Not to be confused with Sagrada Família, a large church by Antoni Gaudí, Santa Maria del Mar known from the novel Cathedral of the Sea - both in Barcelona. The Cathedral of the Holy Cross and Saint Eulalia known as Barcelona Cathedral, is the Gothic cathedral and seat of the Archbishop of Barcelona, Spain; the cathedral was constructed from the thirteenth to fifteenth centuries, with the principal work done in the fourteenth century. The cloister, which encloses the Well of the Geese was completed in 1448. In the late nineteenth century, the neo-Gothic façade was constructed over the nondescript exterior, common to Catalan churches; the roof is notable for its gargoyles, featuring a wide range of animals, both domestic and mythical. It is a pseudo-basilica, vaulted over the outer two divided into chapels; the transept is truncated. The east end is a chevet of nine radiating chapels connected by an ambulatory; the high altar is raised. The cathedral is dedicated to Eulalia of Barcelona, co-patron saint of Barcelona, a young virgin who, according to Catholic tradition, suffered martyrdom during Roman times in the city.
One story says that she was exposed naked in the public square and a miraculous snowfall in mid-spring covered her nudity. The enraged Romans rolled it down a street; the body of Saint Eulalia is entombed in the cathedral's crypt. The choir stalls retain the coats-of-arms of the knights of the Order of the Golden Fleece. In his first trip into Spain, the future Holy Roman Emperor, selected Barcelona as the site of a chapter of his Order; the king had arrived for his investiture as Count of Barcelona, the city, as a Mediterranean port, offered the closest communication with other far-flung Habsburg dominions, while the large proportions of the cathedral would accommodate required grand ceremonies. In 1518 the Order's herald, Thomas Isaac, its treasurer, Jean Micault, were commissioned to prepare the sanctuary for the first sitting of the chapter in 1519. Juan de Borgonya executed the painted decoration of the sanctuary. "The church was named after Barcelona's patron saint Eulalia. The used name La Seu refers to the status of the church as the seat of the diocese."
The side Chapel of the Holy Sacrament and of the Holy Christ of Lepanto contains a cross said to date from the time of the Battle of Lepanto. In addition to Saints Eulàlia and Olegarius, the cathedral contains the tombs of Saint Raymond of Penyafort, Count Ramon Berenguer I and his third wife Almodis de la Marche, bishops Berenguer de Palou II, Salvador Casañas y Pagés, Arnau de Gurb, buried in the Chapel of Santa Llúcia, which he had constructed; the cathedral has a secluded Gothic cloister where 13 white geese are kept, the number explained by the assertion that Eulalia was 13 when she was martyred. A program of cleaning and restoration of the cathedral was carried out from 1968-72. Parts of an early Christian and visigothic episcopal complex including the baptistery, a basilical hall, a cross shaped church and bishop's palace are displayed in Barcelona City History Museum archaeological underground; this Visigothic chapel was dedicated to Saint James, was the proprietary church of the Viscounts of Barcelona.
However, in a document from the Second Council of Barcelona in 599, it states that the cathedral was dedicated to the Holy Cross. This church was damaged by al-Mansur during his attack on Barcelona in 985. In 1046, Count Ramon Berenguer I and his wife Almodis, together with Bishop Guislabert, began construction of a Romanesque cathedral at the site; the cathedral was constructed over the crypt of the former church. It has been reported that a Viscount of Barcelona, Mir Geribert, sold the site to Bishop Guislebert in 1058, though however this date does not coincide with the reported start of construction; the present Gothic cathedral was begun on the foundations of the previous churches on 1 May 1298. The church was built from the east end towards the west end, with a simple west facade completed in 1417; the cloister was completed in 1448. In the late nineteenth century, Miguel Girona i Agrafel offered to complete the neo-Gothic facade and central tower as inspired by the original fifteenth-century design prepared by master Carlí and rearranged and drawn by the architect Josep O. Mestres.
