Berklee College of Music is a private music college in Boston, Massachusetts. It is the largest independent college of contemporary music in the world. Known for the study of jazz and modern American music, it offers college-level courses in a wide range of contemporary and historic styles, including rock, hip hop, salsa, heavy metal and bluegrass. Berklee alumni have won 294 Grammy Awards, more than any other college, 95 Latin Grammy Awards. Other notable accolades for its alumni include 5 Tony Awards and 5 Academy Awards. Since 2012, Berklee College of Music has operated a campus in Valencia, Spain. In December 2015, Berklee College of Music and the Boston Conservatory agreed to a merger; the combined institution is known as Berklee, with the conservatory becoming The Boston Conservatory at Berklee. In 1945, composer, arranger and MIT graduate Lawrence Berk founded Schillinger House, the precursor to the Berklee School of Music, after quitting his job at Raytheon. Located at 284 Newbury St. in Boston's Back Bay, the school specialized in the Schillinger System of harmony and composition developed by Joseph Schillinger.
Berk had studied with Schillinger. Instrumental lessons and a few classes in traditional theory and arranging were offered. At the time of its founding all music schools focused on classical music, but Schillinger House offered training in jazz and commercial music for radio, theater and dancing. At first, most students were working professional musicians. Many students were former World War II service members who attended under the G. I. Bill. Initial enrollment was fewer than 50 students. In 1954, when the school's curriculum had expanded to include music education classes and more traditional music theory, Berk changed the name to Berklee School of Music, after his 12-year-old son Lee Eliot Berk, to reflect the broader scope of instruction. Lawrence Berk placed great emphasis on learning from practitioners, as opposed to academics, hired working musicians as faculty members. Several of the school's best-known musician-educators arrived after the school's name change. In 1956, trumpeter Herb Pomeroy joined the faculty and remained until his retirement in 1996.
Drummer Alan Dawson and saxophonist Charlie Mariano became faculty members in 1957. Reed player John LaPorta began teaching in 1962. Like many of Berk's ideas, this practice continues into the present. Although far more emphasis is placed on academic credentials among new faculty hires than in the past, experienced performers such as Gary Burton, Pat Metheny, Arif Mardin, Aydin Esen, Joe Lovano, Danilo Perez have served as faculty over the years. Another trend in the school's history began in the mid-1950s. During this period, the school began to attract international students in greater numbers. For example, Japanese pianist Toshiko Akiyoshi arrived in 1956. Multiple Grammy-winning producer Arif Mardin came from Turkey to study at the school in 1958. In 1957, Berklee initiated the first of many innovative applications of technology to music education with Jazz in the Classroom, a series of LP recordings of student work, accompanied by scores; these albums contain early examples of composing and performing by students who went on to prominent jazz careers, such as Gary Burton, John Abercrombie, John Scofield, Ernie Watts, Alan Broadbent, Sadao Watanabe, many others.
The series, which continued until 1980, was a precursor to subsequent Berklee-affiliated recording labels. These releases provided learning experiences not only for student composers and performers, but for students in newly created majors in music engineering and production, music business and management. Berklee awarded its first bachelor of music degrees in 1966. Members of the first graduating class to receive degrees included Alf Clausen, Stephen Gould and Michael Rendish. Gould taught film scoring at Berklee and is the Program Director for the Educational Leadership PhD program at Lesley University. During the 1960s, the Berklee curriculum began to reflect new developments in popular music, such the rise of rock and roll and funk, jazz-rock fusion. In 1962, Berklee offered the first college-level instrumental major for guitar; the guitar department had nine students, today it is the largest single instrumental major at the college. 1962: Guitarist Jack Petersen accepted an invitation by Lawrence Berk, founder of Berklee, to design and chair the first formal guitar curriculum at Berklee College of Music.
Berk discovered Petersen through his affiliation with the Stan Kenton Band Clinics. Trombonist Phil Wilson joined the faculty in 1965, his student ensemble, the Dues Band, helped introduce current popular music into the ensemble curriculum, as the Rainbow Band, performed world music and jazz fusions. In 1969, new courses in rock and popular music were added to the curriculum, the first offered at the college level; the first college course on jingle writing was offered in 1969. The school became Berklee College of Music in 1970 and bestowed its first honorary doctorate on Duke Ellington in 1971. Vibraphonist Gary Burton joined the faculty in 1971, helping to solidify the place of jazz-rock fusion in the curriculum; as Dean of Curriculum from 1985 to 1996, Burton led the development of several new majors, including music synthesis and songwriting, facilitated the school's transition to technology-based education. Curriculum innovations during the 1970s included the first college-level instrumental major in electric bass guitar in 1973, the first jazz-rock ensemble class in 1974.
