New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
John Tayloe III
Hon. John Tayloe III, of Richmond County, was prominent in business and social circles. A successful plantation owner and turfsman-leader in his day-he took an active part in public affairs and was considered the "Wealthiest man of his day". A military officer, he served in the Virginia House of Delegates and Senate of Virginia for nine years; the Tayloe family of Richmond County, including John Tayloe III, his father, John Tayloe II, grandfather, John Tayloe I, exemplified gentry entrepreneurship. Tayloe was born September 2, or September 13, 1770, he was the son of John Tayloe II, Rebecca Plater Tayloe. His paternal grandfather was John Tayloe I. Of the nine children in the family, a twin brother did not survive more than a few days, two sisters died while babies. All of his remaining siblings were girls. Before going away to school in England, Tayloe learned patriotism from his father, he was educated at Cambridge. After returning home from England, he was ready to administer his estate for the benefit of the country as well as his own family.
As he was the only surviving son, after his father's death in 1779, Tayloe was named in his father's will to receive most of his father's slaves, personal property and business interests. When his inheritance was turned over to him, the income was US$60,000, his father's iron- and shipbuilding interests were conserved and enlarged by Tayloe. His master shipbuilder at Occoquan was his slave, Reuben. Of Tayloe's other slaves, he sold 50 of them young girls, during the period of 1809 through 1828. In addition to shipbuilding at Neabsco Iron Works, Tayloe had other dealings in Prince William County, Virginia. In 1814, he purchased lots in Occoquan, on the one that fronted Mill Street, he built the Occoquan Hotel, he served as a county postmaster for a time, his stagecoach lines stopped in Occoquan, giving passengers a chance to disembark here. During his residence at his summer home, "Mount Airy", the mansion was enlarged, having been built by his father. Among his guests were men of the American Revolution.
Tayloe was a member of the Federalist Party, he was a personal friend of General George Washington. He built the Octagon House in D. C. in 1799, residing there in the winter. The Octagon was designed by Dr. William Thornton, the first architect of the U. S. Capitol. While a resident of Washington, he helped organize St. John's Episcopal Church, Lafayette Square in 1814, served as a trustee in 1816 during its construction and upon completion served on the vestry and donated to the parish a communion service of silver, which Bishop William Meade, in his work on the old Churches of Virginia, says had been purchased by Col. Tayloe at a sale of the effects of the Lunenburg Parish Church in Richmond County, VA. to prevent its desecration for secular use. As Captain of Dragoons, he went to Western Pennsylvania. In 1799, he was appointed Major of U. S. A. by President John Adams. When General Washington wrote to Tayloe a warm letter of congratulation, Tayloe hesitated to accept the commission as he had just been elected as a Federalist to the Virginia Senate, he feared, as he wrote to Washington, that if he resigned his seat, the place would be filled by an opponent of the administration.
On February 12, 1799, Washington replied that he was inclined to believe his civil service would be more important than military service. Tayloe served in the Virginia House of Delegates and the Senate of Virginia, as Delegate and Senator. On the breaking out of the War of 1812, Tayloe was made commander of the cavalry of the District of Columbia, saw active service. In 1798 a mile track was laid out which extended from the rear of what is now the site of Decatur House at H Street and Jackson Place, crossing Seventeenth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue to Twentieth Street; the inaugural match featured John Tayloe III's Lamplighter and Gen. Charles Carnan Ridgely's Cincinnatus, for 500 guineas, ran in 4-mile heats, won by the former, a son of Imp English bred stallion Medley; the only initial building was a small elevated platform for the judges. The "carriage folk" took to the infield for views of the contests and the strandees crested the outside of the course; the site of today's Eisenhower Executive Office Building, this first course's history was short lived as it stood in the path of L'Enfant's city plan.
