Newfoundland is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It has 29 percent of the province's land area; the island is separated from the Labrador Peninsula by the Strait of Belle Isle and from Cape Breton Island by the Cabot Strait. It blocks the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River, creating the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the world's largest estuary. Newfoundland's nearest neighbour is the French overseas community of Miquelon. With an area of 108,860 square kilometres, Newfoundland is the world's 16th-largest island, Canada's fourth-largest island, the largest Canadian island outside the North; the provincial capital, St. John's, is located on the southeastern coast of the island, it is common to consider all directly neighbouring islands such as New World, Twillingate and Bell Island to be'part of Newfoundland'. By that classification and its associated small islands have a total area of 111,390 square kilometres.
According to 2006 official Census Canada statistics, 57% of responding Newfoundland and Labradorians claim British or Irish ancestry, with 43.2% claiming at least one English parent, 21.5% at least one Irish parent, 7% at least one parent of Scottish origin. Additionally 6.1% claimed at least one parent of French ancestry. The island's total population as of the 2006 census was 479,105. Long settled by indigenous peoples of the Dorset culture, the island was visited by the Icelandic Viking Leif Eriksson in the 11th century, who called the new land "Vinland"; the next European visitors to Newfoundland were Portuguese, Spanish and English migratory fishermen. The island was visited by the Genoese navigator John Cabot, working under contract to King Henry VII of England on his expedition from Bristol in 1497. In 1501, Portuguese explorers Gaspar Corte-Real and his brother Miguel Corte-Real charted part of the coast of Newfoundland in a failed attempt to find the Northwest Passage. On August 5, 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert claimed Newfoundland as England's first overseas colony under Royal Charter of Queen Elizabeth I of England, thus establishing a forerunner to the much British Empire.
Newfoundland is considered Britain's oldest colony. At the time of English settlement, the Beothuk inhabited the island. L'Anse aux Meadows was a Norse settlement near the northernmost tip of Newfoundland, dated to be 1,000 years old; the site is considered the only undisputed evidence of Pre-Columbian contact between the Old and New Worlds, if the Norse-Inuit contact on Greenland is not counted. Point Rosee, in southwest Newfoundland, was thought to be a second Norse site until excavations in 2015 and 2016 found no evidence of any Norse presence; the island is a location of Vinland, mentioned in the Viking Chronicles, although this has been disputed. The indigenous people on the island at the time of European settlement were the Beothuk, who spoke an Amerindian language of the same name. Immigrants developed a variety of dialects associated with settlement on the island: Newfoundland English, Newfoundland French. In the 19th century, it had a dialect of Irish known as Newfoundland Irish. Scottish Gaelic was spoken on the island during the 19th and early 20th centuries in the Codroy Valley area, chiefly by settlers from Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia.
The Gaelic names reflected the association with fishing: in Scottish Gaelic, it was called Eilean a' Trosg, or "Island of the Cod". The Irish Gaelic name Talamh an Éisc means "Land of the Fish"; the first inhabitants of Newfoundland were the Paleo-Eskimo, who have no known link to other groups in Newfoundland history. Little is known about them beyond archeological evidence of early settlements. Evidence of successive cultures have been found; the Late Paleo-Eskimo, or Dorset culture, settled there about 4,000 years ago. They were descendants of migrations of ancient prehistoric peoples across the High Arctic thousands of years ago, after crossing from Siberia via the Bering land bridge; the Dorset abandoned the island prior to the arrival of the Norse. After this period, the Beothuk settled Newfoundland. There is no evidence. Scholars believe that the Beothuk are related to the Innu of Labrador; the tribe was declared "extinct" although people of partial Beothuk descent have been documented. The name Beothuk meant "people" in the Beothuk language, considered to be a member of the Algonquian language family although the lack of sufficient records means that it is not possible to confidently demonstrate such a connection.
