Hispaniola is an island in the Caribbean island group known as the Greater Antilles. It is the second largest island in the Caribbean after Cuba, the most populous island in the Caribbean; the 76,192-square-kilometre island is divided between two separate, sovereign nations: the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic to the east, French / French Creole-speaking Haiti to the west. The only other shared island in the Caribbean is Saint Martin, shared between France and the Netherlands. Hispaniola is the site of the first permanent European settlement in the Americas, founded by Christopher Columbus on his voyages in 1492 and 1493; the island was called by various names by the Taíno Amerindians. No known Taíno texts exist, historical evidence for those names comes to us through three European historians: the Italian Pietro Martyr d‘Anghiera, the Spaniards Bartolomé de las Casas and Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo. Fernández de Oviedo and de las Casas both recorded that the island was called Quizqueia by the Taíno.
D'Anghiera added another name, but research shows that the word does not seem to derive from the original Arawak Taíno language. Although the Taínos' use of Quizqueia is verified, the name was used by all three historians, evidence suggests that it was the Taíno name of the whole island, for a region in the northeastern section of the present-day Dominican Republic; when Columbus took possession of the island in 1492, he named it Insula Hispana in Latin and La Isla Española in Spanish, with both meaning "the Spanish island". De las Casas shortened the name to "Española", when d‘Anghiera detailed his account of the island in Latin, he rendered its name as Hispaniola. In the oldest documented map of the island, created by Andrés de Morales, Los Haitises is labeled Montes de Haití, de las Casas named the whole island Haiti on the basis of that particular region, as d'Anghiera states that the name of one part was given to the whole island. Due to Taíno, Spanish and French influences on the island the whole island was referred to as Haiti, Santo Domingo, St. Domingue, or San Domingo.
The colonial terms Saint-Domingue and Santo Domingo are sometimes still applied to the whole island, though these names refer to the colonies that became Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Since Anghiera's literary work was translated into English and French soon after being written, the name Hispaniola became the most used term in English-speaking countries for the island in scientific and cartographic works. In 1918, the United States occupation government, led by Harry Shepard Knapp, obliged the use of the name Hispaniola on the island, recommended the use of that name to the National Geographic Society; the name Haïti was adopted by Haitian revolutionary Jean-Jacques Dessalines in 1804, as the official name of independent Saint-Domingue, as a tribute to the Amerindian predecessors. It was adopted as the official name of independent Santo Domingo, as the Republic of Spanish Haiti, a state that existed from November 1821 until its annexation by Haiti in February 1822; the primary indigenous group on the island of Hispaniola was the Arawak/Taíno people.
The Arawak tribe originated in the Orinoco Delta. They travelled to Hispaniola around 1200 CE; each society on the island was a small independent kingdom with a lead known as a cacique. In 1492, considered the peak of the Taíno, there were five different kingdoms on the island, the Xaragua, Magua and Marien. Many distinct Taíno languages existed in this time period. There is still heated debate over the population of Taíno people on the island of Hispaniola in 1492, but estimates range upwards of 750,000. An Arawak/Taíno home consisted of a circular building with woven palm leaves as covering. Most individuals slept in fashioned hammocks, but grass beds were used; the cacique lived in a different structure with a porch. The Taíno village had a flat court used for ball games and festivals. Religiously, the Arawak/Taíno people were polytheists, their gods were called zemí. Religious worship and dancing were common, medicine men or priests consulted the zemí for advise in public ceremonies. For food, the Arawak/Taíno relied on fish as a primary source for protein.
