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Bernicia

Bernicia was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom established by Anglian settlers of the 6th century in what is now southeastern Scotland and North East England. The Anglian territory of Bernicia was equivalent to the modern English counties of Northumberland and Durham, the Scottish counties of Berwickshire and East Lothian, stretching from the Forth to the Tees. In the early 7th century, it merged with its southern neighbour, Deira, to form the kingdom of Northumbria and its borders subsequently expanded considerably. Bernicia occurs in Old Welsh poetry as Bryneich or Brynaich and in the 9th-century Historia Brittonum, as Berneich or Birneich; this was most the name of the native Brittonic kingdom, whose name was adopted by the Anglian settlers who rendered it in Old English as Bernice or Beornice. The counter hypothesis suggesting these names represent a Brythonic adaption of an earlier English form is considered less probable. Local linguistic evidence suggests continued political activity in the area before the arrival of the Angles.

Important Anglian centres in Bernicia bear names of British origin, or are known by British names elsewhere: Bamburgh is called Din Guaire in the Historia Brittonum. Analysis of a potential derivation has not produced a consensus; the most cited etymology gives the meaning as "Land of the Mountain Passes" or "Land of the Gaps". An earlier derivation from the tribal name of the Brigantes has been dismissed as linguistically unsound. In 1997 John T. Koch suggested the conflation of a probable primary form *Bernech with the native form *Brïγent for the old civitas Brigantum as a result of Anglian expansion in that territory during the 7th century; the Brythonic kingdom of the area was formed from what had once been the southern lands of the Votadini as part of the division of a supposed'great northern realm' of Coel Hen in c. AD 420; this northern realm is referred to by Welsh scholars as Yr Hen Ogledd or "The Old North". The kingdom may have been ruled from the site that became the English Bamburgh, which features in Welsh sources as Din Guardi.

Near this high-status residence lay the island of Lindisfarne, which became the seat of the Bernician bishops. It is unknown when the Angles conquered the whole region, but around 604 is likely. There are several Old Welsh pedigrees of princely "Men of the North" that may represent the kings of the British kingdom in the area, which may have been called Bryneich. John Morris surmised that the line of a certain Morcant Bulc referred to these monarchs, chiefly because he identified this man as the murderer of Urien Rheged who was, at the time, besieging Lindisfarne; some of the Angles of Bernicia may have been employed as mercenaries along Hadrian's Wall during the late Roman period. Others are thought to have migrated north from Deira in the early 6th century; the first Anglian king in the historical record is Ida, said to have obtained the throne and the kingdom about 547. His sons spent many years fighting a united force from the surrounding Brythonic kingdoms until their alliance collapsed into civil war.

Ida's grandson, Æthelfrith, united Deira with his own kingdom by force around the year 604. He ruled the two kingdoms until he was defeated and killed by Rædwald of East Anglia around the year 616. Edwin became king; the early part of Edwin's reign was spent finishing off the remaining resistance coming from the Brythonic exiles of the old British kingdom, operating out of Gododdin. After he had defeated the remaining Brythonic population of the area, he was drawn towards a similar subjugation of Elmet, which drew him into direct conflict with Wales proper. Following the disastrous Battle of Hatfield Chase on 12 October 633, in which Edwin was defeated and killed by Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd and Penda of Mercia, Northumbria was divided back into Bernicia and Deira. Bernicia was briefly ruled by Eanfrith, son of Æthelfrith, but after about a year he went to Cadwallon to sue for peace and was killed. Eanfrith's brother Oswald raised an army and defeated Cadwallon at the Battle of Heavenfield in 634.

After this victory, Oswald appears to have been recognised by both Bernicians and Deirans as king of a properly united Northumbria. The kings of Bernicia were thereafter supreme in that kingdom, although Deira had its own sub-kings at times during the reigns of Oswiu and his son Ecgfrith. Ida son of Eoppa Glappa Ida's brother Adda son of Ida Æthelric son of Ida Theodric son of Ida Frithuwald Adda's son Hussa Adda's son Æthelfrith, son of Æthelric Under Deiran rule 616–633) Eanfrith of Bernicia son of Æthelfrith Under Oswald son of Æthelfrith, Bernicia was united with Deira to form Northumbria from 634 onward until the Viking invasion of the 9th Century. Bede, Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum. Jackson, Kenneth H.. Language and History in Early Britain. Edinburgh University Press. Jackson, Kenneth H.. The Gododdin: The Oldest Scottish poem. Edinburgh: Edinbur

Hell Comes to Your Heart (EP)

Hell Comes to Your Heart EP is an EP released by Mondo Generator on April 10, 2011. It contains 4 songs serving as an upcoming teaser for the full length LP of the same name. "Dead Silence" "This Isn't Love" "The Way I Let You Down" "Smashed Apart" Nick Oliveri - Bass & Vocals Hoss Wright - Drums & Percussion Christopher Henry - Guitars Ian Flannon Taylor - Guitars Guitar Performances by Marc Diamond & Michael Hateley Additional Vocals "This Isn't Love" by Michele Madden Produced, Recorded & Mixed by Bradley Cook Lyrics by Nick Oliveri, Music by Oliveri & Hoss Natural Light Music BMI & Ultra Hoss Vibe Music ASCAP