In 1979, Berklee founder Lawrence Berk stepped down as president. The board of trustees appointed his son, Lee Eliot Berk
The 1984 United States presidential election in Utah took place on November 6, 1984. All 50 states and the District of Columbia, were part of the 1984 United States presidential election. Utah voters chose five electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president of the United States. Utah was won by incumbent United States President Ronald Reagan of California, running against former Vice President Walter Mondale of Minnesota. Reagan ran for a second time with incumbent Vice President and former C. I. A. Director George H. W. Bush of Texas, Mondale ran with Representative Geraldine Ferraro of New York, the first major female candidate for the vice presidency; the presidential election of 1984 was a partisan election for Utah, with just under 99% of the electorate voting for either the Democratic or Republican parties, though several other parties appeared on the ballot. Every county in Utah voted in majority for the Republican candidate, a strong turn out in this conservative leaning state.
Reagan did the best in Box Elder County, Mondale did the best in Carbon County, but still failed to gain majority there. Mondale did make gains vis-à-vis Jimmy Carter of over ten percent in eastern Daggett County and San Juan County related to a general trend in this election of Native American voters towards Mondale; the populated Salt Lake County contributed about half of the Democratic votes produced by Utah, but still was won decisively by Reagan by 40 points, in what was, overall, a solid statewide victory. Utah weighed in for this election as 16% more Republican than the national average, with 74.5% of the popular vote made it Reagan's strongest state in the 1984 election. Walter Mondale accepted the Democratic nomination for presidency after pulling narrowly ahead of Senator Gary Hart of Colorado and Rev. Jesse Jackson of Illinois - his main contenders during what would be a contentious Democratic primary. During the primary campaign, Mondale was vocal about reduction of government spending, and, in particular, was vocal against heightened military spending on the nuclear arms race against the Soviet Union, reaching its peak on both sides in the early 1980s.
Taking a stance on the social issues of the day, Mondale advocated for gun control, the right to choose regarding abortion, opposed the repeal of laws regarding institutionalized prayer in public schools. He criticized Reagan for what he charged was his economic marginalization of the poor, stating that Reagan's reelection campaign was "a happy talk campaign," not focused on the real issues at hand. A significant political move during this election: the Democratic Party nominated Representative Geraldine Ferraro to run with Mondale as Vice-President. Ferraro is the first female candidate to receive such a nomination in United States history, she said in an interview at the 1984 Democratic National Convention that this action "opened a door which will never be closed again," speaking to the role of women in politics. By 1984, Reagan was popular with voters across the nation as the President who saw them out of the economic stagflation of the early and middle 1970's, into a period of economic stability.
The economic success seen under Reagan was politically accomplished in two ways. The first was initiation of deep tax cuts for the wealthy, the second was a wide-spectrum of tax cuts for crude oil production and refinement, with the 1980 Windfall profits tax cuts; these policies were augmented with a call for heightened military spending, the cutting of social welfare programs for the poor, the increasing of taxes on those making less than $50,000 per year. Collectively called "Reaganomics", these economic policies were established through several pieces of legislation passed between 1980 and 1987; some of these new policies arguably curbed several existing tax loopholes and exceptions. Reaganomics has been criticized by many analysts as "setting the stage" for economic troubles in the United State after 2007, such as the Great Recession. Unopposed during the Republican primaries, Reagan ran on a campaign of furthering his economic policies. Reagan vowed to continue his "war on drugs," passing sweeping legislation after the 1984 election in support of mandatory minimum sentences for drug possession.
Furthermore, taking a stance on the social issues of the day, Reagan opposed legislation regarding comprehension of gay marriage and environmentalism, regarding the final as being bad for business. Reagan won the election in Utah with a resounding 50 point sweep-out landslide, his strongest victory in the nation. Utah continued its typical trend during this election cycle of having the largest percentage voting Republican in the nation, a trend that started in 1976 and continued continuously until 2004. While Utah votes conservative, the decisive election results in Utah are reflective of a nationwide reconsolidation of base for the Republican Party which took place through the 1980s; this was most evident during the 1984 presidential election. No Republican candidate has received as strong of support in the American West at large, as Reagan did, it is speculated that Mondale lost support with voters nearly during the campaign, namely during his acceptance speech at the 1984 Democratic National Convention.
