consecutive legislative sessions and passage of the majority of the state's voters in a statewide referendum. Brydges' vision in the area of casino gaming was realized with the opening of the Seneca Niagara Casino on January 1, 2003. Brydges was a fierce advocate for the pro-life movement and blocked legislation to legalize abortion in New York. In 1970, Brydges allowed the Senate to vote on legislation to legalize abortion, he did. When the Senate surprised him and passed the bill, which had passed the Assembly and had the support of Governor Rockefeller, Brydges sat in his Senate chair and wept. In 1972, both Rockefeller and Lt. Gov. Malcolm Wilson left the state on the same afternoon. Under the state constitution, this made Brydges the Acting Governor of New York for several hours.

As acting governor, Brydges conducted Senate business. He did not sign any legislation into law, including a pending bill relating to Niagara Falls that he had sponsored. In 1972, Brydges did not seek reelection to the Senate and he retired on January 1, 1973, he married Eleanor C. Mahoney. Together, they had five sons and two daughters, including: Earl W. Brydges, Jr. who married Martha Ann Shalala in 1967. Thomas Eugene Brydges, who married Roxanne Catherine Hammer in 1972. William Brydges Margaret BrydgesBrydges died of cancer in 1975 and his funeral was attended by Vice President Rockefeller; this was Rockefeller's first visit to Upstate New York as vice president. The Earl W. Brydges Artpark in Lewiston, New York, an outdoor theater and concert center that he championed, was named in his honor. In addition, the main public library in Niagara Falls, the Earl W. Brydges Library, designed by architect Paul Rudolph, was named after him