The Broken Kingdom

"The Broken Kingdom" is the fourth episode of the fifth season of the American fantasy drama series Once Upon a Time, which aired on October 18, 2015. In this episode, Mary Margaret decides to take matters into her own hands when she fails to convince David about Lancelot's warning about King Arthur, Hook’s unwavering love for Emma provides a slight possibility of succeeding in her struggle against the unrelenting voice of Rumplestiltskin, while in Storybrooke, Emma unleashes a weapon to unleash Excalibur by using a brave soul to do the task. Back in Camelot's past, Guinevere sets out with Lancelot on a quest to locate the other half of Excalibur, as she begins to sense Arthur's obsession with making Excalibur whole. Merlin's tower is featured in the forest; the opening scene at Camelot takes place after "Nimue", several hundred years before the scenes with young Arthur and Guinevere. The Camelot scene with young Arthur and Guinevere, takes place hundreds of years after the opening scene, several years before the opening of "The Dark Swan".

The Camelot scene where King Arthur shows Excalibur to his subjects, takes place shortly after the opening scene of "The Dark Swan". The Camelot flashback scenes focusing on the hunt for the Dark One's Dagger, takes place 33 years before the events with the group from Storybrooke, three years before the casting of the Dark Curse, after the scene where Arthur shows Excalibur to his subjects; the Camelot events with the group from Storybrooke take place after "Siege Perilous", the episode places these event five years after the scenes focusing on the hunt for the dagger, meaning the time period is from the point of view of Camelot people and does not include the Dark Curse's duration. The Enchanted Forest flashback scenes at the Vault of the Dark One take place before "Heroes and Villains"; the Enchanted Forest flashback scenes at Granny's Diner take place after "The Dark Swan" and before "Dreamcatcher". The Storybrooke events take place after "Siege Perilous". In the early years before Camelot, we meet the stable boy who would become the once and future King, motivated to fulfill his prophecy of finding Excalibur at a early age, which he would follow through as an adult years when he pulled the sword out the stone.

While he proclaimed to his kingdom that he had found the entire sword, like Merlin, only spoke in half truths, as the King left out the part about the sword being split in half, after he shows a portion from the case. He tells Guinevere that he has studied the translations of the Camarthen Scroll, which contain the three elements: the star, the eye, the sun, but he can't decipher the clues. Arthur's quest to reunite Excalibur has led to his long running obsession to seek out the missing sword piece, which in turn leads to shutting Guinevere out of his life, which in turn leads to her turning to Lancelot, who plans a party for her and makes her feel loved, would stay behind to watch Guinevere as Arthur began his search for the missing dagger. With Arthur out on his mission and Guinevere decided to seek out the dagger themselves, by using Merlin’s gauntlet that leads the two to a magical passageway, located in the Vault of the Dark One. However, the passageway was a deadly trap, as the Dark One emerges as pure darkness, kills Lancelot, but he survives, after Guinevere uses a torch to repel the Darkness.

This would lead to a kiss between Guinevere. The two walk through the doorway and discover the Dagger, but couldn't grab it thanks to a protection spell placed on it by Rumplestiltskin, who in exchange for the gauntlet, offered the magical sands of Avalon, which can be used to fix anything that appears to be "broken" at their choosing. Despite Lancelot's warning not to accept it, Guinevere decided to accept the deal and goes back to Arthur. However, when she returns to Camelot, she is confronted by Arthur, who knew about her and Lancelot, threw the enchanted sand of Avalon on her, making his wife obedient with whatever he wanted, used more of the sand to create his Camelot empire. In the present universe of Camelot, King Arthur showed David the broken Excalibur after reading books on how to make it whole, when he asked David to help him find the other half, David realized where the portion of the dagger came from; as for the dagger itself Emma is being drawn to it with each passing day, but is repelled by a protection spell put in place by Regina.

The manifestation of Rumplestiltskin continues to consume Emma's mind to the point of her inadvertently nearly hurting Hook. The effects are starting a toll on Emma, prompting an intervention from Hook, Mary Margaret and Regina, but before they can come up with a solution, Mary Margaret asks David for a moment alone to talk to her husband, as expected, was to tell him about King Arthur. However, when she told him about Lancelot being alive and the message he gave her, David ended up defending Arthur, believing that he is being trustworthy. Mary Margaret on the other hand, believes David has become friends with Arthur because he misses the life he enjoyed back in the Enchanted Forest and that fulfilling it as a Knight in the Round Table will make him important again. David told Arthur they were going to restore Excalibur right this second and revealed that Emma was the Dark One and that Lancelot was back. David believed that he had brought the dagger to hand over, but Mary Margaret brought it to Lancelot to hide, who took her to the place that he and Guinevere had discovered.

Mary Margaret realized that she has been here before in a vision where Emma pulled her heart out and crushed it, but before they can carry out th