This work was completed in 1913 by Girona's children. The Chapel of the Holy Sacrament and of the Holy Christ of Lepanto is a small side chapel constructed by Arnau Bargués in 1407, as the chapterhouse, it was rebuilt in the seventeenth century to house the tomb of San Olegarius, Bishop of Barcelona and Archbishop of Tarragona. The "Holy Christ of Lepanto" crucifix, is located on the upper part of the chapel entrance's front façade; the curved shape of the body is explained by a Catalan legend which holds that the cross was carried on the prow of the galley captained by Juan of Austria, step-brother of Spanish Philip II of Spain during the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. When a cannonball flew toward the cross, it leaned out of the way in order to avoid being hit, has been inclined since; the Habsburgs were said to have r
An antependium known as a parament or hanging, or, when speaking of the hanging for the altar, an altar frontal, is a decorative piece of textile, but metalwork, stone or other material that can adorn a Christian altar. And as the etymology of the word suggests, an antependium hangs down in front of whatever it covers, is to be distinguished from the altar linens which are used in the service of the Eucharist, an altar cloth which covers the top of the altar table. "Antependium" is the word used for elaborate fixed altar frontals, which, in large churches and in the Ottonian art of the Early Medieval period, were sometimes of gold studded with gems and ivories, in other periods and churches carved stone, painted wood panel, stucco, or other materials, such as azulejo tiling in Portugal. When the front of an altar is elaborately carved or painted, the additional cloth altar frontal reaches down only a few inches from the top of the altar table. In other cases it may reach to the floor. In both situations, it will cover the entire width of the altar.
A "Jacobean frontal" will cover the entire altar. The Anglican Canons of 1603 order that the Lord's Table should be "covered, in time of Divine Service, with a carpet of silk or other decent stuff, thought meet by the Ordinary of the place". Covers for lecterns and pulpits are similar to a frontlet covering the "desk" of the lectern or pulpit and handing down about a foot or longer in front. In the Orthodox Church, the Holy Table may be covered with two coverings. There is always an outer frontal, covering the top of the Holy Table and hanging down several inches on all four sides; this kind is used alone if the front of the Holy Table is elaborately decorated. For a "fully vested" Holy Table, a second, inner hanging is used; this covers the Holy Table on the top and hangs down to the floor on all four sides. The analogia are covered with a covering known as a proskynitarion; as with the coverings used on the Holy Table, there may, again, be only one outer covering or a second, inner covering that hangs to the floor.
A cloth antependium is of the same colour and of the same fabric and similar style as the vestments worn by the clergy. The fabric may vary from simple material, such as cotton or wool, to exquisitely wrought damasks, fine watermarked silk, velvet, or satin. Embellishment is by means of decorative bands of material called orphreys, embroidery or appliqués, fringes and tassels, all of a complementary colour to the fabric; the most used symbol on both vestments and hangings is the cross. The antependium is lined in satin, using a matching hue; the colours used tend to be suggested by the liturgical tradition of each denomination. Most Western Christian churches that observe a developed liturgical tradition use white, red, green and black, with each being used on specified occasions. A rose colour may be employed for the third Sunday in Advent. In Anglican circles, blue is sometimes prescribed for feasts of the Blessed Virgin Mary, although it is used, unofficially, in some areas of the Roman Catholic Church.
Among Eastern Christians, there tend to be two types of vestments: festal ones. Beyond that, no specific colours are required. Among groups such as the Russian Orthodox Church, a pattern of fixed colours has developed, somewhat similar to that used in the West, although they are not speaking, required. Antipendium can be used to describe the front of the altar itself if it is elaborately carved or gilded; the famous Pala d'Oro in St. Mark's Basilica in Venice originated as an antependium, although it is used as a reredos now. Altar cloth Liturgical colours Altar Frontal article from the Catholic Encyclopedia Orthodox altar with red frontal Jacobean Frontal St. John's Church, Scotland
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times. All of this is open to the public, much of it has been digitized and is available on their website; the main goal of the bureau is to collect and make art research available, most notably in the field of Dutch Masters. Via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries; the library owns 450,000 titles, of which ca. 150,000 are auction catalogs. There are ca. 3,000 magazines, of which 600 are running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the standard record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works, which include English as well as Dutch titles; the RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, a thesaurus of terms for management of information on art and architecture.
