Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Laurent Patrick Fignon was a French professional road bicycle racer who won the Tour de France in 1983 and 1984 and the Giro dItalia in 1989. He nearly captured the Tour de France for a time in 1989 before being edged by Greg LeMond by 8 seconds. Fignon won many races, including taking Milan–San Remo back-to-back in 1988 and 1989. He died from cancer in 2010, Fignon was born in Montmartre, Paris. His family moved to Tournan-en-Brie in 1963, where he lived until he left for Paris at age 23 and his first sport was football and he got as far as playing for his département or area. Friends encouraged him into cycling and he rode his first official race in 1976, Fignons parents did not want him to race, and he raced without them knowing. He won four races in his first year, but only one in his second year. In this third year, he won 18 out of 36 races, Fignons parents allowed him to race, but still thought that he should study. Fignon entered the University of Villetaneuse, studying Structural and Materials Science, Fignon was not interested in his studies, and was an indifferent student.
His chief desire was to pursue cycling and he told his parents that he was leaving the university and would join the army at the end of the year to do his military service. He was posted at the Bataillon de Joinville, known for its sporting reputation, after this, Fignon was sure he wanted to pursue a professional career. In 1981, Fignon rode the Tour of Corsica which allowed amateur cyclists to ride along with professional riders, Fignon rode an early stage attempting to hold the wheel of Bernard Hinault, the top professional cyclist, and succeeded for much of the race. Cyrille Guimard observed the young cyclist a few days at the national 100 km team time trial, in May 1981 he offered him a place on his Renault-Elf-Gitane professional team from the following year. Fignon joined the team in 1982, along with longtime friend, Fignon was 21 years of age. In 1982, Fignon rode the 1982 Giro dItalia, after Fignon broke away in the second stage, he became the leader of the race, and got to wear the pink jersey.
He lost the lead in the stage, but became Hinaults most trusted team mate in the mountains. In Paris–Tours, Fignon had escaped and made a break of 40 seconds, during this first year as a professional, Fignon won the Critérium National. In 1983, Fignon was a part of the team that helped Bernard Hinault to win the 1983 Vuelta a España, Guimard did not want to send Fignon to the Tour de France, because two grand tours could be too much for a 22-year-old rider
Douai is a commune in the Nord département in northern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department, located on the river Scarpe some 40 kilometres from Lille and 25 km from Arras, Douai is home to one of the regions most impressive belfries. The population of the area, including Lens, was 552,682 in 1999. The main industries in the town are in the chemical and metal engineering sectors, Renault has a large vehicle assembly plant near the town, which has produced many well known Renault vehicles, such as the R14, R11, R19, and the Megane and Scenic of today. The Gare de Douai railway station is served by trains towards Lille, Lens, Saint-Quentin. It is connected to the TGV network, with high speed trains to Paris, Lyon and its site probably corresponds to that of a 4th-century Roman fortress known as Duacum. From 10th century the town was a fiefdom of the counts of Flanders. The town became a textile market centre during the Middle Ages. In 1384, the county of Flanders passed into the domains of the Dukes of Burgundy, in 1667, Douai was taken by the troops of Louis XIV of France, and by the 1668 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, the town was ceded to France.
During successive sieges from 1710 to 1712, Douai was almost completely destroyed by the British Army, by 1713, the town was fully integrated into France. Douai became the seat of the Parliament of Flanders, the town is still a transportation and commercial center for the area, which was known up to the Sixties for its coalfield, the richest in northern France. Douais ornate Gothic style belfry was begun in 1380, on the site of an earlier tower, the 80 m high structure includes an impressive carillon, consisting of 62 bells spanning 5 octaves. The originals, some dating from 1391 were removed in 1917 during World War I by the occupying German forces and they were reinstalled after repairs in 1924, but 47 of them were replaced in 1954 to obtain a better sound. An additional larger bell in the summit, a La called Joyeuse, dates from 1471, the chimes are rung by a mechanism every quarter-hour, but are played via a keyboard on Saturday mornings and at certain other times. The substantial Porte de Valenciennes town gate, a reminder of the towns past military importance, was built in 1453, one face is built in Gothic style, while the other is of Classical design.
