The Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg, was a reichsfrei duchy that existed 1296–1803 and 1814–1876 in the extreme southeast region of what is now Schleswig-Holstein. Its territorial center was in the modern district of Herzogtum Lauenburg and its eponymous capital was Lauenburg upon Elbe, though in 1619 the capital moved to Ratzeburg. In addition to the core territories in the modern district of Lauenburg, at times other territories south of the river Elbe, belonged to the duchy: The tract of land along the southern Elbe bank, reaching from Marschacht to the Amt Neuhaus, territorially connecting the core of the duchy with these more southeastern Lauenburgian areas; this land was ceded to the Kingdom of Hanover in 1814. It is now part of the Lower Saxon Harburg; the Amt Neuhaus proper including areas on both sides of the Elbe, ceded to the Kingdom of Hanover in 1814. Today, this is all part of Lower Saxon Lüneburg; the exclave Land of Hadeln in the area of the Elbe estuary was disentangled from Saxe-Lauenburg in 1689 and administered as a separate territory under imperial custody, before it was ceded to Bremen-Verden in 1731.
Now it is part of today's Lower Saxon Cuxhaven. Some North Elbian municipalities of the former core duchy are not part of today's district of Lauenburg, since they had been ceded to the Soviet occupation zone by the Barber Lyashchenko Agreement in November 1945. In 1203, King Valdemar II of Denmark conquered the area comprising Saxe-Lauenburg, but it reverted to Albert I, Duke of Saxony in 1227. In 1260, Albert I's sons Albert II and John I succeeded their father. In 1269, 1272 and 1282, the brothers divided their governing competences within the three territorially unconnected Saxon areas along the Elbe river, thus preparing a partition. After John I's resignation, Albert II ruled with his minor nephews Albert III, Eric I and John II, who by 1296 partitioned Saxony providing Saxe-Lauenburg for the brothers, Saxe-Wittenberg for their uncle Albert II; the last document, mentioning the brothers and their uncle Albert II as Saxon fellow dukes dates back to 1295. A deed of 20 September 1296, mentions the Vierlande, the Land of Ratzeburg, the Land of Darzing, the Land of Hadeln as the separate territory of the brothers.
By 1303, the three jointly ruling brothers had partitioned Saxe-Lauenburg into three shares, Albert III died in 1308, so that the surviving brothers established, after a territorial realignment in 1321, the Lauenburg Elder Line, with John II ruling Saxe-Bergedorf-Mölln, seated in Bergedorf and the Lauenburg Younger Line, with Eric I ruling Saxe-Ratzeburg-Lauenburg, seated in Lauenburg upon Elbe. John II, the eldest brother, wielded the electoral privilege for the Lauenburg Ascanians, rivalled by their cousin Rudolph I of Saxe-Wittenberg. In 1314, the dispute escalated into the election of two hostile German kings, the Habsburg Frederick III, the Fair, his Wittelsbach cousin Louis IV, the Bavarian. Louis received five of the seven votes, to wit Archbishop-Elector Baldwin of Trier, the legitimate King-Elector John of Bohemia, Duke John II of Saxe-Lauenburg using his claim as the Saxon prince-elector, Archbishop-Elector Peter of Mainz, Prince-Elector Waldemar of Brandenburg. Frederick the Fair received in the same election four of the seven votes, with the deposed King-Elector Henry of Bohemia, illegitimately assuming electoral power, Archbishop-Elector Henry II of Cologne, Louis's brother Prince-Elector Rudolph I of the Electorate of the Palatinate, Duke Rudolph I of Saxe-Wittenberg, rivallingly claiming the Saxon prince-electoral power.
However, only Louis the Bavarian asserted himself as emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. The Golden Bull of 1356, conclusively named the dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg as electors. In 1370, John II's fourth successor Eric III of Saxe-Bergedorf-Mölln pawned the Herrschaft of Bergedorf, the Vierlande, half the Saxon Wood and Geesthacht to Lübeck in return for a credit of 16,262.5 Lübeck marks. This acquisition included much of the trade route between Hamburg and Lübeck, thus providing a safe passage for freight between the cities. Eric III only retained a life tenancy; the city of Lübeck and Eric III had stipulated that, upon his death, Lübeck would be entitled to take possession of the pawned areas until his successors repaid the credit and exercised the repurchase of Mölln, altogether amounting to the enormous sum of 26,000 Lübeck Marks. In 1401, Eric III died without issue; the Lauenburg Elder Line was thus extinct in the male line and Eric III was succeeded by his second cousin Eric IV of Saxe-Ratzeburg-Lauenburg of the Younger Line.