The Taíno relied on agriculture as a primary food source. The indigenous people of Hispaniola raised crops in a conuco, a large mound packed with leaves and fixed crops to prevent erosion; some common agricultural goods were cassava, squash, peppers, peanuts and tobacco, used as an aspect of social life and religious ceremonies. The Arawak/Taíno people travelled and used hollowed canoes with paddles when on the water for fishing or for migration purposes, upwards of 100 people could fit into a single canoe; the Taíno came in contact with another indigenous tribe, often. The caribs lived in modern day Puerto Rico and northeast Hispaniola and were known to be hostile towards other tribes; the Arawak/Taíno people had to defend themselves using bow and arrows with poisoned tips and s
Juan de Grijalva
Juan de Grijalva was a Spanish conquistador, relation of Diego Velázquez. He went to Hispaniola in 1508 and to Cuba in 1511, he was one of the early explorers of the Mexican coastline. In 1518 Grijalva was one of the earliest to explore the shores of Mexico. According to Hernán Cortés, 170 people went with him, but according to Pedro Mártir, there were 300 people; the main pilot was Antón de Alaminos, the other pilots were Juan Álvarez, Pedro Camacho de Triana, Grijalva. Other members included Francisco de Montejo, Pedro de Alvarado, Juan Díaz, Francisco Peñalosa, Alonso de Ávila, Alonso Hernández, Julianillo and Antonio Villafaña, they embarked from the port of Matanzas, with four ships in April 1518. After rounding the Guaniguanico in Cuba, Grijalva sailed along the Mexican coast, discovered Cozumel, arrived on 1 May at the Tabasco region in southern Mexico; the Río Grijalva in Mexico was named after him. He was the first Spaniard to encounter Moctezuma II's delegation. One of the natives joined them, being baptized as Francisco, became an interpreter on Cortes' expedition.
Bernal Díaz del Castillo wrote about the travels of Juan de Grijalva in his book. In 1518 Hernan Cortes stayed at Juan's home in Trinidad, Cuba, at the start of his Mexican expedition, he recruited men there, including the five Alvarado brothers. He was killed by natives in Honduras on 21 January 1527
Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España
Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España is the first-person narrative written in 1576 by Bernal Díaz del Castillo, the military adventurer and colonist settler who served in three Mexican expeditions. In the colonial history of Latin America, it is a vivid, military account that establishes Bernal Díaz del Castillo “among chroniclers what Daniel Defoe is among novelists”. Late in life, when Díaz del Castillo was 84 years old and living in his encomienda estates in Guatemala, he wrote The True History of the Conquest of New Spain to defend the story of the common-soldier conquistador within the histories about the Spanish conquest of Mexico, he presents his narrative as an alternative to the critical writings of Bartolomé de Las Casas, whose Indian-native histories emphasized the cruelty of the conquest as well as the histories of the hagiographic biographers of Hernán Cortés. That said, Díaz del Castillo defended the actions of the conquistadors, whilst emphasising their humanity and honesty in his eyewitness narrative, which he summarised as this: "We went there to serve God, to get rich."
The history is uncharitable about Cortés. That was common to many soldiers, who accused Cortés of taking more loot than his agreed fifth of the Aztec treasury; the land and gold compensation paid to many of the conquistadores proved a poor return for their investment of months of soldiering and fighting across Mexico and the Anahuac Valley. Another interpretation of the book is that the author was one of several family relatives of Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, the governor of Cuba and a mortal enemy of Cortés. Although the narrative minimizes the Cortés–Díaz del Castillo relationship, the author's complex relationship with Cortés and the lower captains suggests that although he represented the faction of Governor Velázquez de Cuéllar in the expedition, Díaz del Castillo honoured Cortés's personal and military loyalty; the True History of the Conquest of Mexico by Captain Bernal Diaz del Castillo, translated by Maurice Keatinge, London, 1800 Penguin Books edition, 1963, ISBN 0-14-044123-9 Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España.
Tomo I, facsimile of 1939 edition, with introduction and notes by Joaquín Ramírez Cabañas, published Mexico City by Pedro Robredo.
Inter caetera was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on the fourth of May 1493, which granted to the Catholic Majesties of Ferdinand and Isabella all lands to the "west and south" of a pole-to-pole line 100 leagues west and south of any of the islands of the Azores or the Cape Verde islands. It remains unclear to the present whether the pope was issuing a "donation" of sovereignty or a feudal infeodation or investiture. Differing interpretations have been argued since the bull was issued, with some arguing that it was only meant to transform the possession and occupation of land into lawful sovereignty. Others, including the Spanish crown and the conquistadors, interpreted it in the widest possible sense, deducing that it gave Spain full political sovereignty; the Inter caetera bull and others similar to it Dudum siquidem, made up the Bulls of Donation. Before Christopher Columbus received support for his voyage from Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain, he had first approached King John II of Portugal.
