Sandoval County, New Mexico
Sandoval County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Mexico. As of the 2010 census, the population was 131,561, making it the fourth-most populous county in New Mexico; the county seat is Bernalillo. Sandoval County is part of NM Metropolitan Statistical Area. Sandoval County was created in 1903 from the northern part of Bernalillo County, its name comes from one of the large land-holding Spanish families in the area. The original county seat was Corrales, but it was moved to Bernalillo in 1905. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,716 square miles, of which 3,711 square miles is land and 5.3 square miles is water. The highest point in the county is the summit of Redondo Peak, at 11,254 feet. A small portion of the county exists as a geographically separate exclave between Los Alamos County and Santa Fe County; this came about. Rather than be ceded to neighboring Santa Fe it has remained part of Sandoval. Rio Arriba County - north Los Alamos County - northeast Santa Fe County - east Bernalillo County - south Cibola County - southwest McKinley County - west San Juan County - northwest Sandoval County has 12 Indian reservations and two joint-use areas lying within its borders.
This is the second highest number of reservations of any county in the United States Riverside County, California has 12 reservations, but no joint-use areas. Cochiti Pueblo Jemez Pueblo Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation Laguna Pueblo Navajo Nation San Felipe Pueblo San Felipe/Santa Ana joint use area San Felipe/Santo Domingo joint use area San Ildefonso Pueblo Sandia Pueblo Santa Ana Pueblo Santa Clara Pueblo Santo Domingo Pueblo Zia Pueblo Bandelier National Monument Cibola National Forest El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument Santa Fe National Forest Valles Caldera National Preserve As of the 2000 census, there were 89,908 people, 31,411 households, 23,621 families residing in the county; the population density was 24 people per square mile. There were 34,866 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 65.08% White, 16.28% Native American, 1.71% Black or African American, 0.99% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 12.37% from other races, 3.47% from two or more races.
29.40% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 31,411 households out of which 38.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.70% were married couples living together, 12.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.80% were non-families. 19.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.84 and the average family size was 3.29. In the county, the population was spread out with 29.60% under the age of 18, 7.50% from 18 to 24, 30.10% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, 10.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 95.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $44,949, the median income for a family was $48,984. Males had a median income of $36,791 versus $26,565 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,174.
About 9.00% of families and 12.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.60% of those under age 18 and 9.20% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 131,561 people, 47,602 households, 34,548 families residing in the county; the population density was 35.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 52,287 housing units at an average density of 14.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 68.0% white, 12.9% American Indian, 2.1% black or African American, 1.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 11.5% from other races, 3.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 35.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 13.2% were German, 9.3% were Irish, 8.7% were English, 3.3% were American. Of the 47,602 households, 37.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.4% were non-families, 22.0% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.22. The median age was 37.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $57,158 and the median income for a family was $65,906. Males had a median income of $48,967 versus $35,101 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,979. About 8.3% of families and 11.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.0% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over. Rio Rancho Bernalillo Corrales Cuba Jemez Springs San Ysidro Counselor National Register of Historic Places listings in Sandoval County, New Mexico
Cibola National Forest
The Cibola National Forest is a 1,633,783 acre United States National Forest in New Mexico, USA. The name Cibola is thought to be the original Zuni Indian name for tribal lands; the name was interpreted by the Spanish to mean, "buffalo." The forest is disjointed with lands spread across central and northern New Mexico, west Texas and Oklahoma. The Cibola National Forest is divided into four Ranger Districts: the Sandia, Mountainair, Mt. Taylor, Magdalena; the Forest includes the San Mateo, Datil, Gallina, Sandia, Mt. Taylor, Zuni Mountains of west-central New Mexico; the Forest manages four National Grasslands that stretch from northeastern New Mexico eastward into the Texas Panhandle and western Oklahoma. The Cibola National Forest and Grassland is administered by Region 3 of the United States Forest Service from offices in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Elevation ranges from 5,000 ft to 11,301 ft; the descending order of Cibola National Forest acres by county are: Socorro, Cibola, McKinley, Torrance, Sandoval County, New Mexico, Lincoln and Valencia counties in New Mexico.