The original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in California. The collection was started through bequests by Frits Lugt, art historian and owner of a massive collection of drawings and prints, Cornelis Hofstede de Groot, a collector, art historian and museum curator, their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Though not all of the library's holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online; the website itself is available in both an English user interface. In the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/ followed by the artist's record number. For example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number.
To reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artwork's record number. For example, the artwork record number for The Night Watch is 3063, so its RKD artwork page can be referenced; the Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, but these can not be referenced online by record number. Rather, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called "The Night Watch" is a militia painting, all records fitting this keyword can be seen by selecting this from the image screen; the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is filled with biblical references. This is the iconclass database. To see all images that depict Miriam's dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a special search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
Catalonia is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona and Tarragona; the capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia, it is bordered by France and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan and the Aranese dialect of Occitan. In the late 8th century, the counties of the March of Gothia and the Hispanic March were established by the Frankish kingdom as feudal vassals across and near the eastern Pyrenees as a defensive barrier against Muslim invasions; the eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal, the count of Barcelona, were called Catalonia.
In the 10th century the County of Barcelona became independent de facto. In 1137, Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon; the de jure end of Frankish rule was ratified by French and Aragonese monarchs in the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258. The Principality of Catalonia developed its own institutional system, such as courts, constitutions, becoming the base for the Crown of Aragon's naval power and expansionism in the Mediterranean. In the Middle Ages, Catalan literature flourished. During the last Medieval centuries natural disasters, social turmoils and military conflicts affected the Principality. Between 1469 and 1516, the king of Aragon and the queen of Castile married and ruled their realms together, retaining all of their distinct institutions and legislation. During the Franco-Spanish War, Catalonia revolted against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army in its territory, being proclaimed a republic under French protection. Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, until it was reconquered by the Spanish army.
Under the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the Spanish Crown ceded the northern parts of Catalonia the County of Roussillon, to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession, the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain; this led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of literature, replaced by Spanish. Along the 18th century, Catalonia experienced economic growth, reinforced in the late quarter of the century when the Castile's trade monopoly with American colonies ended. In the 19th century, Catalonia was affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. In the second third of the century, Catalonia experienced significant industrialisation; as wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces formed a commonwealth, with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic, the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored as an autonomous government.
After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. After a first period of autarky, from the late 1950s through to the 1970s Catalonia saw rapid economic growth, drawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination. Since the Spanish transition to democracy, Catalonia has regained considerable autonomy in political, educational and cultural affairs and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain. In the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence. On 27 October 2017, the Catalan Parliament declared independence from Spain following a disputed referendum; the Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the entire Catalan government and calling a snap regional election for 21 December. On 2 November of the same year, the Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned 7 former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others—including then-President of Catalonia, Carles Puigdemont—fled to other European countries.
The name Catalonia—Catalunya in Catalan, spelled Cathalonia, or Cathalaunia in Medieval Latin—began to be used for the homeland of the Catalans in the late 11th century and was used before as a territorial reference to the group of counties that comprised part of the March of Gothia and March of Hispania under the control of the Count of Barcelona and his relatives. The origin of the name Catalunya is subject to diverse interpretations because of a lack of evidence. One theory suggests that Catalunya derives from the name Gothia Launia, since the origins of the Catalan counts and people were found in the March of Gothia, known as Gothia, whence Gothlan
A retable is a structure or element placed either on or behind and above the altar or communion table of a church. At the minimum it may be a simple shelf for candles behind an altar, but it can be a large and elaborate structure. A retable which incorporates sculptures or painting is referred to as an altarpiece. According to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online, "A'retable' is distinct from a'reredos'. Many altars have both a reredos and a retable." This distinction is not always upheld in common use, the terms are confused or used as synonyms. In several foreign languages, such as French, the usage is different equating the word with the English'reredos' or'altarpiece', this leads to confusion, incorrect usage in translated texts; the Medieval Latin retrotabulum was applied to an architectural feature set up at the back of an altar, taking the form of a screen framing a picture, carved or sculptured work in wood or stone, or mosaic, or of a movable feature such as the Pala d'Oro in St Mark's Basilica, Venice, of gold and enamels.