In 1802 the Club sought a new sight for the tract, as the current one that lay the rear of what is now the site of Decatur House at H Street and Jackson Place, crossing Seventeenth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue to Twentieth Street-today the Eisenhower Executive Office Building-was being overtaken be the growth of the Federal City. With the leadership of John Tayloe III and Charles Carnan Ridgely and support of Gen. John Peter Van Ness, Dr. William Thornton, G. W. P. Custis, John D. Threlkeld of Georgetown and George Calvert of Riversdale, Maryland, the contests were moved to Meridian Hill, south of Columbia Road between Fourteenth and Sixteenth Streets, were conducted at the Holmstead Farm's one mile oval track. Tayloe's interests included American horse racing, being a leader in this sport during the period of 1791–1806, his son, Henry Augustine Tayloe, founded the Fair Grounds Race Course in New Orleans with Bernard de Marigny in 1838. Like his father, John Tayloe III was a suc
Saint Louis Cemetery
Saint Louis Cemetery is the name of three Roman Catholic cemeteries in New Orleans, Louisiana. Most of the graves are above-ground vaults constructed in the 19th centuries. Cemeteries No. 1 and No. 2 are included on the National Register of Historic Places and the Louisiana African American Heritage Trail. St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 is most famous. It was opened in 1789, replacing the city's older St. Peter Cemetery as the main burial ground when the city was redesigned after a fire in 1788, it is 8 blocks from the Mississippi River, on the north side of Basin Street, one block beyond the inland border of the French Quarter. It borders the Iberville housing project, it has been in continuous use since its foundation. The nonprofit group Save. Famous New Orleanians buried in St. Louis No. 1 include Etienne de Boré, wealthy pioneer of the sugar industry and the first mayor of New Orleans. The renowned Voodoo priestess. Other notable New Orleanians here include Bernard de Marigny, the French-Creole aristocrat and politician who founded both the Faubourg Marigny and Mandeville, Louisiana.
Delphine LaLaurie, the notoriously cruel slave owner, is believed to lie in rest here. Architect and engineer Benjamin Latrobe was buried at St. Louis No. 1 after dying from yellow fever in 1820, while doing engineering for the New Orleans water works. In 2010, actor Nicolas Cage purchased a pyramid-shaped tomb to be his future final resting place; the cemetery is the resting place of many thousands. A Protestant section lies in the northwest section. Effective March 1, 2015, the Roman Catholic Diocese of New Orleans, which owns and manages this cemetery, has closed it to the general public, ostensibly because of the rise in vandalism there. However, in a controversial move, the diocese is now charging tour companies for access. Families who own tombs can apply for a pass to visit. St. Louis No. 2 is located some three blocks back from St. Louis No. 1, bordering Claiborne Avenue. It was consecrated in 1823. A number of notable jazz and rhythm & blues musicians are buried here, including Danny Barker and Ernie K. Doe.
Entombed here is Andre Cailloux, African-American Union hero and martyr of the American Civil War. The cemetery received minor flooding during the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, its tombs seemed untouched by the storm when the water went down, aside from the brownish waterline visible on all structures that were flooded. There are many notable citizens of 20th century New Orleans laid to rest here; these include the Venerable Mother Henriette DeLille, a candidate for sainthood by the Catholic Church, Jean Baptiste Dupeire prominent citizen of New Orleans, among others. It was listed in National Register of Historic Places in 1975. Other politicians and soldiers interred/entombed here: Jacques Villeré of St. Bernard Parish, La. Second Governor of Louisiana after statehood, commander of the 1st Division, La. State Militia, at the Battle of New Orleans. Oscar Dunn Emancipated from slavery as a child, he became the first elected black lieutenant governor of a U. S. state. Pierre Soulé of New Orleans, Orleans Parish, La.
Born in France. Member of Louisiana state senate, 1845. S. Senator from Louisiana, 1847, 1849–53. S. Minister to Spain, 1853–55. Died in New Orleans. Charles Genois of New Orleans, Orleans Parish, La. Whig Mayor of New Orleans, La. 1838-40. Robert Brown Elliott known as R. B. Elliott, of South Carolina. Born in Massachusetts, 1842. Republican. Delegate to Republican National Convention from South Carolina, 1868, 1880. S. Representative from South Carolina 3rd District, 1871-75. Black. Paul Capdevielle of New Orleans, Orleans Parish, La. Born in New Orleans, Orleans Parish, La. Mayor of New Orleans, La. 1900-04. Died in Bay St. Louis, Hancock County, Mississippi. Carleton Hunt of Louisiana. Born in New Orleans, Orleans Parish, La. Nephew of Theodore Gaillard Hunt. Democrat. Served in the Confederate Army during the Civil War. S. Representative from Louisiana 1st District, 1883-85. Ignacy Szymański was a American soldier. Born in New Orleans, he served in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He was appointed to colonel of Chalmette Regiment made of Scandinavian immigrants from the Louisiana State Militia.
