The Niger River is the principal river of West Africa, extending about 4,180 km. Its drainage basin is 2,117,700 km2 in area, its source is in the Guinea Highlands in southeastern Guinea. It runs in a crescent through Mali, Niger, on the border with Benin and through Nigeria, discharging through a massive delta, known as the Niger Delta or the Oil Rivers, into the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean; the Niger is the third-longest river in Africa, exceeded only by the Congo River. Its main tributary is the Benue River; the Niger has different names in the different languages of the region: Manding: Jeliba or Joliba "great river" Igbo: Orimiri or Orimili "great water" Tuareg: Egerew n-Igerewen "river of rivers" Songhay: Isa "the river" Ijaw: Toru Beni "the river water" Zarma: Isa Beeri "great river" Hausa: Kwara Yoruba: Oya Fula: Maayo JaalibaThe earliest use of the name "Niger" for the river is by Leo Africanus in his Della descrittione dell’Africa et delle cose notabili che iui sono published in Italian in 1550.
The name may come from Berber phrase ger-n-ger meaning "river of rivers". As Timbuktu was the southern end of the principal Trans-Saharan trade route to the western Mediterranean, it was the source of most European knowledge of the region. Medieval European maps applied the name Niger to the middle reaches of the river, in modern Mali, but Quorra to the lower reaches in modern Nigeria, as these were not recognized at the time as being the same river; when European colonial powers began to send ships along the west coast of Africa in the 16th and 17th centuries, the Senegal River was postulated to be the seaward end of the Niger. The Niger Delta, pouring into the Atlantic through mangrove swamps and thousands of distributaries along more than 160 kilometres, was thought to be no more than coastal wetlands, it was only with the 18th-century visits of Mungo Park, who travelled down the Niger River and visited the great Sahelian empires of his day, that Europeans identified the course of the Niger and extended the name to its entire course.
The modern nations of Nigeria and Niger take their names from the river, marking contesting national claims by colonial powers of the "Upper", "Lower" and "Middle" Niger river basin during the Scramble for Africa at the end of the 19th century. The Niger River is a "clear" river, carrying only a tenth as much sediment as the Nile because the Niger's headwaters lie in ancient rocks that provide little silt. Like the Nile, the Niger floods yearly. An unusual feature of the river is the Inner Niger Delta, which forms where its gradient decreases; the result is a region of braided streams and lakes the size of Belgium. The river loses nearly two-thirds of its potential flow in the Inner Delta between Ségou and Timbuktu to seepage and evaporation. All the water from the Bani River, which flows into the Delta at Mopti, does not compensate for the'losses'; the average'loss' is estimated at 31 km3/year, but varies between years. The river is joined by various tributaries, but loses more water to evaporation.
The quantity of water entering Nigeria measured in Yola was estimated at 25 km3/year before the 1980s and at 13.5 km3/year during the 1980s. The most important tributary of the Niger in Nigeria is the Benue River which merges with the river at Lokoja in Nigeria; the total volume of tributaries in Nigeria is six times higher than the inflow into Nigeria, with a flow near the mouth of the river standing at 177.0 km3/year before the 1980s and 147.3 km3/year during the 1980s. The Niger takes one of the most unusual routes of any major river, a boomerang shape that baffled geographers for two centuries, its source is just 240 km inland from the Atlantic Ocean, but the river runs directly away from the sea into the Sahara Desert takes a sharp right turn near the ancient city of Timbuktu and heads southeast to the Gulf of Guinea. This strange geography came about because the Niger River is two ancient rivers joined together; the upper Niger, from the source west of Timbuktu to the bend in the current river near Timbuktu, once emptied into a now dry lake to the east northeast of Timbuktu, while the lower Niger started to the south of Timbuktu and flowed south into the Gulf of Guinea.
Over time upstream erosion by the lower Niger resulted in stream capture of the upper Niger by the lower Niger. The northern part of the river, known as the Niger bend, is an important area because it is the major river and source of water in that part of the Sahara desert; this made it the focal point of trade across the western Sahara, the centre of the Sahelian kingdoms of Mali and Gao. The surrounding Niger River Basin is one of the distinct physiographic sections of the Sudan province, which in turn is part of the larger African massive physiographic division; the origin of the river's name remains unclear. What is clear is that "Niger" was an appellation applied in the Mediterranean world from at least the Classical era, when knowledge of the area by Europeans was better than fable. A careful study of Classical writings on the interior of the Sahara begins with Ptolemy, who mentions two rivers in the desert: the "Gir" and farther south, the "Nigir"; the first has been since identified as the Wadi Ghir on the north western edge of the Tuat, along the borders of modern Morocco and Algeria.