The University of Douai was founded under the patronage of Phillip II and it was prominent, from the 1560s until the French Revolution, as a centre for the education of English Catholics escaping the persecution in England. Connected with the University were not only the English College, founded by William Allen, but the Irish and Scottish colleges and the Benedictine and Jesuit houses. However, the community was expelled at the time of the French Revolution in 1793 and, after years of wandering, finally settled at Downside Abbey, Somerset
A sale is the exchange of a commodity or money as the price of a good or a service. Sales is activity related to selling or the amount of goods or services sold in a time period. The seller or the provider of the goods or services completes a sale in response to an acquisition, requisition or an interaction with the buyer at the point of sale. There is a passing of title of the item, and the settlement of a price, the seller, not the purchaser generally executes the sale and it may be completed prior to the obligation of payment. In common law countries, sales are governed generally by the common law, a person or organization expressing an interest in acquiring the offered item of value is referred to as a potential buyer, prospective customer or prospect. Buying and selling are understood to be two sides of the coin or transaction. Both seller and buyer engage in a process of negotiation to consummate the exchange of values, the exchange, or selling, process has implied rules and identifiable stages.
It is implied that the process will proceed fairly and ethically so that the parties end up nearly equally rewarded. Sometimes, sellers have to use their own experiences when selling products with appropriate discounts, from a management viewpoint it is thought of as a part of marketing, although the skills required are different. Sales often forms a separate grouping in a structure, employing separate specialist operatives known as salespersons. Selling is considered by many to be a sort of persuading art, selling is the profession-wide term, much like marketing defines a profession. Recently, attempts have been made to understand who is in the sales profession. There are many articles looking at marketing, promotions, two common terms used to describe a salesperson are Farmer and Hunter. The reality is that most professional sales people have a little of both, a hunter is often associated with aggressive personalities who use aggressive sales technique. In terms of sales methodology a hunter refers to a person whose focus is on bringing in and this process is called sales capturing.
An example is a commodity such as a long distance sales person, shoe sales person. Their job is to find and convert buyers, a sales farmer is someone who creates sales demand by activities that directly influence and alter the buying process. Many believe that the focus of selling is on the agents involved in the exchange between buyer and seller
La Vie Claire
La Vie Claire was a professional road bicycle racing team named after its chief sponsor La Vie Claire, a chain of health food stores. The La Vie Claire team was created in 1984 by Bernard Tapie, the team included five-time Tour de France winner Bernard Hinault, and three-time winner, Greg LeMond, as well as Andrew Hampsten and the Canadian Steve Bauer. With Hinault winning the Tour in 1985, and LeMond winning in 1986, the team formed after Bernard Hinault had a dispute with his former directeur sportif Cyrille Guimard of Renault-Elf-Gitane with whom Hinault had won four editions of the Tour de France. After Hinaults teammate Laurent Fignon won the 1983 Tour de France while Hinault was injured, Hinault formed the La Vie Claire team with Tapie and Koechli and steadily built up his form. Fignon won the Tour by over ten minutes from Hinault, in addition with World Champion Greg LeMond the Renault team finished third overall in that Tour and LeMond won the Young riders jersey. LeMond accepted, and forever changed the structure in bicycle racing.