In the same year, Eric IV, supported by his sons Eric and John, forcefully captured the pawned areas without making any repayment, before Lübeck could take possession of them. Lübeck acquiesced for the time being. In 1420, Eric V attacked Prince-Elector Frederick I of Brandenburg and Lübeck allied with Hamburg in support of Brandenburg. Armies of both cities opened a second front and conquered Bergedorf, Riepenburg castle and the Esslingen river toll station; this forced Eric V to agree with Hamburg's burgomaster Hein Hoyer and Burgomaster Jordan Pleskow of Lübeck to the Treaty of Perleberg on 23 August 1420, which stipulated that all the pawned areas, which Eric IV, Eric V and John IV had violently taken in 1401, were to be irrevocably ceded to the cities of Hamburg an
Eric V, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg
Eric V of Saxe-Lauenburg was a member of the House of Ascania. Eric V and his brother John IV jointly succeeded their father in 1412 as dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg. After John IV had died in 1414, Eric ruled alone; when Eric III of Saxe-Bergedorf-Mölln had died in 1401, Eric V's father, Eric IV, inherited the branch duchy of the deceased. Subsequently, he shared the reign in the reunited duchy with his brother John. However, most of Eric III's branch duchy had been alienated, such as the Herrschaft of Mölln and the Herrschaft of Bergedorf, the Vierlande, half the Sachsenwald and Geesthacht, all of which Eric III had pawned to the city of Lübeck in 1370. Eric III had entitled Lübeck to take possession of these areas, once he had deceased, until his heirs would repay the credit and thus redeem them and exercise their right to repurchase Mölln, requiring together a total sum of 26,000 Lübeck marks. In 1401 Eric IV, supported by his sons Eric V and John IV, forcefully captured the pawned areas without any repayment, before Lübeck could take possession of them.
Lübeck acquiesced. In 1411 Eric V and his brother John IV and their father Eric IV pawned their share in the Vogtei over the Bailiwick of Bederkesa and in the Bederkesa Castle to the Senate of Bremen including all "they have in the jurisdictions in the Frisian Land of Wursten and in Lehe, which belongs to the afore-mentioned castle and Vogtei", their share in jurisdiction and castle had been acquired from the plague-stricken Knights of Bederkesa, who had dropped into decline after 1349/1350. In 1420 Eric V attacked Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg and Lübeck gained Hamburg for a war alliance in support of Brandenburg. Armies of both cities opened a second front and conquered Bergedorf, Riepenburg castle and the Esslingen river toll station within weeks; this forced Eric V to agree to the Peace of Perleberg on 23 August 1420, which stipulated that all the pawned areas, which Eric V, Eric IV and John IV had violently taken in 1401, were to be irrevocably ceded to the cities of Hamburg and Lübeck.
When in 1422 the Ascanians died out in the Electorate of Saxony, which together with Saxe-Lauenburg had partitioned from the Duchy of Saxony in 1296, Eric V aimed at reuniting Saxony in his hands. He was after the Saxon electoral privilege, disputed between Saxe-Lauenburg and Saxe-Wittenberg since John I had died in 1285. However, in 1356 Emperor Charles IV accepted Saxe-Wittenberg as electorate, with Saxe-Lauenburg not giving up its claim. However, Holy Roman Emperor, had granted Margrave Frederick IV the Warlike of Meissen an expectancy on the Saxon electorate, in order to remunerate his military support. On 1 August 1425 Sigismund enfeoffed the Wettinian Prince-Elector Frederick I of Saxony, despite protestations of the Ascanian Eric V. Weakened in his position Eric's younger brother Bernard urged the duke to share his reign. In 1426 Eric V agreed and made Bernard the co-duke, who succeeded him. In 1404 Eric V married Elisabeth of Holstein-Rendsburg, daughter of Nicholas, Count of Holstein-Rendsburg and widow of Albert IV, Duke of Mecklenburg.