There he stated. To quote Mondale, "By the end of my first term, I will reduce the Reagan bu
The Right Side of History: How Reason and Moral Purpose Made the West Great is a 2019 book by American conservative political commentator Ben Shapiro. Shapiro was inspired to write the book after an incident at California State University, Los Angeles in which a speech he was giving was disrupted by protestors. In the book, Shapiro argues that Western civilization is experiencing a crisis and an imminent downfall, he asserts that by abandoning Judeo-Christian values and the Greek-born faculty of reason, modern society is hastening this demise, that hedonism and rampant materialism has made humankind susceptible to failure, that the only the way to reverse this decline is to return to the values and faculties that helped create the West. The book became the #1 non-fiction book on both Amazon and The New York Times Best Seller list within one week of its release. Reception of the book's coverage of philosophy and history, as well as the arguments presented within it, was mixed. Shapiro was scheduled to give a speech at California State University, Los Angeles for Young America's Foundation's campus group on February 25, 2016, titled "When Diversity Becomes a Problem".
Some students and faculty members objected to Shapiro's presence on campus. At the time, Shapiro was an editor for the far-right news website Breitbart News. In response, university president William Covino cancelled the speech. In a statement, Covino cited his intention for "him to appear as part of a group of speakers with differing viewpoints on diversity". Covino further stated: "Such an event will better represent our university's dedication to the free exchange of ideas and the value of considering multiple viewpoints." However, when Shapiro announced his intention to show up anyway, Covino reversed his decision. On the day of Shapiro's speech, student protestors formed human chains to prevent access by attendees to the theater hall where Shapiro would be speaking; as Shapiro was preparing to start his speech, several rioters assaulted those attempting to enter the theater hall. Soon after the speech began, a protestor pulled a fire alarm. Shapiro continued his speech throughout the continuous disruption, further exacerbated by protestors loudly banging against the outer doors of the theater hall.
After the speech concluded, he was escorted off campus via a police motorcade. According to Shapiro, the reason behind the protests was that a professor had told her students that Shapiro was a white supremacist. In the aftermath of the incident, the conservative Christian non-profit organization Alliance Defending Freedom filed suit in Los Angeles federal court against CSULA on behalf of Shapiro and the campus chapter of Young Americans for Freedom. Shapiro regarded this incident as one of two catalysts for him to write the book; the other factor was Shapiro becoming the top recipient of anti-Semitic tweets directed at journalists from August 2015 through July 2016. According to the Anti-Defamation League, out of 19,253 anti-Semitic tweets directed at journalists during this time period, Shapiro was the target of 7,400 of those tweets, or 38% of the tweets. Shapiro wrote: "I went through most of my adult life involved in public political conversations with others without threat of violence or racist slurs.
Now, I required hundreds of police officers to protect me, my Twitter feed was flooded with images straight from the pages of Der Stürmer. Something had changed." Shapiro attributed these two incidents, as well as various other observations regarding social downturns and declines across the United States and the Western world to society rejecting Judeo-Christian values and Greek natural law: "We are in the process of abandoning Judeo-Christian values and Greek natural law, favoring moral subjectivism and the rule of passion. And we are watching our civilization collapse into age-old tribalism, individualistic hedonism and moral subjectivism." Shapiro introduces the topic of the book by contrasting the rising quality of life in Western societies with statistics highlighting a societal decline across the West such as increasing levels of polarization, divorce rates, drug overdose deaths among others. He further references an incident in February 2016, when he gave a speech at California State University, Los Angeles, resulting in a violent confrontation between protestors and those attending Shapiro's event.
He points to a loss of Judeo-Christian values and the Greek-based capacity for reasoning throughout the Western world as the chief culprit behind such events and declines. He further analyzes the sense of discord and disunity amongst those of different political parties and beliefs, proposes that such a rift was developed due to a drift from the understanding of applied ethics that served as a fundamental building block of Western society, he stresses a need to balance individualism with an ubiquitous sense of respect and empathy– virtues that Shapiro argues can most be attained through an understanding both Biblical ethics and Aristotelian ethics. As he details the spread and influence of Judaism upon the ancient peoples of the Southern Levant, he argues that the introduction of Biblical ethics to the Israelites was first catalyst for the roots of Western civilization to develop; as Christianity adopted Mosaic interpretations of law and morality, the moral guidelines and beliefs exclusive to Judaism became intrinsically inseparable from those of Christianity.
Shapiro regards the second catalyst to be Aristotelian ethics, the basis of, that one should aspire to become good, not to know. He further postulates that upon these two schools of thought coming into contact with one another, they merged into the basis and foundation for the