The Cibola National Forest has 137,701 acres designated as Wilderness. In addition to these acres, it has 246,000 acres classified as Inventoried Roadless Areas pursuant to the Roadless Area Conservation Rule; the Cibola National Forest is organized into several divisions over three states. The Rita Blanca National Grassland 92,989 acres in Dallam County and Cimarron County, Black Kettle National Grassland 31,286 acres in Roger Mills County and Hemphill County, McClellan Creek National Grassland 1,449 acres in Gray County, Texas are in the Oklahoma-Texas panhandle region; the combined Cibola National Grasslands are 262,141 acres in size. New Mexico is home to much of the Forest, including the Kiowa National Grassland 136,417 acres in Harding, Union and Colfax counties, New Mexico; the Cibola National Forest's Sandia Ranger District is just east of Albuquerque in Central New Mexico and includes the most visited mountains in the state of New Mexico. The Sandia District includes national forest land in eastern Bernalillo and southeastern Sandoval counties, includes the Sandia Peak Tram and the Sandia Crest National Scenic Byway.
The Sandia Mountains lie in the northern portion of the District. It is here where Congress designated the Sandia Mountain Wilderness in 1978; the Cibola's Sandia Ranger District includes the Manzanita Mountains, which stretch south, between the Sandia and the Manzano Mountains. The Manzano Mountains are managed by the Cibola National Forest's Mountainair Ranger District; the Mountainair Ranger District manages national forestland in Torrance, northwestern Lincoln, eastern Valencia counties, which are in central New Mexico. Within the Mountainair District are the Manzano Mountains. Congress designated the Manzano Wilderness in 1978; the Mount Taylor Ranger District manages land in northern Cibola, southern McKinley, western Sandoval counties in western New Mexico. Mount Taylor and Zuni Mountains are within the Mount Taylor District. Overseeing 800,000 acres, the Magdalena Ranger District is the largest of the Cibola National Forest's four mountain districts; the Cibola’s Magdalena District manages land in south central New Mexico in western Socorro, northeastern Catron, northern Sierra counties.
The Bear Mountains, Datil Mountains, Magdalena Mountains and San Mateo Mountains are all within the Magdalena District. There are two Wilderness areas in this District - the Apache Kid and the Withington Wilderness areas, both of which are in the San Mateo Mountains. In addition to the designated Wilderness, the Magdalena Ranger District has 205,972 acres of Inventoried Roadless Areas; the Magdalena Ranger District's officers are stationed in the Village of Magdalena. The District has roots in the Gila Forest Reserve, created by President William McKinley in 1899, making the U. S. Forest Service the “oldest continuous business in Magdalena.” Cibola biomes range from Chihuahuan desert to short grass prairie to piñon-juniper to sub-alpine spruce and fir. The region boasts wildlife as diverse as the biomes they inhabit. Animals represented include: Due to the Rio Grande, a large variety of migrating waterfowl and other birds follow the river's flyway during the spring and fall. Birds of prey are present using the updrafts and thermals along the north-south alignment of the central mountains for their migration.
Wildlife in the Cibola National Forest The ‘sky islands’ region of the Cibola hosts more than 200 rare plant and animal species, with more than 30 species listed as endangered or threatened by New Mexico or the federal government. The region is home to more mammal species than any other ecoregion in the Southwest; the Rio Grande Watershed, which contains the Cibola’s four mountain ranger districts, ranked second out of eight watershed regions for species of greatest conservation need in the New Mexico Game and Fish’s Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy. The Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy ranked the Arizona-New Mexico Mountain Ecoregion, within which the Magdalena and Mt. Taylor Ranger Districts are located, second out of six ecoregions in the state for SGCN, with 80 identified SGCN; the Nature Conservancy has identified the San Mateo and Datil Mountains within the Cibola's Magdalena Ranger Distri
Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
The Camino Real de Tierra Adentro was a 2560 kilometer long trade route between Mexico City and San Juan Pueblo, New Mexico, from 1598 to 1882. In 2010, 55 sites and 5 existing World Heritage Sites along the Mexican section of the route became an entry on the Unesco World Heritage List; those sites include historic cities, bridges and other monuments along the 1,400 km route between the Historic Center of Mexico City and the town of Valle de Allende, Chihuahua. The 404 mile section of the route within the United States was proclaimed as a part of the National Historic Trail system on 13 October 2000. El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail is overseen by both the National Park Service and the U. S. Bureau of Land Management with aid from El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Trail Assoc. known as CARTA. A portion of the trail near San Acacia, New Mexico was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2014. Long before the Europeans arrived, the various indigenous tribes and kingdoms that had arisen throughout the northern central steppe of Mexico had established the route that would become the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro as a major hunting and trade route.