Eric V and Elisabeth had no common children. Before 1422 Eric V married Elisabeth of daughter of Conrad IX of Weinsberg, their son Henry died young in 1437. Thus Eric V was succeeded by his younger brother Bernard II. * Henry Henry died while staying with his maternal grandparents and was buried in today's Lutheran Town Church of St. George in Weikersheim, where this epitaph commemorates the boy. Cordula Bornefeld, "Die Herzöge von Sachsen-Lauenburg", in: Die Fürsten des Landes: Herzöge und Grafen von Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg, Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen on behalf of the Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte, Neumünster: Wachholtz, 2008, pp. 373–389. ISBN 978-3-529-02606-5 Otto von Heinemann, "Erich V. Herzog von Sachsen-Lauenburg", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 6, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 211–212 Joachim Leuschner, "Erich V. Herzog von Sachsen-Lauenburg", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 4, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 588–589
John II, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg
John II of Saxe-Lauenburg was the eldest son of John I of Saxony and Ingeborg Birgersdotter of Småland, a daughter or grandchild of Birger jarl. He ruled Saxony jointly with his uncle Albert II and his brothers Albert III and Eric I, first fostered by Albert II, until coming of age. In 1296 John II, his brothers and their uncle divided Saxony into Saxe-Wittenberg, ruled by Albert II, Saxe-Lauenburg, jointly ruled by the brothers between 1296 and 1303 and thereafter partitioned among them. John II ruled the branch duchy of Saxe-Mölln extended to become Saxe-Bergedorf-Mölln. In 1314 he officiated as Saxon Prince-elector in an election of a German king. John was of weak health and had gone blind in young years, therefore he was considered inferior among his brothers. John II's father John I resigned from dukedom in 1282 in favour of his three minor sons Albert III, Eric I, John II. However, their uncle Albert II fostered them. John II and his brothers came to age and joint the government; the last document, mentioning the brothers and their uncle Albert II as Saxon fellow dukes dates back to 1295.
The definite partitioning of Saxony into Saxe-Lauenburg, jointly ruled by John II and his brothers and Saxe-Wittenberg, ruled by their uncle Albert II, took place before 20 September 1296, when the Vierlande, the Land of Ratzeburg, the Land of Darzing, the Land of Hadeln are mentioned as the separate territory of the brothers. Albert II received Saxe-Wittenberg around Belzig. John II and his brothers at first jointly ruled Saxe-Lauenburg, before they partitioned it into three parts, while the exclave Land of Hadeln remained a trilateral condominium. John II held Mölln, parts of the Sachsenwald and the Land of Ratzeburg west of the river Stecknitz. In 1321 he further gained Bergedorf - with its castle - from his brother Eric I, who had earlier inherited the share of the Albert III deceased in 1308. John II's branch duchy thus became known as Saxe-Bergedorf-Mölln. Being the eldest brother John II officiated as Saxon prince-elector, a privilege disputed between the duchies of Saxe-Lauenburg and Saxe-Wittenberg.
In 1314 John II participated in the election of the German king and antiking, the Wittelsbachian Louis IV the Bavarian and his Habsburg cousin Frederick III, the Fair. Louis received five of the seven votes, to wit that of Duke John II, rivallingly claiming the Saxon prince-electoral power, Archbishop-Elector Baldwin of Trier, the legitimate King-Elector John of Bohemia, Archbishop-Elector Peter of Mainz, Prince-Elector Waldemar of Brandenburg. Frederick the Fair received in the same election four of the seven votes, with the deposed King-Elector Henry of Bohemia, illegitimately assuming electoral power, Archbishop-Elector Henry II of Cologne, Louis's brother Prince-Elector Rudolph I of the Electorate of the Palatinate, Duke Rudolph I of Saxe-Wittenberg, John's cousin rivallingly claiming the Saxon prince-electoral power. However, Louis prevailed as German king. Ca. 1315 John II married Elizabeth of sister of Count Gerard III the Great. John and Elizabeth had the following son: Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg.