The non-English word "retable" therefore refers to what should in English be called a reredos. The situation is further complicated by the frequent modern addition of free-standing altars in front of the old integrated altar, to allow the celebrant to face the congregation, or be closer to it. Dossal' is another term that may overlap with reredos; the cognate Spanish term, refers to a reredos or retrotabulum, although in the specific context of Mexican folk art it may refer to any two-dimensional depiction of a saint or other Christian religious figure, as contrasted with a bulto, a three-dimensional statue of same. The retable may hold the altar cross in Protestant churches, as well as candles and other things
Catalan Gothic is an artistic style, with particular characteristics in the field of architecture. It occurred under the Crown of Aragon between the 13th and 15th centuries, which places it at the end of the European Gothic period and at the beginning of the Renaissance; the term "Catalan Gothic" is confined to Barcelona and its area of influence, which has its own characteristics. Despite its name, Catalan Gothic differs from the Gothics from other parts of Europe. In architecture, it does not seek excessive height, or have highlights in its flying buttresses, its decoration is sober; the style began because of the wealth generated by the expansion of the Counts of Barcelona and Crown of Aragon, first to the Languedoc and Balearic islands across the Mediterranean to Sicily, the Kingdom of Naples and the Duchy of Athens. This resulted in a demand for an updating of existing Romanesque buildings and new public buildings as well as a demand for mansions for the newly enriched; the style reached its climax in the 15th century.
After the unification of the Crowns of Castile and Aragon, the discovery of the Americas, Seville became Spain's major port, to the detriment of Barcelona. The terms "Gothic style" and "Gothic city" are used in relation to the local time frame, it is not to be confused with Spanish or other Gothic styles, though the latest available technologies were always employed. There rose window and struts. In church architecture Catalan Gothic does not strive for great heights, but tends to balance dimensions of width with height, so there are no long sloping roofs so characteristic of central and northern Europe, its buttresses are as tall as the naves. Buildings have fewer windows because the Mediterranean light is much stronger than the rest of Europe. Sparsely decorated, they have no figurative motifs on their pillars and no notable intricacy in their vaults; the main features of Catalan Gothic, compared with the international Gothic, are: In sculpture and painting the peculiarities of Catalan Gothic are not as marked and as distinctive as either the Italian or Flemish styles.
There are several notable painters, including Ferrer Bassa, Pere Serra, Lluís Borrassà, Bernat Martorell, Lluís Dalmau and Jaume Huguet. Religious architecture tends to unify space, achieved through two methods: either with slender and thin columns spaced far enough apart to avoid interruption the view of the side ailes, which are the same height as the nave, or constructing with a single nave of much wider span; the towers one or two, stand out as smooth polygonal prisms, there are no transepts, though churches based on the Templar design, are planned as Greek crosses. The abutments have two effects in addition to their role in bracing the walls. On the drawing the chapels can be distinguished, the elevation of the building is continuous and visually smooth on the outside; when these appear on the main facade, they create a rectangle that frames the doorway and a rose window. The palace, with a larger street wall than other dwellings, is typical of 15th-century bourgeois spaces, the best examples of which are in the Carrer de Montcada in Barcelona's Ribera district.