Dominique You was a former Battle of New Orleans veteran. Pierre Nord Alexis was the President of Haiti from December 1902 until December 1908, he seized power with the help of the United States, declared himself "President for Life" at age 87 in January 1908, was exiled in December of that year. St. Louis No. 3 is located some 2 miles back from the French Quarter, some 30 blocks from the Mississippi, fronting Esplanade Avenue near Bayou St. John, it opened in 1854. The crypts on average are more elaborate than at the other St. Louis cemeteries, including a number of fine 19th century marble tombs. Th
Fair Grounds Race Course
Fair Grounds Race Course known as New Orleans Fair Grounds, is a thoroughbred racetrack and racino in New Orleans, Louisiana. It is operated by Churchill Downs Louisiana Horseracing Company, LLC; as early as 1838 Bernard de Marigny, Julius C Branch and Henry Augustine Tayloe, organized races at the "Louisiana Race Course" laid out on Gentilly Road, making it the second oldest site of horseracing in America still in operation, after Freehold Raceway and before the Saratoga Race Course. It lasted for five days. In 1852 it was renamed the Union Race Course. In 2009, the Horseplayers Association of North America introduced a rating system for 65 Thoroughbred racetracks in North America. Of the top Fifteen, New Orleans Fair Grounds was ranked #12, behind Evangeline Downs in Opelousas, ranked #6. In 1838 on April 13 Bernard de Marigny, Julius C Branch and Henry Augustine Tayloe, organized races at the "Louisiana Race Course" on Tuesday, April 10, 1838. April 10 the first race for "The Creole Purse" $1,000, free only for horses bred and owned in the state of Louisiana.
First Day, First Race - owners and horses: Fergus Duplantier, Louisianese. N. Oliver, Pocohantas. Second Race, sweepstakes for three year olds, weights as before, five subscribers at $1000 each, $250 forfeit, mile heats. Owners and horses: Wiliiam J Minor, Britiania. J Wells, Taglioni. Second day, first race, purse $1,200, entrance $120, free for all ages, weights as before, two mile heats. Owners and horses: Minor Kenner, Richard of York. Third day, entrance $180, free for all ages, weights as before, three mile heats. Owners and horses: Wm. R Barrow, Thos. J Wells, Dick Chin. Fourth day "Creole Plate", valued at $1,000. Entrance $100, five year olds and over to carry 100lbs. Owners and horses: Adam Lewis Bingaman, Angora. March 20, 1839, lasting five days. "The First Day was the "Creole Purse" for $500, one mile heats. Second Day-"Proprietors Purse" $1,200--two mile heat. Third Day-"Jockey Club Purse" $1,800--three mile heats. Fourth Day-"Jockey Club Plate" value $1,500 and $500, -four mile heats-to the winner, $500 to the second best horse, provided more than two start.
Fifth Day-"Proprietors Purse" $600--mile heat-best 3 in 5. The track opened again as the "Union Race Course" in 1852; the track closed in 1857 due to competition from the Metairie Course. In 1859 the track was renamed the "Creole Race Course." In 1863, the name was changed again to the "Fair Grounds" and racing was conducted during the Civil War. The track closed when the Metairie Course reopened after the war. In 1871, the younger members of the Metairie Jockey Club broke away to re-form the defunct Louisiana Jockey Club and again hold meets at the Fair Grounds. In 1872 the first race card is held at the Fair Grounds under the auspices of the Louisiana Jockey Club; the Crescent City Jockey Club was established in 1892 and ran a winter racing season from December to April until they had to liquidate their assets in the spring of 1913. In 1907, Colonel Matt Winn arrived in New Orleans to establish racing dates and deal with other matters in the Louisiana horse industry. In 1908, racing was banned in New Orleans but returned in 1915.