Wilhelm Koppe, "Johann II. Herzog von Sachsen", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 10, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 532–533
The Zollenspieker Ferry is a ferry across the Elbe river in Germany. It crosses between Zollenspieker, a part of the quarter Kirchwerder of the Bergedorf borough of the city-state of Hamburg, Hoopte, part of the town Winsen, in the state of Lower Saxony, is about 30 kilometres south-east of Hamburg city centre. Ferry website
Burgomaster is the English form of various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate or executive of a city or town. The name in English was derived from the Dutch burgemeester. In some cases, Burgomaster was the title of the head of state and head of government of a sovereign city-state, sometimes combined with other titles, such as Hamburg's First Mayor and President of the Senate). Contemporary titles are translated into English as mayor. In history in many free imperial cities the function of burgomaster was held by three persons, serving as an executive college. One of the three being burgomaster in chief for a year, the second being the prior burgomaster in chief, the third being the upcoming one. Präsidierender Bürgermeister is now an obsolete formulation sometimes found in historic texts. In an important city in a city state, where one of the Bürgermeister has a rank equivalent to that of a minister-president, there can be several posts called Bürgermeister in the city's executive college, justifying the use of a compound title for the actual highest magistrate, such as: Regierender Bürgermeister in West Berlin and reunited Berlin, while in Berlin the term Bürgermeister without attribute – English Mayor – refers to his deputies, while the heads of the 12 boroughs of Berlin are called Bezirksbürgermeister, English borough mayor.
Erster Bürgermeister in Hamburg Bürgermeister und Präsident des Senats in Bremen Amtsbürgermeister can be used for the chief magistrate of a Swiss constitutive canton, as in Aargau 1815–1831 Bürgermeister, in German: in Germany, South Tyrol, in Switzerland. In Switzerland, the title was abolished mid-19th century. Oberbürgermeister is the most common version for a mayor in a big city in Germany; the Ober- prefix is used in many ranking systems for the next level up including military designations. The mayors of cities, which comprise one of Germany's 112 urban districts bear this title. Urban districts are comparable to independent cities in the English-speaking world; however the mayors of some cities, which do not comprise an urban district, but used to comprise one until the territorial reforms in the 1970s, bear the title Oberbürgermeister. Borgmester Borgarstjóri Borgermester Börgermester Burgomaestre Purkmistr Burgumaisu Borgomastro or Sindaco-Borgomastro: in few communes of Lombardy Burgemeester in Dutch: in Belgium a party-political post, though formally nominated by the regional government and answerable to it, the federal state and the province.
Mayor. In the Netherlands nominated by the municipal council but appointed by the crown. In theory above the parties, in practice a high-profile party-political post. Bourgmestre in Belgium and the Democratic Republic of the Congo Bürgermeister Burmistras, derived from German. Buergermeeschter Polgármester, derived from German. Burmistrz, a mayoral title, derived from German; the German form Oberbürgermeister is translated as Nadburmistrz. The German-derived terminology reflects the involvement of German settlers in the early history of many Polish towns. Borgmästare, kommunalborgmästare. Boargemaster Pormestari In the Netherlands and Belgium, the mayor is an appointed government position, whose main responsibility is chairing the executive and legislative councils of a municipality. In the Netherlands, mayors chair both the council of the municipal council, they are members of the council of mayor and aldermen and have their own portfolios, always including safety and public order. They have a representative role for the municipal government, both to its civilians and to other authorities on the local and national level.
A large majority of mayors are members of a political party. This can be the majority party in the municipal council. However, the mayors are expected to exercise their office in a non-partisan way; the mayor is appointed by the national government for a renewable six-year term. In the past, mayors for important cities were chosen after negotiations between the national parties; this appointment procedure has been criticised. The party D66 had a direct election of the mayor as one of the main objectives in its platform. In the early 2000s, proposals for change were discussed in the national parliament. However
Curslack is a quarter of Hamburg, Germany, in the borough of Bergedorf. It is located in the eastern part of the borough; the name derives from Cuwerslake, meaning low swampland, exposed to flowing water. In Low German kuren means to seep and a Lake means a wet meadow; the area had been flooded until the lock of Tatenberger Schleuse was built from 1949 to 1952. Curslack borders the quarters of Bergedorf, Altengamme and Allermöhe. Curslack is part of the Vierlande area in Hamburg; the village was first recorded in 1188, when it formed a "dyke association" with neighboring Altengamme. In 1420 Curslack had been conquered by Lübeck; the village was under the administration of both cities until 1868. The church of St. John was first recorded in 1306; the actual church was built from 1599 to 1603. Curslack became part of Hamburg with the Greater Hamburg Act in 1937. State owned Hamburg Wasser operates a waterworks in Curslack since 1928. Therefore, Curslack along with Altengamme were declared a "water protection zone" in 1997.