The tribe is now said to be extinct, but evidence of its culture is preserved in museum and archaeological records. Shanawdithit, a woman, regarded as the last full-blood Beothuk, died in St. John's in 1829 of tuberculosis. However, Santu Toney, born around 1835 and died in 1910, was a woman of mixed Mi'kmaq and Beothuk descent which means that some Beothuk must have lived on beyond 1829, her father was a mother a Mi ` kmaq, both from Newfoundland. The Beothuk may have assimilated with Innu in Labrador and Mi ` kmaq in Newfoundland. Oral histories suggest potential historical competition and hostility between the B
François André Michaux
François André Michaux was a French botanist, son of André Michaux and the namesake of Michaux State Forest in Pennsylvania. Michaux père botanized in North America for nearly a dozen years as royal collector for France. Michaux accompanied his father to the United States, his Histoire des arbres forestiers de l'Amérique septentrionale contains the results of his explorations, giving an account of the distribution and the scientific classification of the principal American timber trees north of Mexico and east of the Rocky Mountains. Michaux trekked the Allegheny Mountains in 1789 when trans-Allegheny travel was limited to indigenous peoples' trails and one military trail, Braddock Road, built in 1751, he travelled with botanist John Fraser to the summit of the Great Roan. Under the title The North American Sylva Michaux's work was translated by Augustus Lucas Hillhouse; the work was reissued in 1852 by Robert Smith of Philadelphia, again in three quarto volumes, again with 156 hand colored lithographs of American trees and shrubs.
A supplement of three additional volumes, trees, "...not Described in the Work of F. Andrew Michaux" was issued by Smith in 1853, in the same quarto format and with 121 additional hand colored plates; the work, by Thomas Nuttall, describes trees of the Rockies and Pacific Coast. François André Michaux published this monumental work first in French and in English translation, between 1811 and 1819. With illustrations by Pierre-Joseph Redouté and Pancrace Bessa, two masters of botanical art, his opus became a landmark in American literature and the foundation of American forestry, his work was augmented by the British botanist, Thomas Nuttall, whose work added 121 hand-colored plates to the 156 published with Michaux's Sylva. His additions cover eastern species overlooked by Michaux, new species that he had gathered on his excursions in the Midwest and West. Downing, Andrew Jackson; the Horticulturist, Journal of rural art and rural taste. Published by Luther Tucker. P. 499. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C..
"François André Michaux". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Media related to The North American Sylva at Wikimedia Commons North American sylva - digital facsimiles from Linda Hall Library
In botany, the petiole is the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem. Outgrowths appearing on each side of the petiole in some species are called stipules. Leaves lacking a petiole are called epetiolate; the petiole is a stalk. In petiolate leaves, the leaf stalk may be long, as in the leaves of celery and rhubarb, short or absent, in which case the blade attaches directly to the stem and is said to be sessile. Subpetiolate leaves are nearly petiolate, or have an short petiole, may appear sessile; the broomrape family Orobanchaceae is an example of a family. In some other plant groups, such as the speedwell genus Veronica and sessile leaves may occur in different species. In the grasses the leaves are apetiolate, but the leaf blade may be narrowed at the junction with the leaf sheath to form a pseudopetiole, as in Pseudosasa japonica. In plants with compound leaves, the leaflets are attached to a continuation of the petiole called the rachis; each leaflet may be attached to the rachis by a short stalk called the petiolule.
There may be swollen regions at either end of the petiole known as pulvina that are composed of a flexible tissue that allows leaf movement. Pulvina are common in the prayer plant family Marantaceae. A pulvinus on a petiolule is called a pulvinulus. In some plants, the petioles are flattened and widened, to become phyllodes or phyllodia, or cladophylls and the true leaves may be reduced or absent. Thus, the phyllode comes to serve the functions of the leaf. Phyllodes are common in the genus Acacia the Australian species, at one time put in Acacia subgenus Phyllodineae. In Acacia koa, the phyllodes are leathery and thick, allowing the tree to survive stressful environments; the petiole allows submerged hydrophytes to have leaves floating at different depths, the petiole being between the node and the stem. In plants such as rhubarb, celery and cardoons the petioles are cultivated as edible crops; the petiole of rhubarb produces the leaf at its end. Botanically it is culinarily used as a fruit. Petiole comes from Latin petiolus, or peciolus "little foot", "stem", an alternative diminutive of pes "foot".
The regular diminutive pediculus is used for "foot stalk". Hyponastic response Pedicel "Petiole". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves in the autumn. The term deciduous means "the dropping of a part, no longer needed" and the "falling away after its purpose is finished". In plants, it is the result of natural processes. "Deciduous" has a similar meaning when referring to animal parts, such as deciduous antlers in deer, deciduous teeth in some mammals. Wood from deciduous trees is used in a variety of ways in several industries including lumber for furniture and flooring, bowling pins and baseball bats and furniture, cabinets and paneling. In botany and horticulture, deciduous plants, including trees and herbaceous perennials, are those that lose all of their leaves for part of the year; this process is called abscission. In some cases leaf loss coincides with winter -- namely in polar climates. In other parts of the world, including tropical and arid regions, plants lose their leaves during the dry season or other seasons, depending on variations in rainfall.