The route connected the peoples of the valley of Mexico with those of the north through the exchange of products such as turquoise, obsidian and feathers. By the year 1000, a flourishing trade network existed from Mesoamerica to the Rocky Mountains. Once the great Tenochtitlan was subdued, the conquistadors began a series of expeditions with the purpose of expanding their domains and obtaining greater wealth for the Spanish Crown, their initial efforts led them to follow the established trails of the natives who exchanged goods between the north and the south. In April 1598, a group of military scouts led by Juan de Oñate, the newly-appointed colonial governor of the province of Nuevo México, became lost in the desert south of Paso del Norte while seeking the best route to the Río del Norte. A local Indian they had captured named Mompil drew in the sand a map of the only safe passage to the river; this group arrived at the Río del Norte just south of present-day El Paso and Ciudad Juárez in late April, where they celebrated the Catholic day of Ascension on April 30, 1598 before crossing the river.
They mapped and extended the route to what is now Espaniola, where Oñate would establish the capital of the new province. This trail became the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, the northernmost of the four main "royal roads" - the Caminos Real - that linked Mexico City to its major tributaries in Acapulco, Veracruz and Santa Fe. After the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, which pushed the Spanish out of Nuevo México, the Spanish Crown decided not to abandon the province altogether but instead maintained a channel to the province so as not to abandon their remaining subjects in the province; the Viceroyalty organized a system, the so-called conducta, to supply the missions and northern ranchos. The conducta consisted of wagon caravans that departed every three years from Mexico City to Santa Fe along the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro; the trip required a long and difficult journey of six months, including 2–3 weeks of rest along the way. Many were the uncertainties that other travelers faced. River floods could force weeks of waiting on the banks.
At other times, prolonged droughts in the area could make water difficult to find. The most feared section of the journey was the crossing of the Jornada del Muerto beyond El Paso del Norte: A hundred kilometers of open desert without any oases to hydrate the men and beasts. Beyond the sustenance needs, the greatest danger to the caravan was that of local assaults. Groups of bandits roamed throughout the territory and threatened the caravan from the current state of Mexico to the state of Querétaro, seeking articles of value, and from the southern part of Zacatecas onward to the north, the greatest threat was the native Chichimecas, which would become more to attack as the caravan progressed further north. The main objective of the Chichimecas was horses, but they would often take women and children; the Presidios along the way would provide relays of troops to provide additional protection to the caravans. The Camino Real was used as a commercial route for 300 years, from the middle of the 16th century to the 19th century for the transport of silver extracted from the northern mines.
During this time, the road was continuously improved, over time the risks became smaller as haciendas and population centers emerged. During the 18th century, the sites along the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro increased significantly; the area between the villas of Durango and Santa Fe came to be known as "the Chihuahua Trail". The villa of San Felipe el Real, established in 1709 to support the surrounding mines, became the most important commercial center and financial area along this segment; the villa of San Felipe Neri de Alburquerque was founded in 1706 and it became an important terminal. Because of its defensive position on the Camino Real, the Villa de Alburquerque became the center of commercial exchange between Nuevo México and the rest of New Spain during the 18th century, trading cattle, textiles, animal skins and nuts; this exchange occurred with the mining cities of Chihuahua, Santa Bárbara and Parral. And of course, Paso del Norte became another major terminal on the route. In 1765 the population of E
Albuquerque metropolitan area
The Albuquerque Metropolitan Statistical Area is a metropolitan area in central New Mexico centered on the city of Albuquerque that covers four counties - Bernalillo, Sandoval and Valencia. As of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 887,077, it is estimated to be 913,113, through 2017. The Albuquerque MSA forms a part of the larger Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area. Bernalillo Sandoval Torrance Valencia Albuquerque Belen Moriarty Rio Communities Rio Rancho Bernalillo Estancia Mountainair Peralta Bosque Farms Corrales Cuba Encino Jemez Springs Los Lunas Los Ranchos de Albuquerque San Ysidro Tijeras Willard Mesa del Sol in Albuquerque and Santolina on the West Mesa in rural Bernalillo County are planned for 100,000 inhabitants each and are New Mexico's largest such planned developments; as of the census of 2000, there were 729,649 people, 281,052 households, 186,540 families residing within the MSA. The racial makeup of the MSA was 69.74% White, 2.47% African American, 5.53% Native American, 1.64% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 16.37% from other races, 4.15% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 41.48% of the population. The median income for a household in the MSA was $37,071, the median income for a family was $41,804. Males had a median income of $32,563 versus $24,462 for females; the per capita income for the MSA was $17,211. Albuquerque MSA Estimated Employment List of metropolitan areas in New Mexico List of micropolitan areas in New Mexico List of cities in New Mexico
New Mexico Territory
The Territory of New Mexico was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from September 9, 1850, until January 6, 1912, when the remaining extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of New Mexico, making it the longest-lived organized incorporated territory of the United States, lasting 62 years. In 1846, during the Mexican–American War, the U. S. provisional government of New Mexico was established. Territorial boundaries were somewhat ambiguous. After the Mexican Republic formally ceded the region to the United States in 1848, this temporary wartime/military government persisted until September 9, 1850. Earlier in the year 1850, a bid for New Mexico statehood was underway under a proposed state constitution prohibiting slavery; the request was approved at the same time. The proposed state boundaries were to extend as far east as the 100th meridian West and as far north as the Arkansas River, thus encompassing the present-day Texas and Oklahoma panhandles and parts of present-day Kansas, Colorado and Arizona, as well as most of present-day New Mexico.