The king's scholars and navigators reviewed Columbus's documentation, determined that his calculations grossly underestimated the diameter of the Earth and thus the length of the voyage, recommended against subsidizing the expedition. Upon Columbus's return from his first voyage to the Americas, his first landing was made in the Portuguese Azores. Hearing of Columbus's discoveries, the Portuguese king informed him that he believed the voyage to be in violation of the 1479 Treaty of Alcáçovas; the treaty had been ratified with the 1481 papal bull Aeterni regis, which confirmed previous bulls of 1452, 1455, 1456, recognizing Portuguese territorial claims along the West African coast. It was the King's understanding that the terms of the treaty acknowledged Portuguese claims to all territory south of the Canaries. Columbus's arrival in Asiatic lands in the western Atlantic Ocean in 1492 threatened the unstable relations between Portugal and Spain. With word that King John was preparing a fleet to sail to the west, the King and Queen of Spain initiated diplomatic discussions over the rights to possess and govern the newly found lands.
Spanish and Portuguese delegates met and debated from April to November 1493, without reaching an agreement. Columbus was still in Lisbon. On 11 April, the Spanish ambassador conveyed the news to Pope Alexander VI, a Spaniard native of Valencia, urged him to issue a new bull favorable to Spain. At the time, Pope Alexander, as ruler of the Papal States, was embroiled in a territorial dispute with Ferdinand's first cousin, Ferdinand I, King of Naples, hence he was amicable to any requests of Isabella and Ferdinand, to the extent that they could write to Columbus saying that if he thought it necessary, one of the bulls would be modified, they were in close touch with Rome. The camera apostolica became an extension of the Spanish Court, which secured a rapid succession of bulls liquidating Portuguese claims; the Pope issued edicts dated 3 and 4 May 1493. The third superseded the first two. A final edict, Dudum siquidem of 26 September 1493, supplemented the Inter caetera; the first bull, Inter caetera, dated 3 May, recognized Spain's claim to any discovered lands not held by a Christian prince, protected Portugal's previous rights.
Both parties found this too vague. The second bull, Eximiae devotionis dated 3 May, granted to the kings of Castile and León and their successors the same privileges in the newly discovered land, granted to the kings of Portugal in the regions of Africa, Guinea; the third bull entitled Inter Caetera, dated 4 May, exhorts the Spanish monarchs to spread the faith west from a line drawn "... one hundred leagues towards the west and south from any of the islands known as the Azores and Cape Verde". Diffie notes that it has been suggested that this change may have been prompted by the Portuguese ambassador; the Inter caetera and the following Treaty of Tordesillas defined and delineated a zone of Spanish rights exclusive of Portugal. In relation to other states the agreement was ineffective. Spain's attempts to persuade other European powers on the legal validity of the Inter caetera were never successful. Inter caetera states: Among other works well pleasing to the Divine Majesty and cherished of our heart, this assuredly ranks highest, that in our times the Catholic faith and the Christian religion be exalted and be everywhere increased and spread, that the health of souls be cared for and that barbarous nations be overthrown and brought to the faith itself....e... assign to you and your heirs and successors, kings of Castile and Leon... all islands and mainlands found and to be found, discovered and to be discovered towards the west and south, by drawing and establishing a line from... the north...to...the south... the said line to be distant one hundred leagues towards the west and south from any of the islands known as the Azores and Cape Verde.