The building is accessed through a portal and is characterised by a courtyard, the centre of the building and contains the main staircase, either open or half closed. On the ground floor are the facilities for doing business and there may be an office on a mezzanine; the first floor is reserved for living, with main hall, richly decorated stretching along the facade, sometimes occupying it entirely. The following storey contains secondary units; some palaces have small towers for watching over the city rooftops. During the 15th century the Catalan Gothic was used in civil architecture, best exemplified in the Llotja of Barcelona, built between 1380 and 1392, it consisted of three naves separated by ogival arches resting on columns with beaded and flat roofs built in wood. Many features of the Barcelona Llotja was replaced in the 18th century by a neoclassical style. Examples of this type of architecture are the Cathedral of Barcelona, begun in 1298 or the Cathedral of Girona, started in 1312, which has three naves leading to the crossing where it continues as a single width.
Its technical difficulties had to be addressed by a board or architects sent by the Crown of Aragon. Other good examples are: Santa Maria del Mar, in Barcelona. Palau Reial Major, in Barcelona. Monastery of Pedralbes, in Barcelona. Page of the former parish priest of Santa Maria del Mar with extensive information on this masterpiece of Catalan Gothic
Gentile da Fabriano
Gentile da Fabriano was an Italian painter known for his participation in the International Gothic painter style. He worked in various places in central Italy in Tuscany, his best-known works are his Adoration of the Magi from the Strozzi Altarpiece, the Flight into Egypt. Gentile was born in the Marche, his mother died some time before 1380, his father, Niccolò di Giovanni Massi, retired to a monastery in the same year, where he died in 1385. Little is known of his formation: one of his first known works, a Madonna with Child shows the influence of the northern Italian late-Gothic painting. By around 1405, Gentile da Fabriano was working in Venice, he painted a panel for the church of Santa Sofia, now lost. Between 1408 and 1409, he painted a fresco in the Doge's Palace depicting the naval battle between the Venetians and Otto III. In Venice he knew Pisanello and Michelino da Besozzo, he produced commissions for other cities during this period, such as his Madonna and Child for a church in Perugia.
From 1410 -- 1412 is one of the Valle Romita Polyptych. In 1410 -- 1411 he was at Foligno. In 1414 he moved to Brescia, at the service of Pandolfo III Malatesta, painted the Broletto Chapel, a work now lost. In the Spring 1420 he was again in Fabriano. On 6 August 1420 he was in Florence, where he painted his famous altarpiece depicting the Adoration of the Magi, now in the Uffizi and regarded as one of the masterpieces of the International Gothic style, his other works in Florence include the Quaratesi Polyptych. In June–August 1425 he was in Siena, where he painted a Madonna with Child, now lost, for the Palazzo dei Notai on Piazza del Campo; until October he was in Orvieto, where he painted his fresco of the Madonna and Child in the Cathedral. In 1427 he arrived in Rome, commissioned by Pope Martin V the decoration of the nave of the Basilica of St. John in Lateran, completed by Pisanello after his death. Gentile is known to have died before 14 October 1427, he is said to have been buried in the church now called S.
Francesca Romana in Florence, but his tomb vanished. He left no works in the Marche, except a Madonna and Child in the Duomo at Sant'Angelo in Vado, near Urbino, he left one painting in Venice. Mack, Rosamond E. Bazaar to Piazza: Islamic Trade and Italian Art, 1300–1600, University of California Press, 2001 ISBN 0-520-22131-1 Gentile da Fabriano e l'altro Rinascimento, catalogo della mostra, Electa, 2006. Fabio Marcelli, Gentile da Fabriano, Silvana, 2005. Andrea De Marchi, Gentile da Fabriano. Un viaggio nella pittura italiana alla fine del gotico, Federico Motta, 2006. Gentile da Fabriano biography-paintings-curiosity-publications Italian Paintings: Sienese and Central Italian Schools, a collection catalog containing information about Fabriano and his works. 5 paintings of Gentile da Fabriano