Texas raised great opposition to this plan, as it claimed much of the same territory, although it did not control these lands. In addition, slaveholders worried about not being able to expand slavery to the west of their current slave states; the Compromise of 1850 put an end to the push for immediate New Mexico statehood. Approved by the United States Congress in September 1850, the legislation provided for the establishment of New Mexico Territory and Utah Territory, it firmly established the disputed western boundary of Texas. The status of slavery during the territorial period provoked considerable debate; the granting of statehood was up to a Congress divided on the slavery issue. Some maintained that the territory could not restrict slavery, as under the earlier Missouri Compromise, while others insisted that older Mexican Republic legal traditions of the territory, which abolished black, but not Indian, slavery in 1834, took precedence and should be continued. Regardless of its official status, slavery was rare in antebellum New Mexico.
Black slaves never numbered more than about a dozen. As one of the final attempts at compromise to avoid the Civil War, in December 1860, a U. S. House of Representatives committee proposed to admit New Mexico as a slave state immediately. Although the measure was approved by the committee on December 29, 1860, Southern representatives did not take up this offer, as many of them had left Congress due to imminent declarations of secession by their states. On February 24, 1863, during the Civil War, Congress passed the "Arizona Organic Act", which split off the western portion of the 12-year-old New Mexico Territory as the new Arizona Territory, abolished slavery in the new Territory; as in New Mexico, slavery was extremely limited, due to earlier Mexican traditions and patterns of settlement. The northwestern corner of New Mexico Territory was included in Arizona Territory until it was added to the southernmost part of the newly admitted State of Nevada in 1864. Arizona Territory was organized as the State of Arizona.
The Purchase treaty defines the new border as "up the middle of that river to the point where the parallel of 31° 47' north latitude crosses the same 31°47′0″N 106°31′41.5″W. The new border included a few miles of the Colorado River at the western end; the boundaries of the New Mexico Territory at the time of establishment contained most of the present-day State of New Mexico, more than half of the present-day State of Arizona, portions of the present-day states of Colorado and Nevada. Although this area was smaller than what had been included in the failed statehood proposal of early 1850, the boundary disputes with Texas had been dispelled by the Compromise of 1850; the Gadsden Purchase was acquired by the United States from Mexico in 1853/1854, arranged by the then-American ambassador to Mexico, James Gadsden. This added today's southern strip of Arizona and a smaller area in today's southwestern New Mexico to the New Mexico Territory, bringing its land area to the maximum size achieved in its history as an organized territory.
The land of 29,640 square miles provided a more constructed route for a future southern transcontinental railroad line for the future Southern Pacific Railroad, constructed in 1881/1883. The Colorado Territory was established by the "Colorado Organic Act" on February 28, 1861, with the same boundaries that would constitute the State of Colorado; this Act removed the Colorado lands from the New Mexico Territory. T
USS Bernalillo County was an LST-1-class tank landing ship built for the United States Navy during World War II. Named for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, she was the only U. S. Naval vessel to bear the name. LST-306 was laid down on 24 July 1942 at the Boston Navy Yard by the Todd Shipyard Company. Bartram, USNR, in command. After fitting out at Boston, LST-306 loaded supplies and ammunition before proceeding to the Chesapeake Bay for shakedown training. While there, her crew conducted beach maneuvers, practiced lowering small boats, held communications and gunnery drills, she took on supplies and cargo in Norfolk before proceeding independently to Bermuda in March 1943. Underway in convoy for Europe that month, she arrived at Arzeu, Algeria on 13 April. After joining a convoy carrying supplies to Bone, Algeria in support of the Tunisian campaign, the LST spent the next six weeks ferrying troops and equipment between Oran, Mers-El-Kebir, Bizerte. In June, the tank landing ship lay in Tunis Bay, preparing for "Operation Husky," the planned landings on Sicily.