The bull makes note that the Catholic Monarchs "had intended to seek out and discover certain islands and mainlands remote and unknown" but had been otherwise engaged in the conquest of Granada. The line of demarcation divided Atlantic zones only. Spain and Portugal could pass each other toward the west or east on the other side of the globe and still possess whatever lands they were first to discover; the bull was silent regarding whether lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal, which had only reached t
William H. Prescott
William Hickling Prescott was an American historian and Hispanist, recognized by historiographers to have been the first American scientific historian. Despite suffering from serious visual impairment, which at times prevented him from reading or writing for himself, Prescott became one of the most eminent historians of 19th century America, he is noted for his eidetic memory. After an extensive period of study, during which he sporadically contributed to academic journals, Prescott specialized in late Renaissance Spain and the early Spanish Empire, his works on the subject, The History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella the Catholic, The History of the Conquest of Mexico, A History of the Conquest of Peru and the unfinished History of the Reign of Phillip II have become classic works in the field, have had a great impact on the study of both Spain and Mesoamerica. During his lifetime, he was upheld as one of the greatest living American intellectuals, knew many of the leading political figures of the day, in both the United States and Britain.
Prescott has become one of the most translated American historians, was an important figure in the development of history as a rigorous academic discipline. Historians admire Prescott for his exhaustive and systematic use of archives, his accurate recreation of sequences of events, his balanced judgments and his lively writing style, he was focused on political and military affairs ignoring economic, social and cultural forces that in recent decades historians have focused on. Instead, he wrote narrative history. William H. Prescott was born in Salem, Massachusetts on May 4, 1796, the first of seven children, although four of his siblings died in infancy, his parents were William Prescott, Jr. a lawyer, his wife, née Catherine Greene Hickling. His grandfather William Prescott served as a colonel during the American Revolutionary War. Prescott began formal schooling at the age of seven; the family moved to Boston, Massachusetts in 1808, where his father's earnings increased. His studies continued under rector of Trinity Episcopal Church.
As a young man, Prescott frequented the Boston Athenæum, which at the time held the 10,000-volume private library of John Quincy Adams, on a diplomatic mission to Russia. In 1832, Prescott became a trustee of a position he held for 15 years. Prescott enrolled at Harvard College as a second year student in August 1811, at the age of 15, he was not considered academically distinguished, despite showing promise in Greek. Prescott found mathematics difficult, resorted to memorizing mathematical demonstrations word-for-word, which he could do with relative ease, in order to hide his ignorance of the subject. Prescott's eyesight degenerated after being hit in the eye with a crust of bread during a food fight as a student, it remained weak and unstable throughout the rest of his life. Prescott was admitted to the Phi Beta Kappa Society as a senior, which he considered a great personal honor, graduated from Harvard in 1814. After a short period of rheumatic illness, he embarked on an extended tour of Europe.
Prescott first traveled to the island of São Miguel in the Azores, where his grandfather and Portuguese grandmother lived. After two weeks, he left for the cooler climate of London, where he stayed with the distinguished surgeon Astley Cooper and the oculist William Adams. Prescott first used a noctograph while staying with Adams, he visited Hampton Court Palace with future American president John Quincy Adams, at the time a diplomat in London, where they saw the Raphael Cartoons. In August 1816, Prescott traveled to Paris, but moved on to Italy, where he spent the winter, he returned to Paris in early 1817, where he chanced to meet the American Hispanist George Ticknor, made another visit to England. Prescott spent some time in Cambridge, where he saw the manuscripts of Isaac Newton's works, returned to the United States in the same year. Prescott's first academic work, an essay submitted anonymously, was rejected by the North American Review in late 1817. After a short period of courtship, he married Susan Amory, the daughter of Thomas Coffin Amory and Hannah Rowe Linzee, on May 4, 1820.
In 1821, Prescott abandoned the idea of a legal career because of the continued deterioration of his eyesight, resolved to devote himself to literature. Although he studied a wide range of subjects, including Italian, French and Spanish literature, American history and political philosophy, Prescott came to focus on Italian poetry. Among the works he studied during this period were such classics as Dante's Divine Comedy and Boccacio's Decameron, his first published works were two essays in the North American Review—both discussing Italian poetry. The first of these, published in 1824, was titled Italian Narrative Poetry, became somewhat controversial after it was criticized in an Italian review by Lorenzo Da Ponte, the librettist of Mozart's Don Giovanni. Prescott wrote a succinct reply to Da Ponte's fifty-page argument in the North American Review of July 1825. Da Ponte published the criticisms as an appendix to his translation of Dodley's Economy of Human life, which resulted in Prescott noticing them rather late.
Prescott first became interested in the history of Spain after his friend, the Harvard professor George Ticknor, sent him copies of his lectures on the subject. Prescott's studies re
Conquistador is a term used to refer to the knights and explorers of the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire. During the Age of Discovery, conquistadors sailed beyond Europe to the Americas, Oceania and Asia, conquering territory and opening trade routes, they colonized much of the world for Spain and Portugal in the 16th, 17th, 18th centuries. After Columbus's discovery of the West Indies in 1492, the Spanish conquistadors, who were poor nobles from the impoverished west and south of Spain, began building up an American empire in the Caribbean, using islands such as Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola as bases. Florida fell to Juan Ponce de León after 1513. From 1519 to 1521, Hernán Cortés waged a campaign against the Aztec Empire, ruled by Moctezuma II. From the territories of the Aztec Empire conquistadors expanded Spanish rule to northern Central America and parts of what is now southern and western United States. Other conquistadors took over the Inca Empire after crossing the Isthmus of Panama and sailing the Pacific to northern Peru.
As Francisco Pizarro subdued the empire in a manner similar to Cortés other conquistadores used Peru as base for conquering much of Ecuador and Chile. In Colombia and Argentina conquistadors from Peru linked up with other conquistadors arriving more directly from the Caribbean and Río de la Plata-Paraguay respectively. Conquistadors founded numerous cities many of them on locations with pre-existing pre-colonial settlements including the capitals of most Latin American countries. Besides conquests, Spanish conquistadors made significant explorations into the Amazon Jungle, the interior of North America, the Pacific Ocean. Portugal established a route to China in the early 16th century, sending ships via the southern coast of Africa and founding numerous coastal enclaves along the route. Following the discovery in 1492 by Spaniards of the New World with Christopher Columbus's first voyage there and the first circumnavigation of the world by Ferdinand Magellan and Juan Sebastián Elcano in 1521, expeditions led by conquistadors in the 16th century established trading routes linking Europe with all these areas.
Human infections gained worldwide transmission vectors for the first time: from Africa and Eurasia to the Americas and vice versa. The spread of old-world diseases, including smallpox and typhus, led to the deaths of many indigenous inhabitants of the New World. In the 16th century 240,000 Europeans entered American ports. By the late 16th century gold and silver imports from America provided one-fifth of Spain's total budget; the conquistadors were professional warriors, using European tactics and cavalry. Their units would specialize in forms of combat that required long periods of training that were too costly for informal groups, their armies were composed of Iberian and other European soldiers. Native allied troops were infantry equipped with armament and armour that varied geographically; some groups consisted of young men without military experience, Catholic clergy which helped with administrative duties, soldiers with military training. These native forces included African slaves and Native Americans.
They not only fought in the battlefield but served as interpreters, servants, teachers and scribes. India Catalina and Malintzin were Native American women slaves. Castilian law prohibited non-Catholics from settling in the New World. However, not all conquistadors were Castilian. Many foreigners Hispanicised their names and/or converted to Catholicism to serve the Castilian Crown. For example, Ioánnis Fokás was a Castilian of Greek origin who discovered the strait that bears his name between Vancouver Island and Washington State in 1592. German-born Nikolaus Federmann, Hispanicised as Nicolás de Federmán, was a conquistador in Venezuela and Colombia; the Venetian Sebastiano Caboto was Sebastián Caboto, Georg von Speyer Hispanicised as Jorge de la Espira, Eusebio Francesco Chini Hispanicised as Eusebio Kino, Wenceslaus Linck was Wenceslao Linck, Ferdinand Konščak, was Fernando Consag, Amerigo Vespucci was Américo Vespucio, the Portuguese Aleixo Garcia was known as Alejo García in the Castilian army.