In 1919 a fire burned down the grandstand but the track was still able to conduct a race meeting. In 1921, an auto race was held at the only car race at the fairgrounds. In 1940, legislative sanction was given to racing in Louisiana; the track was sold to developers for construction of a subdivision. In 1941, a group of investors saved Fair Grounds from destruction; the track resumed racing after World War II. The Fair Grounds Racing Hall of Fame was established in 1971. In 1981 a turf course was installed. In 1990 the track was sold to the Krantz family. In 1993, the grandstand was destroyed by a seven alarm fire and racing continued with temporary facilities in place for a couple of years. A new $27 million construction project began in 1994 and the completed grandstand/clubhouse was opened to the public on Thanksgiving Day 1997; the track was purchased by Churchill Downs Incorporated in 2004. Fair Grounds was damaged in Hurricane Katrina, was closed for over a year, until re-opening on Thanksgiving D
Nobility is a social class ranked under royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy. Nobility possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in society; the privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be honorary, vary by country and era. As referred to in the Medieval chivalric motto "noblesse oblige", nobles can carry a lifelong duty to uphold various social responsibilities, such as honorable behavior, customary service, or leadership positions. Membership in the nobility, including rights and responsibilities, is hereditary. Membership in the nobility has been granted by a monarch or government, unlike other social classes where membership is determined by wealth, lifestyle, or affiliation. Nonetheless, acquisition of sufficient power, military prowess, or royal favour has enabled commoners to ascend into the nobility. There are a variety of ranks within the noble class.
Legal recognition of nobility has been more common in monarchies, but nobility existed in such regimes as the Dutch Republic, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice, the Old Swiss Confederacy, remains part of the legal social structure of some non-hereditary regimes, e.g. Channel Islands, San Marino, the Vatican City in Europe. Hereditary titles and styles added to names, as well as honorifics distinguish nobles from non-nobles in conversation and written speech. In many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, some hereditary titles do not indicate nobility; some countries have had non-hereditary nobility, such as the Empire of Brazil or life peers in the United Kingdom. The term derives from the abstract noun of the adjective nobilis. In ancient Roman society, nobiles originated as an informal designation for the political governing class who had allied interests, including both patricians and plebeian families with an ancestor who had risen to the consulship through his own merit.
In modern usage, "nobility" is applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies, excepting the ruling dynasty. In the feudal system, the nobility were those who held a fief land or office, under vassalage, i.e. in exchange for allegiance and various military, services to a suzerain, who might be a higher-ranking nobleman or a monarch. It came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. While noble status conferred significant privileges in most jurisdictions, by the 21st century it had become a honorary dignity in most societies, although a few, residual privileges may still be preserved and some Asian and African cultures continue to attach considerable significance to formal hereditary rank or titles. Nobility is a historical and legal notion, differing from high socio-economic status in that the latter is based on income, possessions or lifestyle.
Being wealthy or influential cannot ipso facto make one noble, nor are all nobles wealthy or influential. Various republics, including former Iron Curtain countries, Greece and Austria have expressly abolished the conferral and use of titles of nobility for their citizens; this is distinct from countries which have not abolished the right to inherit titles, but which do not grant legal recognition or protection to them, such as Germany and Italy, although Germany recognizes their use as part of the legal surname. Still other countries and authorities allow their use, but forbid attachment of any privilege thereto, e.g. Finland and the European Union, while French law protects lawful titles against usurpation. Although many societies have a privileged upper class with substantial wealth and power, the status is not hereditary and does not entail a distinct legal status, nor differentiated forms of address. Not all of the benefits of nobility derived from noble status per se. Privileges were granted or recognised by the monarch in association with possession of a specific title, office or estate.