With Hinault and LeMond the team won the 1985 and the 1986 Tour de France, at the end of 1986, Hinault retired and in the spring of 1987 LeMond was injured in a hunting accident. Hampsten who had finished fourth in the 1986 Tour de France, jean-François Bernard was seen by some as a successor to Hinault in stage races and became the leader of the team. The team itself was undergoing further changes - LeMond and Bauer left the team at the end of 1987 and Koechli, during the latter years of the team, Laurent Jalabert and Tony Rominger were team leaders and earned success for the team. The La Vie Claire colors were based on the artwork of Piet Mondrian, the La Vie Claire jersey, originally designed by Benetton, went through at least five major revisions between 1984-1988 as the team partnered different sponsors. The design is considered one of the most memorable jerseys in cycling, in spring 2007, the clothing retailer Urban Outfitters introduced a womens T-shirt design named Floating Squares nearly identical to the La Vie Claire jersey with the sponsors logos removed.
From 1987 Toshiba became the sponsor of the team and from 1988 onwards La Vie Claire was no longer a sponsor. The jersey was redesigned in 1990, the Toshiba team continued until the end of the 1991 season. Also strongly associated with La Vie Claire was the French company LOOK, which made the first clipless pedals, La Vie Claire was among the first to use carbon fiber frames in the Tour de France. The team switched in 1986 from their previous supplier, Hinault, to carbon fiber frames, in 1989 the team rode a carbon-fiber frame/fork manufactured by LOOK and fitted with titanium components. In the same year, the team began to use heart rate monitors in training and racing, La Vie Claires victories came at a critical juncture in cycling. According to Greg LeMond a huge movement towards doping began in Italy around the early 1990s, many riders suddenly found themselves out of competition and a large number of riders unwilling to participate in the doping culture began to retire. LeMond said in 2001 that, Every rider on La Vie Claire was clean and he added that his American and Canadian teammates, Andrew Hampsten and Steve Bauer, made it through clean
Tour de France
The Tour de France is an annual multiple stage bicycle race primarily held in France, while occasionally making passes through nearby countries. The race was first organized in 1903 to increase sales for the newspaper LAuto, the race has been held annually since its first edition in 1903 except when it was stopped for the two World Wars. As the Tour gained prominence and popularity the race was lengthened, participation expanded from a primarily French field, as riders from all over the world began to participate in the race each year. The Tour is a UCI World Tour event, which means that the teams compete in the race are mostly UCI WorldTeams. Traditionally, the race is primarily in the month of July. The modern editions of the Tour de France consist of 21 day-long segments over a 23-day period, the race alternates between clockwise and counterclockwise circuits of France. The number of teams usually varies between 20 and 22, with nine riders in each, all of the stages are timed to the finish, the riders times are compounded with their previous stage times.
The rider with the lowest aggregate time is the leader of the race, gaining a stage win is a hotly contested competition, fought for by a specialist cycling sprinter on each team. The Tour de France was created in 1903, the roots of the Tour de France trace back to the emergence of two rival sports newspapers in the country. On the one hand was Le Vélo, the first and the largest daily newspaper in France which sold 80,000 copies a day. On the other was LAuto, which had been set-up by journalists and business-people including Comte Jules-Albert de Dion, Adolphe Clément, the new newspaper appointed Henri Desgrange as the editor. He was a prominent cyclist and owner with Victor Goddet of the velodrome at the Parc des Princes, De Dion knew him through his cycling reputation, through the books and cycling articles that he had written, and through press articles he had written for the Clément tyre company. LAuto was not the success its backers wanted, stagnating sales lower than the rival it was intended to surpass led to a crisis meeting on 20 November 1902 on the middle floor of LAutos office at 10 Rue du Faubourg Montmartre, Paris.
The last to speak was the most junior there, the chief cycling journalist, Desgrange had poached him from Giffards paper. Lefèvre suggested a six-day race of the sort popular on the track, long-distance cycle races were a popular means to sell more newspapers, but nothing of the length that Lefèvre suggested had been attempted. If it succeeded, it would help LAuto match its rival and it could, as Desgrange said, nail Giffards beak shut. Desgrange and Lefèvre discussed it after lunch, Desgrange was doubtful but the papers financial director, Victor Goddet, was enthusiastic. He handed Desgrange the keys to the safe and said
Cyrille Guimard is a French former professional road racing cyclist who became a directeur sportif and a television commentator. Three of his riders, Bernard Hinault, Laurent Fignon, and Lucien Van Impe, another protege of Guimards, Greg LeMond, described him as the best in the world and the best coach I ever had. He has been described by cycling journalist William Fotheringham as the greatest directeur sportif in the history of the Tour, Guimard rode as a junior, an amateur and a professional, on the road, track and in cyclo-cross. He was national champion in all three forms, road in 1967 as an amateur, track sprint in 1970 and cyclo-cross in 1976, the riders ahead of him in the 1970 and 1971 professional road championships were disqualified and the titles not given. He said, After those in front of me were disqualified for failing the drugs test, Guimard was president of the riders union and the resentment that that created was why he was not named champion, he said, while others in the same position had been.
Guimard was a sprinter who won nearly 100 races in eight seasons and he won stages of the Tour de France in 1970,1971,1972,1973 and 1974 - four of them in 1972 - although he finished the race only twice. He came 62nd in 1970 and seventh in 1971, the year in which he didnt win a stage. He wore the jersey of leader of the points competition in 1972. He won the competition of the Vuelta a España. Guimards most striking Tour de France was in 1972, when he wore the maillot jaune of leadership, fighting to keep the lead on long climbs created pain in his knees, one of which he injured in 1969 in an accident with a car while he was training. Merckx won two stages in the Alps and Guimard the next, Merckx tried to dispose of him on a 28 km stage to Mont Revard but Guimard, instead of cracking, won by 10 cm as the Belgian raised his hands thinking he had won. Guimard was in place and leading the points competition two days from the finish in Paris when he was forced to withdraw. Merckx gave his green jersey to Guimard on the podium in Paris.
There were concerns about Guimards treatment during the race, and reports that he had to be carried to his bike each morning because he could no longer walk. The team official caring for him was Bernard Sainz, sentenced to three years in 2008 for doping athletes and practising as an unqualified doctor, Sainz was sentenced to be jailed for the first half of the sentence and to be released on probation for the rest. He produced no evidence of training at his trial. He wrote in his autobiography, It was at the time of our collaboration that the first accusations of doping came, an absurd rumour with a life as long as the Loch Ness monster because I saw it reappear in the Journal du Dimanche on 30 April 2000. For 30 years, people have been saying that I pushed Cyrille beyond his limits, as is often the case, people talk and write, claiming to know everything when they know nothing
Gregory James Greg LeMond is an American former professional road racing cyclist who won the Road Race World Championship twice and the Tour de France three times. He is an entrepreneur and anti-doping advocate, LeMond was born in Lakewood and raised in ranch country on the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, near Reno. He is married and has three children with his wife Kathy, with whom he supports a variety of charitable causes, in 1986, LeMond became the first non-European professional cyclist to win the Tour de France, and he remains the only official winner from the United States. LeMond was accidentally shot with multiple pellets while hunting in 1987 and he returned to the 1989 Tour, completing an improbable comeback by winning in dramatic fashion on the races final stage. He successfully defended his title the year, claiming his third and final Tour victory in 1990. He retired from competition in December 1994 and he was inducted into the United States Bicycling Hall of Fame in 1996.
His other business interests have included restaurants, real estate, in December 2012, LeMond even articulated a willingness to replace the UCI president on an interim basis if called to do so. In December 2013, the LeMond brand was revived, manufactured in partnership with TIME Sport International. Greg LeMond was born in Lakewood and raised in the Washoe Valley and his parents are Bob LeMond and Bertha, and he has two sisters and Karen. LeMond attended Earl Wooster High School, but lived too far away to participate in team sports, LeMonds introduction to cycling came in 1975 thanks to freestyle skiing pioneer Wayne Wong, who recommended the bike as an ideal off-season training aid. In 1977, while still only 15, LeMond finished second in the Tour of Fresno to John Howard, the United Statess top road cyclist and the 1971 Pan American Games champion. LeMond caught the attention of Eddie Borysewicz, the US Cycling Federations national team coach, who described LeMond as a diamond, a clear diamond.