The origin of many people in mixed expeditions was not always distinguished. Various occupations, such as sailors, fishermen and nobles employed different languages, so that crew and settlers of Iberian empires recorded as Galicians from Spain were using Portuguese, Catalan and Languedoc languages, which were wrongly identified. Castilian law banned Spanish women from travelling to America unless they were married and accompanied by a husband. Women who travelled thus include María de Escobar, María Estrada, Marina Vélez de Ortega, Marina de la Caballería, Francisca de Valenzuela, Catalina de Salazar; some conquistadors had illegitimate children. European young men enlisted in the army. Catholic priests instructed the soldiers in mathematics, theology, Latin and history, wrote letters and official documents for them. King's army officers taught military arts. An uneducated young recruit could become a military leader, elected by their fellow professional soldiers based on merit. Others were born into hidalgo families, as such they were members of the Spanish nobility with some studies but without economic resources.
Some rich nobility families' members became soldiers or missionaries, but not the fi
Francisco López de Gómara
Francisco López de Gómara was a Spanish historian who worked in Seville noted for his works in which he described the early 16th century expedition undertaken by Hernán Cortés in the Spanish conquest of the New World. Although Gómara himself did not accompany Cortés, had in fact never been to the Americas, he had firsthand access to Cortés and others of the returning conquistadores as the sources of his account; however other contemporaries, among them most notably Bernal Díaz del Castillo, criticised his work as being full of inaccuracies, one which unjustifiably sanitised the events and aggrandised Cortés' role. As such, the reliability of his works may be called into question, he was born at Gómara in 1510 or 1511. He studied at the University of Alcalá and was ordained priest. After a journey to Rome, at his return in 1540, he entered the service of Hernán Cortés as private and domestic chaplain, he accompanied Cortes on the Algerian expedition and, after the death of his patron, it is known that he was at Valladolid in 1556 or 1557, after which he is supposed to have retired to his native city of Seville where he died.
With the information given him by the conqueror and other persons who had returned from the New World he wrote his Historia general de las Indias. A work published at Zaragoza in the year 1552, it was translated into French by Martin Fumée and published at Paris in 1578. The author relates in the first part, dedicated "To Don Carlos, Emperor of Romans, King of Spain, Lord of the Indies and New World", the whole discovery and conquest of the Antilles, Peru and Central America the voyage of Magellan and the discovery of the Moluccas. In the second part he tells of the conquest of Mexico, it is dedicated "To the llustrious Lord Don Martin Cortés, Marques del Valle"—the son and heir of the conqueror. Whether through the desire to aggrandize his patron, or through relying on the firsthand information which the latter gave him or from malice, or for some other reason Gómara fell into serious errors and in many instances sinned gravely against historical truth, it was for this reason that Prince Philip, in a decree issued at Valladolid on November 17, 1553, ordered all the copies of his work that could be found to be gathered in and imposed a penalty of 200,000 maravedis on anyone who should reprint it.
This prohibition was removed in 1727 through the efforts of Don Andreas Gonzalez Martial who included Gómara's work in his collection of early historians of the New World. The Verdadera historia de la Conquesta de Nueva Espana of Bernal Díaz del Castillo, a companion of Hernán Cortés, was written to refute Gómara; the latter's style is concise and agreeable, the narrative running on and gracefully, all of which has had the effect of attracting readers to the work. Among other works of his which have remained unpublished are Batallas de mar de nuestros tiempos and Historia de Harrue y Harradin Barbarroja. Historia general de las Indias y todo lo acaescido en ellas dende que se ganaron hasta agora y La conquista de Mexico, y de la Nueva España La segunda parte de la Historia general de las Indias que contiene La conquista de Mexico, y de la Nueva España Crónica de los Barbarrojas Anales de Carlos V Vida de Hernán Cortés Review of Cristian A. Roa-de-la-Carrera. Histories of Infamy: Francisco Lopez de Gomara and the Ethics of Spanish Imperialism This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Lopez de Gómara, Francisco". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. P. 991. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Cristián A. Roa‐de‐la‐Carrera, Histories of Infamy: Francisco López de Gómara and the Ethics of Spanish Imperialism