Most nobles' wealth derived from one or more estates, large or small, that might include fields, orchards, hunting grounds, etc. It included infrastructure such as castle and mill to which local peasants were allowed some access, although at a price. Nobles were expected to live "nobly", that is, from the proceeds of these possessions. Work involving manual labour or subordination to those of lower rank was either forbidden or frowned upon socially. On the other hand, membership in the nobility was a prerequisite for holding offices of trust in the realm and for career promotion in the military, at court and the higher functions in the government and church. Prior to the French Revolution, European nobles commanded tribute in the form of entitlement to cash rents or usage taxes, labour or a portion of the annual crop yield from commoners or no
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
A duel is an arranged engagement in combat between two people, with matched weapons, in accordance with agreed-upon rules. Duels in this form were chiefly practiced in early modern Europe with precedents in the medieval code of chivalry, continued into the modern period among military officers. During the 17th and 18th centuries, duels were fought with swords, but beginning in the late 18th century in England, duels were more fought using pistols. Fencing and pistol duels continued to co-exist throughout the 19th century; the duel was based on a code of honor. Duels were fought not so much to kill the opponent as to gain "satisfaction", that is, to restore one's honor by demonstrating a willingness to risk one's life for it, as such the tradition of dueling was reserved for the male members of nobility. On occasion, duels with pistols or swords were fought between women. Legislation against dueling goes back to the medieval period; the Fourth Council of the Lateran outlawed duels, civil legislation in the Holy Roman Empire against dueling was passed in the wake of the Thirty Years' War.
From the early 17th century, duels became illegal in the countries. Dueling fell out of favor in England by the mid-19th century and in Continental Europe by the turn of the 20th century. Dueling declined in the Eastern United States in the 19th century and by the time the American Civil War broke out, dueling had begun to wane in the South. Public opinion, not legislation, caused the change. In Western society, the formal concept of a duel developed out of the medieval judicial duel and older pre-Christian practices such as the Viking Age holmgang. In Medieval society, judicial duels were fought by squires to end various disputes. Countries like Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland practiced this tradition. Judicial combat took two forms in the feat of arms and chivalric combat; the feat of arms was supervised by a judge. The battle was fought as a result of a slight or challenge to one party's honor which could not be resolved by a court. Weapons were standardized and typical of a knight's armoury, for example longswords, polearms etc. however, weapon quality and augmentations were at the discretion of the knight, for example, a spiked hand guard or an extra grip for half-swording.
The parties involved would wear their own armour. The duel lasted. In early cases, the defeated party was executed; this type of duel soon evolved into the more chivalric pas d'armes, or "passage of arms", a chivalric hastilude that evolved in the late 14th century and remained popular through the 15th century. A knight or group of knights would stake out a travelled spot, such as a bridge or city gate, let it be known that any other knight who wished to pass must first fight, or be disgraced. If a traveling venans did not have weapons or horse to meet the challenge, one might be provided, if the venans chose not to fight, he would leave his spurs behind as a sign of humiliation. If a lady passed unescorted, she would leave behind a glove or scarf, to be rescued and returned to her by a future knight who passed that way; the Roman Catholic Church was critical of dueling throughout medieval history, frowning both on the traditions of judicial combat and on the duel on points of honor among the nobility.
Judicial duels were deprecated by the Lateran Council of 1215, but the judicial duel persisted in the Holy Roman Empire into the 15th century. The word duel comes from the Latin'duellum', cognate with'bellum', meaning'war'. During the early Renaissance, dueling established the status of a respectable gentleman and was an accepted manner to resolve disputes; the first published code duello, or "code of dueling", appeared in Renaissance Italy. The first formalized national code was France's, during the Renaissance. In 1777, a code of practice was drawn up for the regulation of duels, at the Summer assizes in the town of Clonmel, County Tipperary, Ireland. A copy of the code, known as'The twenty-six commandments', was to be kept in a gentleman's pistol case for reference should a dispute arise regarding procedure. However, the tradition had become rooted in European culture as a prerogative of the aristocracy, these attempts failed. For example, King Louis XIII of France outlawed dueling in 1626, a law which remained in force for afterwards, his successor Louis XIV intensified efforts to wipe out the duel.
Despite these efforts, dueling continued unabated, it is estimated that between 1685 and 1716, French officers fought 10,000 duels, leading to over 400 deaths. By the late 18th century, Enlightenment era values began to influence society with new self-conscious ideas about politeness, civil behaviour and new attitudes towards violence; the cultivated art of politeness demanded that there should be no outward displays of anger or violence, the concept of honor became more personalized. By the 1770s the practice of dueling was coming under attack from many sections of enlightened society, as a violent relic of Europe's medieval past unsuited for modern life; as England began to industrialize and benefit from urban planning and more effective police forces, the culture of street violence in general began to wane. The growing middle class maintained their reputation with recourse to either bringing charges of libel, or to the fast-growing print media of t