Enclave and exclave
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, surrounded by the territory of one other state. Territorial waters have the same sovereign attributes as land, enclaves may therefore exist within territorial waters. An exclave is a portion of a state or territory geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territory. Many exclaves are enclaves. Enclave is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory, only surrounded by another state. Vatican City and San Marino, enclaved by Italy, Lesotho, enclaved by South Africa, are enclaved states. Unlike an enclave, an exclave can be surrounded by several states; the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan is an example of an exclave. Semi-enclaves and semi-exclaves are areas that, except for possessing an unsurrounded sea border, would otherwise be enclaves or exclaves. Enclaves and semi-enclaves can exist as independent states, while exclaves always constitute just a part of a sovereign state. A pene-enclave is a part of the territory of one country that can be conveniently approached—in particular, by wheeled traffic—only through the territory of another country.
Pene-enclaves are called functional enclaves or practical enclaves. Many pene-exclaves border their own territorial waters, such as Point Roberts, Washington. A pene-enclave can exist on land, such as when intervening mountains render a territory inaccessible from other parts of a country except through alien territory. A cited example is the Kleinwalsertal, a valley part of Vorarlberg, accessible only from Germany to the north; the word enclave is French and first appeared in the mid-15th century as a derivative of the verb enclaver, from the colloquial Latin inclavare. It was a term of property law that denoted the situation of a land or parcel of land surrounded by land owned by a different owner, that could not be reached for its exploitation in a practical and sufficient manner without crossing the surrounding land. In law, this created a servitude of passage for the benefit of the owner of the surrounded land; the first diplomatic document to contain the word enclave was the Treaty of Madrid, signed in 1526.
The term enclave began to be used to refer to parcels of countries, fiefs, towns, etc. that were surrounded by alien territory. This French word entered the English and other languages to denote the same concept, although local terms have continued to be used. In India, the word "pocket" is used as a synonym for enclave. In British administrative history, subnational enclaves were called detachments or detached parts, national enclaves as detached districts or detached dominions. In English ecclesiastic history, subnational enclaves were known as peculiars; the word exclave, modeled on enclave, is a logically extended back-formation of enclave. Enclaves exist for a variety of historical and geographical reasons. For example, in the feudal system in Europe, the ownership of feudal domains was transferred or partitioned, either through purchase and sale or through inheritance, such domains were or came to be surrounded by other domains. In particular, this state of affairs persisted into the 19th century in the Holy Roman Empire, these domains exhibited many of the characteristics of sovereign states.
Prior to 1866 Prussia alone consisted of more than 270 discontiguous pieces of territory. Residing in an enclave within another country has involved difficulties in such areas as passage rights, importing goods, provision of utilities and health services, host nation cooperation. Thus, over time, enclaves have tended to be eliminated. For example, two-thirds of the then-existing national-level enclaves were extinguished on August 1, 2015, when the governments of India and Bangladesh implemented a Land Boundary Agreement that exchanged 162 first-order enclaves; this exchange thus de-enclaved another two dozen second-order enclaves and one third-order enclave, eliminating 197 of the Indo-Bangladesh enclaves in all. The residents in these enclaves had complained of being stateless. Only Bangladesh's Dahagram–Angarpota enclave remained. For illustration, in the figure, A1 is a semi-enclave. Although A2 is an exclave of A, it cannot be classed as an enclave because it shares borders with B and C; the territory A3 is both an exclave of A and an enclave from the viewpoint of B.
The singular territory D, although an enclave, is not an exclave. An enclave is a part of the territory of a state, enclosed within the territory of another state. To distinguish the parts of a state enclosed in a single other state, they are called true enclaves. A true enclave cannot be reached without passing through the territory of a single other state that surrounds it. Vinokurov calls this the restrictive definition of "enclave" given by international law, which thus "comprises only so-called'true enclaves'". Two examples are Büsingen am Hochrhein, a true enclave of Germany, Campione d'Italia, a true enclave of Italy, both of which are surrounded by Switzerland; the definition of a territory comprises territorial waters. In the case of enclaves in territorial waters, they are called maritime (those surrounded by ter