As part of Task Group 86.1 in the "Joss" Attack Force, LST-306 got underway on 7 July and arrived off Licata, Sicily early in the morning of 11 July. Assigned to reserve transport duty, she helped relieve port congestion by transferring supplies ashore at Gela and its environs until 17 August when she sailed to Bizerte. There she began preparations for "Operation Avalanche," the landings at Salerno. After loading British troops and equipment, LST-306 departed Tunis on 7 September and joined TG 85.1, the Northern Attack Force, for the voyage to Italy. After passing into the Gulf of Salerno, avoiding several drifting mines, the tank landing ship anchored south of Salerno at 1215 on 9 September to await a clear beach lane. After LCI-323 pulled off the beach, LST-306 dropped her bow ramp at 1655 that afternoon. Under intermittent enemy shell fire, the tank landing ship disembarked 279 British soldiers and 57 vehicles before retracting to the anchorage at 1831. During the evening, enemy bombers attacked the beachhead twice, but no bombs fell near the LST.
The next morning, LST-306 departed the area. Joining a Bizerte-bound convoy, the tank landing ship moored in that port on the 12th, she spent two months operating in the central Mediterranean area, ferrying supplies between North Africa and ports in Sicily and southern Italy. Ordered north at the end of November, the LST passed through the Strait of Gibraltar and sailed to England, arriving at Milford Haven on 17 December. After unloading tank deck cargo, the LST moved to Falmouth for a complete overhaul. After those repairs were completed on 10 January 1944 the tank landing ship began nearly five months of work in preparation for the cross-channel invasion of Europe. First, she engaged in three weeks of "Rhino ferry" practice landings in the Falmouth area. LST-306 continued this type of operation for the next four months, conducting various training maneuvers off the southwestern coast of England between Plymouth and Falmouth. Assigned to convoy B-3 in Task Force 126.4, the LST embarked troops and equipment at Falmouth on 1 June.
After a false start on the 4th, LST-306 got underway in convoy the next day with a pontoon causeway and a small tug in tow. While en route to France, the LST collided with a buoy, snapping off a blade from her port propeller; as the convoy's speed was slow, the damage did not prevent the tank landing ship from continuing her mission. Just after noon on 7 June, the tank landing ship cast off her tow at Utah Beach before proceeding to Omaha Beach where she anchored for the night. During this time, the ship's two LCVPs delivered medical supplies ashore; the next afternoon, the LST disembarked 218 Army engineers and unloaded mine-clearing equipment to LCTs for transfer to the beach. At 1917, the LST beached and, over the next eight hours, unloaded the remaining 115 troops and the rest of her cargo of 52 trucks. Pulling off the beach on the morning of 9 June, LST-306 proceeded to Southampton, England for repairs, she remained there, waiting for an availability, until 17 June when she moved to Plymouth for repairs.
With a new propeller in place on the 22nd, the LST moved to Portland Harbour on 26 June, loaded Army trucks and personnel, carried them to Utah Beach the next day. After dropping them off, she returned to Southampton with 900 German prisoners. Over the next ten months, LST-306 made dozens of shuttle trips across the Channel, carrying troops and supplies from England to the French ports of Rouen, Le Havre, Cherbourg. On 11 May 1945 the LST joined one of the first convoys to head home after hostilities ended in Europe and arrived in Norfolk, Virginia on 31 May. After unloading her cargo, the tank landing ship proceeded to New York for major alterations in preparation for further combat duty in the Pacific. Entering a berth at Sullivan's Shipyard, Brooklyn on 11 June, LST-306 was in the yard when the crew heard the news of the end of the war on 15 August. Upon completion of the repair work on the 29th, the LST conducted a short shakedown cruise to Norfolk before returning to New York to load an LCT.
Departing New York on 2 October, she sailed to Green Cove Springs on the St. Johns River in Florida, where she joined the Atlantic Reserve Fleet on 6 October 1945. LST-306 was decommissioned there on 13 June 1946. Although named USS Bernalillo County on 1 July 1955 she never returned to active Navy service.
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol