Berlin Friedrichstra├če station

Berlin Friedrichstraße is a railway station in the German capital Berlin. It is located on the Friedrichstraße, a major north-south street in the Mitte district of Berlin, adjacent to the point where the street crosses the river Spree. Underneath the station is the U-Bahn station Friedrichstraße. Due to its central location in Berlin and its proximity to attractions such as the Unter den Linden boulevard, the Brandenburg Gate and the Reichstag, the station is a favorite destination for tourists. At the same time, it is the main junction for regional traffic in Berlin, measured by the number of passengers. During the Cold War, Friedrichstraße became famous for being a station, located in East Berlin, yet continued to be served by S-Bahn and U-Bahn trains from West Berlin as well as long distance trains from countries west of the Iron Curtain; the station was a major border crossing between East and West Berlin. In 1878, the first station was built after plans by Johannes Vollmer between the Friedrichstraße and the river Spree as part of the Berlin Stadtbahn construction.

The architect was working on the neighbouring Hackescher Markt station at the same time. Just as the elevated viaduct the station is integrated into, the station rests on large arches built with masonry; the station had two platforms with two tracks each, covered by a large, curved train shed which rested on steel trusses of different length to cover the curvature of the viaduct underneath. The main entrance was on the pick-up for horse carriages on the south side. Station opening was on 7 February 1882, as part of the ceremonial opening of the Berlin Stadtbahn. Long distance trains started on 15 May the same year; because of the large amounts of traffic going through the station before World War I, plans were made in 1914 to extend the station. There was a new elevated platform on the northern side for the S-Bahn, the existing platforms had been made narrower, leaving one platform for the S-Bahn, two platforms for long distance trains; the steel-truss, double arched train shed was built between 1919 and 1925, featuring large glass fronts.

On the northern side of the building, two entry halls in expressionist style were built, the whole northern side was covered by a characteristic dark tile. The southern facade was only plastered until the last renovation in 1999, when it was covered by tile. In 1923, the Friedrichstrasse underground station for line C was finished, creating the first part of the underground maze the station still has today. At the beginning of the 1930s, construction began again at the Friedrichstrasse station, as the North-South tunnel of the S-Bahn was driven under the station. A long pedestrian tunnel connecting to the underground station of the same name Berlin U-Bahn was driven under the northern end of the station, that underground station received the characteristic yellow tile still featured today. On 27 July 1936, just before the 1936 Summer Olympics, the underground S-Bahn station was opened. After the "Kristallnacht", starting 1 December 1938, thousands of Jewish children started from or passed through the station to leave Germany as part of the Refugee Children Movement.

The station was bombed by Polish sabotage and diversionary squad "Zagra-lin" in early 1943, with 14 people dead and 27 wounded. It escaped major damage during the bombing of Berlin in World War II. U-Bahn and S-Bahn ceased operations on 23 and 25 April 1945 due to shortage of electricity. During the morning of 2 May 1945, the day Berlin capitulated, a detonation of the North-South tunnel under the Landwehrkanal, caused the flooding of the tunnel, including Friedrichstraße's belowground S-Bahn station along with a large part of the Berlin underground system via the connecting tunnel between the S-Bahn and the Berlin U-Bahn at their respective Friedrichstrasse stations. Reconstruction started in 1945. Trains first returned to the facilities above ground. By the end of May and early June 1945 the BVG, the operator of Berlin's U-Bahn, had sealed up the pedestrian tunnel between tunnel S-Bahn and U-Bahn station to stop water flooding into the tunnel. Reichsbahn, the operator of the S-Bahn, had declared that it lacked the means to close the tunnel leaks.

On 4 June BVG started the drainage of its underground system. On 12 July the underground reopened its Friedrichstraße station for two one-track shuttle operations, one from north and one from south meeting there, regular two-track traffic restarted on since 5 December 1945. Reichsbahn drained its North-South tunnel only and reopened below-ground S-Bahn service on 2 June 1946. On 1 December the same year North-South tunnel and Friedrichstraße below-ground S-Bahn station shut again for an extensive refurbishment which lasted until 16 October 1947, when the North-South tunnel was operational again. During the onset of the Cold War and its tensions between the Western and the Soviet-occupied sectors of Berlin, the Friedrichstrasse station played an important role for citizens of Berlin to reach their friends and relatives in other sectors of Berlin. At the end of 1946, the Soviet Military Administration in Germany had created an East German border police tasked with preventing Republikflucht. With the erection of the Inner German border in 1952, East Germany was to a large degree sealed off from the west.

However, in particular the public transport system that criss-crossed between the western Allied and Soviet sectors was still a hole in that Iron Curtain. Accordingly, Berlin became the main route by; the 3.5 million East Germans that had left by 1961 totaled 20% of the entire East German popu

Martin William Currie

Martin William Currie is a Roman Catholic prelate. He is serving as the head of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of St. John's, Newfoundland; until March 1, 2011, when Pope Benedict XVI accepted his resignation as Bishop there, he was the Bishop of Grand Falls. Archbishop Currie was born in a small village near Sheet Harbour, Nova Scotia, his paternal family has connections to the MacDonald and MacPherson clans. After studying at St. Francis Xavier University and at Holy Heart Seminary in Halifax, Currie was ordained priest in 1968. For the next 30 years, Martin Currie served the church in a variety of functions. From 1975 to 1980, he was a parish priest in Chiclayo, Peru. In 1992, he became vicar general of the Archdiocese of Halifax. In 1998, he was diocesan administrator of the Archdiocese. In 2001 Martin William Currie became a bishop: He was first appointed to the See of Grand Falls. From September 2006 to May 2007 he served concurrently as Apostolic Administrator of the Diocese of Saint John, New Brunswick.

Pope Benedict XVI appointed him Archbishop of St. John's in October 2007, he was installed in his Archdiocese on November 30, 2007 and received the pallium of metropolitan bishops on June 29, 2008. In spite of his new and higher office, Archbishop Curie continued to exercise his functions as Bishop of Grand Falls until his retirement as Bishop there on Tuesday, March 1, 2011, when Auxiliary Bishop Robert Anthony Daniels of the Roman Catholic Diocese of London, Canada, was selected by the Pope to take his place there; the motto in Archbishop Currie's Coat of Arms is "Dominus fortitudo sperantium" - "... those who hope in the Lord will have their strength renewed...".. Biography of Archbishop Currie at the website of the Archdiocese of St. John's Biography at the website of the Diocese of Grand Falls Archbishop Currie at


Jiangyin is a county-level city on the southern bank of the Yangtze River, is administered by Wuxi, Jiangsu province. Jiangyin is one of the most important transport hubs on the Yangtze River, it is one of the most developed counties in China. Jiangyin's name means "River Shade", from its location on the south or shady side of the Yangtze River. Jiangyin was a township of Yanling county initially. Since the township was located in the north of Ji Lake, it was given the name "Jiyang". In 281, it was promoted as a county of Piling commandery. In 558, the north-west part was taken away from Lanling county to create Jiangyin county, it was served as the seat of Jiangyin commandery, of which jurisdiction equating to the modern city's, until the commandery was dissolved in 589. It was elevated to jun status during Southern Tang, until being restored as a county of Changzhou in 1071, it developed as an important port for overseas trades, a Maritime Trade Supervisorate was established to manage in 1145.

The county became a zhou during Yuan dynasty, but was reduced to county status again in 1367. In 1472, the sandbank in the Yangtze River was independent from the county to establish Jingjiang county. In 1645, the draconian enforcement of the decree adopting the Manchu hair style and dress inflamed the local Han Chinese people's spirit to resist. Since the ultimatum "either lose your hair or lose your head" was given, they held the walled city against Qing sieges under a magistrate Yan Yingyuan's leadership; the resistance lasted 81 days. After the city was captured, the Qing army massacred the citizens to vent their anger: there were about 67,000 deaths in the city, about 75,000 deaths outside the city. On 23 April 1987, Jiangyin was approved by the State Council of China to become a county-level city. Jiangyin Train Ferry Line is the only one remains across the Yangtze River, it is a part of the Xinyi–Changxing Railway. A new high-speed railway line has been proposed that would link Jiangyin directly to both Shanghai and Nanjing.

Xu Xiake - noted traveller and geographer Liu Bannong - writer Liu Tianhua - musician and composer Miao Quansun - Academic, catalog writer, founder of modern Chinese librarianship Shangguan Yunzhu - movie star Yu Minhong - Chairman and President of New Oriental Education & Technology Group Jiangyin Yangtze River Bridge Huaxi Village Official Site Jiangyin: An Example of China's Modern Cities Jiangyin Online Jiangyin Port Jiangyin City English guide 3D map of Jiangyin in Chinese - Jiangyin - Travel Guide