This would have been as far as Ptolemy would have had consistent records. The Ni-Ger was speculation, although the name stu
Venomous snakes are species of the suborder Serpentes that are capable of producing venom, which they use for killing prey, for defense, to assist with digestion of their prey. The venom is delivered by injection using hollow or grooved fangs, although some venomous snakes lack well-developed fangs. Common venomous snakes include the families Elapidae, Viperidae and some of the Colubridae; the toxicity of venom is indicated by murine LD50, while multiple factors are considered to judge the potential danger to humans. Other important factors for risk assessment include the likelihood that a snake will bite, the quantity of venom delivered with the bite, the efficiency of the delivery mechanism, the location of a bite on the body of the victim. Snake venom may have both hemotoxic properties; the evolutionary history of venomous snakes can be traced back to as far as 25 million years ago. Snake venom is modified saliva used for prey immobilization and self-defense and is delivered through specialized teeth, hollow fangs, directly into the bloodstream or tissue of the target.
Evidence has been presented for the Toxicofera hypothesis, but venom was present in the ancestors of all snakes as "toxic saliva" and evolved to extremes in those snake families classified as venomous by parallel evolution. The Toxicofera hypothesis further implies that "nonvenomous" snake lineages have either lost the ability to produce venom, or do produce venom in small quantities sufficient to help capture small prey but causing no harm to humans when bitten. There is not a single or special taxonomic group for venomous snakes that comprise species from different families; this has been interpreted to mean venom in snakes originated more than once as the result of convergent evolution. Around a quarter of all snake species are identified as being venomous. Venomous snakes are said to be poisonous, but poison and venom are not the same thing. Poisons must be ingested, inhaled or absorbed, while venom must be injected into the body by mechanical means. While unusual, there are a few species of snake which are poisonous.
Rhabdophis keelback snakes are both venomous and poisonous – their poisons are stored in nuchal glands and are acquired by sequestering toxins from poisonous toads the snakes eat. Certain garter snakes from Oregon can retain toxins in their livers from ingesting rough-skinned newts. LD50, Mostly on Rodents, is a common indicator of snakes' toxicity with a smaller resultant value indicating a higher level of toxicity. There have been numerous studies on snake venom with a variability of potency estimates. There are four methods in which the LD50 test is conducted, which are injections to subcutis, vein and peritoneum; the former is most applicable to actual bites as only vipers with large fangs, such as large Bitis, Crotalus, or Daboia specimens, would be able to deliver a bite, intramuscular, snakebites cause IV envenomation. Testing using dry venom mixed with 0.1% bovine serum albumin in saline, gives more consistent results than just saline alone. Belcher's sea snake, which many times is mistakenly called the hook-nosed Sea Snake, has been erroneously popularized as the most venomous snake in the world, due to the first edition of Ernst and Zug's book, Snakes in Question: The Smithsonian Answer Book, published in 1996.
Prominent venom expert Associate Professor Bryan Grieg Fry has clarified the error: "The hook nosed myth was due to a fundamental error in a book called Snakes in Question. In there, all the toxicity testing results were lumped in together, regardless of the mode of testing; as the mode can influence the relative number, venoms can only be compared within a mode. Otherwise, it's apples and rocks." Belcher's sea snake's actual LD50 is 0.155 mg/kg. Studies on mice and human cardiac cell culture show that venom of the inland taipan, drop by drop, is the most toxic among all snakes; the toxicity of snake venom is sometimes used to gauge the extent of danger to humans, but this is not enough. Many venomous snakes are specialized predators whose venom may be adapted to incapacitate their preferred prey. A number of other factors are critical in determining the potential hazard of any given venomous snake to humans, including their distribution and behavior. For example, while the inland taipan is regarded as the world's most venomous snake based on LD50 tests on mice, it is a shy species and strikes, has not caused any known human fatalities.