At age 18, LeMond was selected for the 1980 U. S. Olympic cycling team, the U. S. boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow prevented him from competing there. Borysewicz, whom LeMond described as his first real coach, wanted to retain his protégé through the next Olympic cycle and discouraged him from turning pro, but LeMond was determined. That victory, and the subsequent press coverage, raised LeMonds profile in Europe and he was scouted at his next event by Cyrille Guimard, the Renault–Elf–Gitane teams directeur sportif. Guimard said he was impressed with LeMonds spirit, and told him, You have the fire to be a great champion, before offering him a professional contract for 1981 with Renault. After he returned to the United States, LeMond won the 1980 Nevada City Classic, considered to be one of the most historic and challenging professional cycling races in United States. LeMond was an amateur rider of superlative quality and exceptionally gifted
Nicolas Sarkozy is a French politician who served as the President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012. Before his presidency, he was the leader of the Union for a Popular Movement party, during Jacques Chiracs second presidential term he served as Minister of the Interior except between March 2004 and May 2005 when he was minister of Finances. Sarkozy was mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine, one of the wealthiest communes of France and he was Minister of the Budget in the government of Édouard Balladur during François Mitterrands last term. During his term, he faced the late-2000s financial crisis and the Arab Spring and he married Italian-French singer-songwriter Carla Bruni on 2 February 2008 at the Élysée Palace in Paris. In foreign affairs, Sarkozy promised a strengthening of the entente cordiale with the United Kingdom, in the 2012 election, the Socialist François Hollande defeated Sarkozy by 3. 2%. After leaving the Presidential office, Sarkozy vowed to retire from public life before coming back in September 2014, on 2 July 2014, Sarkozy was charged with corruption by French prosecutors.
In 2016, he ran in the Republican presidential primary, and was eliminated in the first round of voting and they were married in the Saint-François-de-Sales church, 17th arrondissement of Paris, on 8 February 1950 and divorced in 1959. During Sarkozys childhood, his father founded his own advertising agency, the family lived in a mansion owned by Sarkozys maternal grandfather, Benedict Mallah, in the 17th Arrondissement of Paris. The family moved to Neuilly-sur-Seine, one of the wealthiest communes of the Île-de-France région immediately west of Paris, according to Sarkozy, his staunchly Gaullist grandfather was more of an influence on him than his father, whom he rarely saw. Sarkozy said that being abandoned by his father shaped much of who he is today and he has said that, in his early years, he felt inferior in relation to his wealthier and taller classmates. What made me who I am now is the sum of all the humiliations suffered during childhood, Sarkozy was enrolled in the Lycée Chaptal, a well regarded public middle and high school in Paris 8th arrondissement, where he failed his sixième.
Sarkozy enrolled at the Université Paris X Nanterre, where he graduated with an M. A. in private law and, Paris X Nanterre had been the starting place for the May 68 student movement and was still a stronghold of leftist students. Described as a student, Sarkozy soon joined the right-wing student organization. He completed his service as a part-time Air Force cleaner. After graduating from university, Sarkozy entered Sciences Po, where he studied between 1979 and 1981, but failed to graduate due to an insufficient command of the English language. After passing the bar, Sarkozy became a lawyer specializing in business and they had two sons, now a hip-hop producer, and Jean now a local politician in the city of Neuilly-sur-Seine where Sarkozy started his own political career. Sarkozys best man was the prominent right-wing politician Charles Pasqua, to become a political opponent, Sarkozy divorced Culioli in 1996, after they had been separated for several years. As mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine, Sarkozy met former model and public relations executive Cécilia Ciganer-Albéniz