Jacobs School of Music
The Indiana University Jacobs School of Music in Bloomington, Indiana, is a music conservatory established in 1921. Until 2005, it was known as the Indiana University School of Music, it has more than 1,600 students half of whom are undergraduates, with the second largest enrollment of all music schools accredited by the National Association of Schools of Music. In 1907, Charles Campbell arranged for a recital of the Schellschmidt Quartet of Indianapolis, the proceeds of which established a music fund, "to lead to the equipment of a school of music in the university." In 1909, he offered a series of noncredit lectures on the history of music, which led to a full-fledged music department. In 1919 Barzille Merrill took the position of department head and worked to create a separate school of music, he campaigned for a new music building as well, dedicated in 1937, renamed Merril Hall in 1989. In 1921 the Department of Music became the School of Music. In 1938 Robert L. Sanders remains the school's youngest-ever dean.
Through his efforts, the school gained membership in the National Association of Schools of Music and built the Hall of Music. In 1941 the Indiana University Auditorium was dedicated and offered 15 events including appearances by the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo and the San Carlo Opera Company. In 1942 the school staged its first full opera. Cavalleria Rusticana; that year the Metropolitan Opera Company visited IU for the first time, performing Aida, would return again for the next 15 years, presenting two operas each visit. In 1982 Leonard Bernstein spent six weeks at the school to work on A Quiet Place. In 1980, the School of Music launched a weekly radio chamber music series produced by WFIU. In its first year, the series featured student and faculty performers and was broadcast on six Indiana stations. By 1981, "Music from Indiana" had achieved national syndication on American Public Radio, in 1983, the number of stations carrying the program had jumped to 54. In 2005 the school announced it had received a gift of $40.6 million from Barbara and David H. Jacobs for the school of music.
At the time, it was the largest single gift for a school of music at a public university and it is the largest single gift given by individuals to IU. The school will use $20 million of the gift to endow graduate student fellowships and $10 million to endow undergraduate scholarships; the gift establishes endowed faculty positions, including the Dean Charles H. Webb Chair in Music, the Henry A. Upper Chair in Music and the David H. Jacobs Chair in Music.. In 2009, the school received a gift from the family of Leonard Bernstein that included the entire contents of Bernstein's conducting studio. Admission to the Jacobs School of Music is done by a recorded audition only; the overall acceptance rate is about 25 percent for undergraduate students and about 30 percent for graduate students. However, acceptance rates vary between programs; each freshman class contains about 200 new students. Students in most degree programs at the school are required to participate in an ensemble during every semester spent at the school.
Depending on the student's degree program, he or she may be required to participate in specific ensembles. The majority of ensembles are auditioned. Owing to the large size of the school, there are thirteen choirs, three bands and seven orchestras at the school, they encompass a broad range size and musical styles and include the Singing Hoosiers, Opera Chorus, Wind Ensemble, Baroque Orchestra, Chamber Orchestra, Philharmonic Orchestra, as well as various jazz ensembles. Outside of organized ensembles, performance majors are required to participate in chamber music; these ensembles are student-formed and coached by a faculty member. Student conductors and those wishing to solo with orchestra can form ad-hoc orchestras; these are student-run. The school is home to two of the nation's premier contemporary music ensembles.: New Music Ensemble, founded by former Prof. Frederick A. Fox in 1975, directed by Prof. David Dzubay: Composed of the top musicians from the school of music, this group contains.
Directed by Dominick DiOrio, the ensemble premieres works by students and emerging professional composers and tours nationally. NOTUS: IU Contemporary Vocal Ensemble The Jacobs School of Music has long been known for their operatic history; the school produces five operas and one musical each year, three for each semester. The Opera Theater stages works in size, they perform classic works by composers such as Mozart, Verdi and Donizetti, but they perform Baroque operas by Handel, contemporary works. Cast and chorus members are students, many of the crew are students as well; the school offers Bachelor of Music degrees, Master of Arts degrees, Master of Music degrees, Doctor of Philosophy degrees, Doctor of Music degrees, among others, in a large and diverse number of musical fields. The school awards a "Performer's Certificate" or "Artist's Diploma" to students who demonstrate exceptionally outstanding performance ability; the school offers degrees in Historical Performance. Additional
Abbey of Saint Martial, Limoges
St. Martial's Abbey was a monastery in Limoges, founded in 848 and dissolved in 1791; the buildings were razed at the beginning of the 19th century. The only remaining part is the 10th century crypt, rediscovered in 1960, which contains the tomb of Saint Martial, the first bishop of Limoges, that of Saint Valerie of Limoges, another legendary, early martyr; the origins of the abbey lie in the graveyard outside the original Roman settlement of Augustoritum. This is the site of the Place de la République, at the commercial heart of modern Limoges; the cemetery was the reputed burial place of early Christian martyrs, including Saint Martial, the first bishop of Limoges. This evolved into a place of pilgrimage in Merovingian times. By the 6th century, according to Gregory of Tours, there was a funerary chapel above Saint Martial's tomb, in the care of a small community of clerics, who were recognised as a congregation of canons in the reign of the Carolingian ruler, Louis the Pious; this community became a Benedictine abbey under Charles the Bald.
A mosaic above the tomb of Saint Martial dates from this time, is set in hard cement from an earlier period, indicating that the shrine was well-established and of some antiquity by the time the abbey was founded. The abbey grew in importance and elaboration, alongside the "City of the Castle"; this was a major commercial centre, under the patronage of the abbot, outside the boundaries and control of the Cathedral City, dominated by the bishop. The body of Saint Martial was, at some time in the late 9th century, taken from its sarcophagus and placed for a time in a golden shrine in the great new church, built over the spot. Here it was a magnet for pilgrims on the Way of St. James, benefiting from the wider pilgrim traffic throughout Western Europe; the abbey reached the peak of its importance in the century following its take-over by Cluny Abbey in 1065, when it was famed for its literature and music. However, the shrine was stolen by Henry II of England, the Duke of Aquitaine. Turmoil in the land was interpreted as the saint's response to the disturbance of his bones.
The body was reburied and an altar placed above it. The disturbances of the 12th century were followed by a period of rebuilding and a century of renewed prosperity. However, they had been only a foretaste of the disruption of the Hundred Years' War; the Limousin was not spared in the religious conflicts of the 16th and 17th centuries. The abbey went through a protracted decline and it never recovered the greatness of its heyday. There was considerable repair in the early 18th century. However, in 1791, during the French Revolution, the abbey community was dissolved, in the following year the sacking and demolition of the building began. By 1807 this was complete; the area was turned into a new public space, the Place de la République. Portions of the relics of the martyrs saved by faithful Catholic citizens of Limoges, were rehoused in the nearby church of St Michel des Lions; the twin Castle and Cathedral cities were at last unified into a single municipality under secular governance. Excavations were carried out from 1960, on the initiative of the city council, in the hope of uncovering the remains of the abbey and the shrine of Saint Martial.
By 1962, the crypt containing the tombs of Saints Martial and Valerie had been rediscovered. Excavations were pushed further to the east, revealing more church buildings belonging to the abbey. From 1966, the crypt with the surrounding area was consolidated and opened to the public, the whole being covered with a large concrete slab. Today, it is entered down a flight of steps from the Place de la République above. Admission is free. Excavations started again in July 2015 to carry out detailed studies of the remains before revamping of the Place de la Republique; the abbey was the center of several important developments in medieval music, including liturgical chant, early polyphony and troubadours' songs. The first chant manuscripts show revisions of the early 11th century, when Roger de Chabannes introduced his nephew Adémar as cantor and scriptor of notation. A significant body of plainchant and tonaries for its modal classification had been written at the scriptorium of this Abbey. Adémar de Chabannes composed not only sequences and prosulae, but music for a festal octave for the Patron St Martial.
He engaged in vain for the recognition of St Martial as an apostel, the only condition to celebrate the patron a whole week long. Among the earliest sequences composed there is the Swan Sequence from c.850. The St. Martial school of music and its library contributed and collected an complete repertoire of West Frankish tropes and sequences, as well as the so-called Aquitanian polyphony, because cantors of the region had been most inventive in quite original compositions, dealing with all kinds of troped poetry, two part settings between discant and florid organum, it is a famous site for 12th century sacred and secular church music. Some of the earliest troubadour lyrics with their accompanying melodies were extant in manuscripts at St. Martial's, now preserved at the Bibliothèque Nationale. Grier, James. "The music is the message: music in the apostolic liturgy of Saint Martial". Plainsong and Medieval Music. 12: 1–14. Doi:10.1017/S0961137103003012. ISSN 0961-1371. Grier, James. "The Musical Autographs of Adémar de Chabannes".
Early Music History. 24: 125–168. Doi:10.1017/S0261127905000100. Grier, James. "The music is the message II: Adémar de Chabannes' music for the apostolic Off
A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented. Anyone who composes, conducts, or performs music is referred to as a musician. A musician who plays a musical instrument is known as an instrumentalist. Musicians can specialize in any musical style, some musicians play in a variety of different styles depending on cultures and background. Examples of a musician's possible skills include performing, singing, producing, composing and the orchestration of music. In the Middle Ages, instrumental musicians performed with soft ensembles inside and loud instruments outdoors. Many European musicians of this time catered to the Roman Catholic Church, they provided arrangements structured around Gregorian chant structure and Masses from church texts. Notable musicians Phillipe de Vitry Guillaume Dufay Guillaume de Machaut Hildegard of Bingen John Jenkins Beatritz de Dia Tyagaraja Purandara Dasa Bhimsen Joshi Bismillah Khan A. R. RAHMAN Renaissance musicians produced music that could be played during masses in churches and important chapels.
Vocal pieces were in Latin—the language of church texts of the time—and were Church-polyphonic or "made up of several simultaneous melodies." By the end of the 16th century, patronage split among many areas: the Catholic Church, Protestant churches, royal courts, wealthy amateurs, music printing—all provided income sources for composers. Notable musicians Giovanni Palestrina Giovanni Gabrieli Thomas Tallis Claudio Monteverdi Leonardo da Vinci The Baroque period introduced heavy use of counterpoint and basso continuo characteristics. Vocal and instrumental "color" became more important compared with the Renaissance style of music, emphasized much of the volume and pace of each piece. Notable musicians George Frideric Handel Johann Sebastian Bach Antonio Vivaldi Classical music was created by musicians who lived during a time of a rising middle class. Many middle-class inhabitants of France at the time lived under long-time absolute monarchies; because of this, much of the music was performed in environments that were more constrained compared with the flourishing times of the Renaissance and Baroque eras.
Notable musicians Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Joseph Haydn Ludwig Van Beethoven The foundation of Romantic period music coincides with what is called the age of revolutions, an age of upheavals in political, economic and military traditions. This age included the initial transformations of the Industrial Revolution. A revolutionary energy was at the core of Romanticism, which quite consciously set out to transform not only the theory and practice of poetry and art, but the common perception of the world; some major Romantic Period precepts survive, still affect modern culture. Notable musicians Ludwig van Beethoven Frédéric Chopin Franz Schubert Niccolò Paganini Franz Liszt Charles-Valentin Alkan Richard Wagner Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Johannes Brahms Johann Strauss II The world transitioned from 19th-century Romanticism to 20th century Modernism, bringing major musical changes. In 20th-century music and musicians rejected the emotion-dominated Romantic period, strove to represent the world the way they perceived it.
Musicians wrote to be"... objective. While past eras concentrated on spirituality, this new period placed emphasis on physicality and things that were concrete."The advent of audio recording and mass media in the 20th century caused a boom of all kinds of music—pop, dance, folk and all forms of classical music. Musicians can experience a number of health problems related to the practice and performance of music; these can include tinnitus and noise-induced hearing loss, which occurs and over a long period of time, most musicians do not seek help until they start to experience secondary symptoms such as tinnitus, distortion of sounds and hyperacusis. In addition, musicians are at increased risk for both musculoskeletal and vocal health problems when producing high sound levels on musical instruments. Increased biomechanical demands, whether at the hands, embouchure, or vocal cords, elevates the risks for occupational health problems like tendonitis, carpal tunnel, rupture of facial muscles, vocal cord malfunction.
Singer Composer Tour manager Musicians' or'Hi-Fi' earplugs Media related to Musicians at Wikimedia Commons
Royal Academy of Music
The Royal Academy of Music in London, England, is the oldest conservatoire in the UK, founded in 1822 by John Fane and Nicolas-Charles Bochsa. It received its Royal Charter in 1830 from King George IV with the support of the first Duke of Wellington, it is one of the leading conservatoires in the UK, rated fourth in the Complete University Guide and third in the Guardian University Guide for 2018. Famous Academy alumni include Sir Simon Rattle, Sir Harrison Birtwistle, Sir Elton John and Annie Lennox; the Academy provides undergraduate and postgraduate training across instrumental performance, jazz, musical theatre and opera, recruits musicians from around the world, with a student community representing more than 50 nationalities. It is committed to lifelong learning, from Junior Academy, which trains musicians up to the age of 18, through Open Academy community music projects, to performances and educational events for all ages; the Academy’s museum is home to one of the world’s most significant collections of musical instruments and artefacts, including stringed instruments by Stradivari and members of the Amati family.
It is a constituent college of a registered charity under English law. The Academy was founded by John Fane, 11th Earl of Westmorland in 1822 with the help and ideas of the French harpist and composer Nicolas Bochsa; the Academy was granted a Royal Charter by King George IV in 1830. The founding of the Academy was supported by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, he was determined to make the Academy a success. The Academy faced closure in 1866; the Academy's history took a turn for the better when its appointed Principal William Sterndale Bennett took on the chairmanship of the Academy's Board of directors and established its finances and reputation on a new footing. The Academy's first building was in Tenterden Street, Hanover Square and in 1911 the institution moved to the current premises, designed by Sir Ernest George, built at a cost of £51,000 on the site of an orphanage. In 1976 the Academy acquired the houses situated on the north side and built between them a new opera theatre donated by the philanthropist Sir Jack Lyons and named after him and two new recital spaces, a recording studio, an electronic music studio, several practice rooms and office space.
The Academy again expanded its facilities in the late 1990s, with the addition of 1-5 York Gate, designed by John Nash in 1822, to house the new museum, a musical theatre studio and several teaching and practice rooms. To link the main building and 1-5 York Gate a new underground passage and the underground barrel-vaulted 150-seat David Josefowitz recital hall were built on the courtyard between the mentioned structures; the Academy's current facilities are situated on Marylebone Road in central London adjacent to Regent's Park. The Royal Academy of Music offers training from infant level, with the senior Academy awarding the LRAM diploma, B. Mus. and higher degrees to Ph. D; the former degree GRSM, equivalent to a university honours degree and taken by some students, was phased out in the 1990s. All undergraduates now take the University of London degree of BMus. Most Academy students are classical performers: strings, vocal studies including opera, woodwind and choral conducting, percussion, organ, guitar.
There are departments for musical theatre performance and jazz. The Academy collaborates with other conservatoires worldwide, including participating in the SOCRATES student and staff exchange programme. In 1991, the Academy introduced a accredited degree in Performance Studies, in September 1999, it became a full constituent college of the University of London, in both cases becoming the first UK conservatoire to do so; the Academy has students from over 50 countries, following diverse programmes including instrumental performance, composition, musical theatre and opera. The Academy has an established relationship with King's College London the Department of Music, whose students receive instrumental tuition at the Academy. In return, many students at the Academy take a range of Humanities choices at King's, its extended academic musicological curriculum; the Junior Academy, for pupils under the age of 18, takes place every Saturday. The Academy's library contains over 160,000 items, including significant collections of early printed and manuscript materials and audio facilities.
The library houses archives dedicated to Sir Arthur Sullivan and Sir Henry Wood. Among the Library's most valuable possessions are the manuscripts of Purcell's The Fairy-Queen, Sullivan's The Mikado, Vaughan Williams' Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis and Serenade to Music, the newly discovered Handel Gloria. A grant from the National Heritage Memorial Fund has assisted in the purchase of the Robert Spencer Collection—a set of Early English Song and Lute music, as well as a fine collection of lutes and guitars; the Academy's museum displays many of these items. The Orchestral Library has 4,500 sets of orchestral parts. Other collections include the libraries of Sir Henry Otto Klemperer. Soon after violinist Yehudi Menuhin's death, the Royal Academy of Music acquired his personal archive, which includes sheet music marked up for performance, news articles and photographs relating to Menuhin, autograph musical manuscripts, several portraits of Paganini
George Balanchine was a Russian-born Georgian-American ballet choreographer, one of the most influential 20th century choreographers. Styled as the father of American ballet, he co-founded the New York City Ballet and remained its Artistic Director for more than 35 years. Balanchine took the standards and technique from his time at the Imperial Ballet School and fused it with other schools of movement that he had adopted during his tenure on Broadway and in Hollywood, creating his signature "neoclassical style", he was a choreographer known for his musicality. Balanchine was invited to America in 1933 by a young arts patron named Lincoln Kirstein, together they founded the School of American Ballet. Along with Kirstein, Balanchine co-founded the New York City Ballet. Balanchine was born Giorgi Melitonovitch Balanchivadze in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire, son of Georgian opera singer and composer Meliton Balanchivadze, one of the founders of the Tbilisi Opera and Ballet Theatre and the culture minister of the Democratic Republic of Georgia, which became independent in 1918 but was subsumed into the Soviet Union.
The rest of the Georgian side of Balanchine's family comprised artists and soldiers. Little is known of Balanchine's maternal side, his mother, Meliton's second wife, Maria Nikolayevna Vasilyeva, was fond of ballet and viewed it as a form of social advancement from the lower reaches of St. Petersburg society, she was eleven years younger than Meliton and rumored to have been his former housekeeper, although "she had at least some culture in her background" as she could play piano well. As a child, Balanchine was not interested in ballet, but his mother insisted that he audition with his sister Tamara, who shared her mother's interest in the art. Balanchine's brother Andria Balanchivadze instead followed his father's love for music and became a composer in Soviet Georgia. Tamara's career, would be cut short by her death in unknown circumstances as she was trying to escape on a train from besieged Leningrad to Georgia. Based on his audition, during 1913, Balanchine relocated from rural Finland to Saint Petersburg and was accepted into the Imperial Ballet School, principal school of the Imperial Ballet, where he was a student of Pavel Gerdt and Samuil Andrianov.
After graduating in 1921, Balanchine enrolled in the Petrograd Conservatory while working in the corps de ballet at the State Academic Theater for Opera and Ballet. His studies at the conservatory included advanced piano, music theory, counterpoint and composition. Balanchine graduated from the conservatory during 1923, danced as a member of the corps until 1924. While still in his teens, Balanchine choreographed a pas de deux named La Nuit; this was followed by another duet, with the dancers in bare feet rather than ballet shoes. During 1923, with fellow dancers, Balanchine formed the Young Ballet. On a 1924 visit to Germany with the Soviet State Dancers, his wife, Tamara Geva, dancers Alexandra Danilova and Nicholas Efimov fled to Paris, where there was a large Russian community. At this time, the impresario Sergei Diaghilev invited Balanchine to join the Ballets Russes as a choreographer. Diaghilev soon encouraged his choreography. Between 1924 and Diaghilev's death in 1929, Balanchine created nine ballets, as well as lesser works.
During these years, he worked with composers such as Sergei Prokofiev, Igor Stravinsky, Claude Debussy, Erik Satie, Maurice Ravel, artists who designed sets and costumes, such as Pablo Picasso, Georges Rouault, Henri Matisse, creating new works that combined all the arts. Among his new works, during 1928 in Paris, Balanchine premiered Apollon musagète in a collaboration with Stravinsky, he described it as "the turning point in my life". Apollo is regarded as the original neoclassical ballet. Apollo brought the male dancer to the forefront. Apollo is known for its minimalism, utilizing simple sets; this allowed the audience not to be distracted from the movement. Balanchine considered music to be the primary influence on choreography, as opposed to the narrative. Suffering a serious knee injury, Balanchine had to limit his dancing ending his performance career. After Diaghilev's death, the Ballets Russes went bankrupt. Balanchine himself served as a resident choreographer of the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo.
To earn money, Balanchine began to stage dances for Charles B. Cochran's revues and Sir Oswald Stoll's variety shows in London, he was retained by the Royal Danish Ballet in Copenhagen as a guest ballet master. Among his new works for the company were Danses Concertantes, a pure dance piece to music by Stravinsky. In 1931, with the help from financier Serge Denham, René Blum and Colonel Wassily de Basil formed the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, a successor to Ballets Russes; the new company hired Leonide Balanchine as choreographers. Featured dancers included Tatiana Riabouchinska. In 1933, without consulting Blum, Col
Pope Gregory I
Pope Gregory I known as Saint Gregory the Great, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 3 September 590 to 12 March 604 AD. He is famous for instigating the first recorded large-scale mission from Rome, the Gregorian Mission, to convert the then-pagan Anglo-Saxons in England to Christianity. Gregory is well known for his writings, which were more prolific than those of any of his predecessors as Pope; the epithet Saint Gregory the Dialogist has been attached to him in Eastern Christianity because of his Dialogues. English translations of Eastern texts sometimes list him as Gregory "Dialogos", or the Anglo-Latinate equivalent "Dialogus". A Roman senator's son and himself the Prefect of Rome at 30, Gregory tried the monastery but soon returned to active public life, ending his life and the century as pope. Although he was the first pope from a monastic background, his prior political experiences may have helped him to be a talented administrator, who established papal supremacy. During his papacy, he surpassed with his administration the emperors in improving the welfare of the people of Rome, he challenged the theological views of Patriarch Eutychius of Constantinople before the emperor Tiberius II.
Gregory sent missionaries to England. The realignment of barbarian allegiance to Rome from their Arian Christian alliances shaped medieval Europe. Gregory saw Franks and Visigoths align with Rome in religion, he combated against the Donatist heresy, popular in North Africa at the time. Throughout the Middle Ages, he was known as "the Father of Christian Worship" because of his exceptional efforts in revising the Roman worship of his day, his contributions to the development of the Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts, still in use in the Byzantine Rite, were so significant that he is recognized as its de facto author. Gregory is one of the Latin Fathers, he is considered a saint in the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Anglican Communion, some Lutheran denominations. After his death, Gregory was canonized by popular acclaim; the Protestant reformer John Calvin admired Gregory and declared in his Institutes that Gregory was the last good Pope. He is the patron saint of musicians, singers and teachers.
The exact date of Gregory's birth is uncertain, but is estimated to be around the year 540, in the city of Rome. His parents named him Gregorius, which according to Ælfric of Abingdon in An Homily on the Birth-Day of S. Gregory, "... is a Greek Name, which signifies in the Latin Tongue, in English, Watchful...." The medieval writer who provided this etymology did not hesitate to apply it to the life of Gregory. Ælfric states, "He was diligent in God's Commandments."Gregory was born into a wealthy patrician Roman family with close connections to the church. His father, who served as a senator and for a time was the Prefect of the City of Rome held the position of Regionarius in the church, though nothing further is known about that position. Gregory's mother, was well-born, had a married sister, Pateria, in Sicily, his mother and two paternal aunts are honored by Orthodox churches as saints. Gregory's great-great-grandfather had been Pope Felix III, the nominee of the Gothic king, Theodoric. Gregory's election to the throne of St Peter made his family the most distinguished clerical dynasty of the period.
The family owned and resided in a villa suburbana on the Caelian Hill, fronting the same street as the former palaces of the Roman emperors on the Palatine Hill opposite. The north of the street runs into the Colosseum. In Gregory's day the ancient buildings were in ruins and were owned. Villas covered the area. Gregory's family owned working estates in Sicily and around Rome. Gregory had portraits done in fresco in their former home on the Caelian and these were described 300 years by John the Deacon. Gordianus was tall with light eyes, he wore a beard. Silvia was tall, had a round face, blue eyes and a cheerful look, they had another son whose fate are unknown. Gregory was born into a period of upheaval in Italy. From 542 the so-called Plague of Justinian swept through the provinces of the empire, including Italy; the plague caused famine and sometimes rioting. In some parts of the country, over 1/3 of the population was wiped out or destroyed, with heavy spiritual and emotional effects on the people of the Empire.
Politically, although the Western Roman Empire had long since vanished in favour of the Gothic kings of Italy, during the 540s Italy was retaken from the Goths by Justinian I, emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire ruling from Constantinople. As the fighting was in the north, the young Gregory saw little of it. Totila sacked and vacated Rome in 546, destroying most of its population, but in 549 he invited those who were still alive to return to the empty and ruined streets, it has been hypothesized that young Gregory and his parents retired during that intermission to their Sicilian estates, to return in 549. The war was over in Rome by 552, a subsequent invasion of the Franks was defeated in 554. After that, there was peace in Italy, the appearance of restoration, except that the central government now resided in Constantinople. Like most young men of his position in Roman society, Saint Gregory was well educated, learning grammar, the sciences and law, excelling in all. Gregory of Tours reported that "in grammar and rhetoric... he was second to none...."
Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music. The Oxford Companion to Music describes three interrelated uses of the term "music theory": The first is what is otherwise called'rudiments' taught as the elements of notation, of key signatures, of time signatures, of rhythmic notation, so on; the second is the study of writings about music from ancient times onwards. The third is an area of current musicological study that seeks to define processes and general principles in music — a sphere of research that can be distinguished from analysis in that it takes as its starting-point not the individual work or performance but the fundamental materials from which it is built. Music theory is concerned with describing how musicians and composers make music, including tuning systems and composition methods among other topics; because of the ever-expanding conception of what constitutes music, a more inclusive definition could be that music theory is the consideration of any sonic phenomena, including silence, as they relate to music.
This is not an absolute guideline. However, this medieval discipline became the basis for tuning systems in centuries, it is included in modern scholarship on the history of music theory. Music theory as a practical discipline encompasses the methods and concepts composers and other musicians use in creating music; the development and transmission of music theory in this sense may be found in oral and written music-making traditions, musical instruments, other artifacts. For example, ancient instruments from Mesopotamia and prehistoric sites around the world reveal details about the music they produced and something of the musical theory that might have been used by their makers. In ancient and living cultures around the world, the deep and long roots of music theory are visible in instruments, oral traditions, current music making. Many cultures, at least as far back as ancient Mesopotamia and ancient China, have considered music theory in more formal ways such as written treatises and music notation.
Practical and scholarly traditions overlap, as many practical treatises about music place themselves within a tradition of other treatises, which are cited just as scholarly writing cites earlier research. In modern academia, music theory is a subfield of musicology, the wider study of musical cultures and history. Etymologically, music theory is an act of contemplation of music, from the Greek θεωρία, a looking at, contemplation, theory a sight, a spectacle; as such, it is concerned with abstract musical aspects such as tuning and tonal systems, scales and dissonance, rhythmic relationships, but there is a body of theory concerning practical aspects, such as the creation or the performance of music, ornamentation and electronic sound production. A person who researches, teaches, or writes articles about music theory is a music theorist. University study to the M. A. or Ph. D level, is required to teach as a tenure-track music theorist in Canadian university. Methods of analysis include mathematics, graphic analysis, analysis enabled by Western music notation.
Comparative, descriptive and other methods are used. Music theory textbooks in the United States of America include elements of musical acoustics, considerations of musical notation, techniques of tonal composition, among other topics. Preserved prehistoric instruments and depictions of performance in artworks can give clues to the structure of pitch systems in prehistoric cultures. See for instance Paleolithic flutes, Gǔdí, Anasazi flute. Several surviving Sumerian and Akkadian clay tablets include musical information of a theoretical nature lists of intervals and tunings; the scholar Sam Mirelman reports that the earliest of these texts dates from before 1500 BCE, a millennium earlier than surviving evidence from any other culture of comparable musical thought. Further, "All the Mesopotamian texts are united by the use of a terminology for music that, according to the approximate dating of the texts, was in use for over 1,000 years." Much of Chinese music history and theory remains unclear.
The earliest texts about Chinese music theory are inscribed on the stone and bronze bells excavated in 1978 from the tomb of Marquis Yi of the Zeng state. They include more than 2800 words describing practices of music pitches of the time; the bells produce two intertwined pentatonic scales three tones apart with additional pitches completing the chromatic scale. Chinese theory starts from numbers, the main musical numbers being twelve and eight. Twelve refers to the number of pitches; the Lüshi chunqiu from about 239 BCE recalls the legend of Ling Lun. On order of the Yellow Emperor, Ling Lun collected twelve bamboo lengths with thick and nodes. Blowing on one of these like a pipe, he found its sound agreeable and named it huangzhong, the "Yellow Bell." He heard phoenixes singing. The male and female phoenix each sang six tones. Ling Lun cut his bamboo pipes to match the pitches of the phoenixes, producing twelve pitch pipes in two sets: six from the male phoenix and six from the female: these were called the lülü or the shierlü.
The lülü formed the ritual scale to which