On the other hand, India's Big Four, while less venomous than the inland taipan, are found in closer proximity to human settlements and are more confrontational, thus leading to more deaths from snakebite. In addition, some species, such as the black mamba and coastal taipan show some aggression when alarmed or in self-defence, may deliver fatal doses of venom, resulting in high human mortality rates. Snakebite Snake venom Venomoid Big Four List of venomous animals Venomous fish Venomous mammals Poisonous amphibians Toxic birds Venomous snakes and outdoor workers Bite-prevention and treatment information for outdoor workers
Benue State is one of the North central states in Nigeria with a population of about 4,253,641 in 2006 census. It is inhabited predominantly by the Tiv and Igede peoples, who speak Tiv and Igede languages respectively, its capital is Makurdi, Benue is a rich agricultural region. Benue State is named after the Benue River and was formed from the former Benue-Plateau State in 1976, along with Igala and some part of Kwara State. In 1991 some areas of Benue state, along with areas in Kwara State, were carved out to become part of the new Kogi State. Igbo people are found in the boundary areas like Oju etc.. Samuel Ortom is the governor and Benson Abounu is the deputy governor. Both were elected under the All Progressives Congress but defected to the Peoples Democratic Party in 2018. Benue state has three universities: Federal University of Agriculture, Benue State University, University of Mkar, it has two polytechnics: Benue State Polytechnic and Fidei polytechnic, Gboko as well as the Akperan Orshi college of Agriculture Yandev.
There are about four colleges of education which are Federal College of Education Agasha, College of Education Oju, College of Education Kastina Ala. Benue State as it exists today is a surviving legacy of an administrative entity, carved out of the protectorate of northern Nigeria at the beginning of the twentieth century; the territory was known as Munshi Province until 1918 when the name of its dominant geographical feature, the'Benue River' was adopted. The State, located in the North Central region of Nigeria, has a total population of 4,253,641 in 2006 census, with an average population density of 99 persons per km2; this makes Benue the 9th most populous state in Nigeria. However, the distribution of the population according to Local government areas shows marked duality. There are areas of low population density; such as Guma, Gwer East, Katsina-Ala, Apa and Agatu, each with less than seventy persons per km2, while Vandeikya, Ogbadibo and Gboko have densities ranging from 160 persons to 200 persons per 2.
Makurdi LGA has over 380 person per km2. The males are 49.8 percent of the total population. Benue State region was depleted of its human population during the slave trade, it is rural, with scattered settlements in tiny compounds or homesteads, whose population range from 630 people, most of whom are farmers. Urbanization in Benue State did not predate the colonial era; the few towns established during colonial rule remained small up to the creation of Benue State in 1976. Benue towns can be categorised into three groups; the first group consists of those with a population of 80,000 to 500,000 people. These include Makurdi, the State Capital and Otukpo the "headquarters" of the two dominant ethnic groups; the second group comprises towns with a population of between 20,000 and 50,000 people and includes Katsina-Ala, Zaki-Biam, Ukum￼￼, Adikpo, Kwande. These are all local government headquarters; the third category comprises towns with a population of 10,000 to 19,000 people and includes Vandeikya, lhugh, Adoka, Okpoga, Oju, Ugbokolo, Ugbokpo, Otukpa and Korinya.
Most of these towns are headquarters of created Local Government Areas and/or district headquarters or major market areas. Some of the headquarters of the newly created LGAs have populations of less than 10,000 people; such places include Tse-Agberaba, Buruku, Idekpa and Obarikeito. Apart from earth roads, periodic markets and chemists, the rural areas are used for farming, relying on the urban centres for most of their urban needs. Benue State has no problem of capital city primacy. Rather, three towns stand out clearly as important urban centres which together account for more than 70 per cent of the social amenities provided in the state and all the industrial establishments; these centres are Makurdi and Otukpo. They are amongst the oldest towns in the state and are growing at a much faster rate than the smaller younger towns. Makurdi doubles as the capital of the state and the headquarters of Makurdi LGA, while Gboko and Oju double as the local government and ethnic headquarters. All the roads in the state radiate from these three centres.
As an administrative unit, Benue State was first created on 3 February 1976. It was one of the seven states created by the military administration headed by General Murtala Mohammed, which increased the number of states in the country from 13 to 19. In 1991, its boundaries were re-adjusted with the creation of Kogi State; the new Benue State of today has twenty-three local government areas, which are administered by local government councils. Benue State lies within the lower river Benue trough in the middle belt region of Nigeria, its geographic coordinates are longitude 7° 47' and 10° 0' East. Latitude 6° 25' and 8° 8' North; the state shares a common boundary with the Republic of Cameroon on the south-east. Benue occupies a landmass of 34,059 square kilometres. Based on Köppen climate classification, Benue State lies within the AW climate and experiences two distinct seasons, the Wet season and the Dry season; the rainy season lasts from April to October with annual rai
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+