The converse of deciduous is evergreen, where foliage is shed on a different schedule from deciduous trees, therefore appearing to remain green year round. Plants that are intermediate may be called semi-deciduous. Other plants are semi-evergreen and lose their leaves before the next growing season, retaining some during winter or dry periods; some trees, including a few species of oak, have desiccated leaves that remain on the tree through winter. Many deciduous plants flower during the period when they are leafless, as this increases the effectiveness of pollination; the absence of leaves improves wind transmission of pollen for wind-pollinated plants and increases the visibility of the flowers to insects in insect-pollinated plants. This strategy is not without risks, as the flowers can be damaged by frost or, in dry season regions, result in water stress on the plant. There is much less branch and trunk breakage from glaze ice storms when leafless, plants can reduce water loss due to the reduction in availability of liquid water during cold winter days.
Leaf drop or abscission involves complex physiological changes within plants. The process of photosynthesis degrades the supply of chlorophylls in foliage; when autumn arrives and the days are shorter or when plants are drought-stressed, deciduous trees decrease chlorophyll pigment production, allowing other pigments present in the leaf to become apparent, resulting in non-green colored foliage. The brightest leaf colors are produced when days grow short and nights are cool, but remain above freezing; these other pigments include carotenoids that are yellow and orange. Anthocyanin pigments produce red and purple colors, though they are not always present in the leaves. Rather, they are produced in the foliage in late summer, when sugars are trapped in the leaves after the process of abscission begins. Parts of the world that have showy displays of bright autumn colors are limited to locations where days become short and nights are cool. In other parts of the world, the leaves of deciduous trees fall off without turning the bright colors produced from the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments.
The beginnings of leaf drop starts when an abscission layer is formed between the leaf petiole and the stem. This layer is formed in the spring during active new growth of the leaf; the cells are sensitive to a plant hormone called auxin, produced by the leaf and other parts of the plant. When auxin coming from the leaf is produced at a rate consistent with that from the body of the plant, the cells of the abscission layer remain connected; the elongation of these cells break the connection between the different cell layers, allowing the leaf to break away from the plant. It forms a layer that seals the break, so the plant does not lose sap. A number of deciduous plants remove nitrogen and carbon from the foliage before they are shed and store them in the form of proteins in the vacuoles of parenchyma cells in the roots and the inner bark. In the spring, these proteins are used as a nitrogen source during the growth of new leaves or flowers. Plants with deciduous foliage have advantages and disadvantages compared to plants with evergreen foliage.
Since deciduous plants lose their leaves to conserve water or to better survive winter weather conditions, they must regrow new foliage during the next suitable growing season. Evergreens suffer greater water loss during the winter and they can experience greater predation pressure when small. Losing leaves in winter may reduce damage from insects. Removing leaves reduces cavitation which can damage xylem vessels in plants; this allows deciduous plants to have xylem vessels with larger diameters and therefore a greater rate of transpiration during the summer growth period
A lenticel is a porous tissue consisting of cells with large intercellular spaces in the periderm of the secondarily thickened organs and the bark of woody stems and roots of dicotyledonous flowering plants. It functions as a pore, providing a pathway for the direct exchange of gases between the internal tissues and atmosphere through the bark, otherwise impermeable to gases; the name lenticel, pronounced with an, derives from its lenticular shape. The shape of lenticels is one of the characteristics used for tree identification. Before there was much evidence for the existence and functionality of lenticels, the fossil record has shown the first primary mechanism of aeration in early vascular plants to be the stomata. However, if there are internal stresses present, stomatal tissue expansion or damage can result. Woody plants, with cork cambia activity, are prime candidates for the latter; this necessity of aeration structures that combated stomatal damage in the presence of the secondary tissues of these woody plants is where lenticels are believed to have evolved.
The extinct arboreal plants of the genera Lepidodendron and Sigillaria were the first to have distinct aeration structures that rendered these modifications. "Parichnoi" are canal-like structures that, in association with foliar traces of the stem, connected the stem's outer and middle cortex to the mesophyll of the leaf. Parichnoi were thought to give rise to lenticels as they helped solve the issue of long-range oxygen transport in these woody plants during the Carboniferous period, they evolved to acquire secondary connections as they evolved to become transversely elongated to efficiently aerate the maximum number of vertical rays as well as the central core tissue of the stem. The evolutionary significance of these parichnoi was their functionality in the absence of cauline stomata, where they can be affected and destroyed by pressure similar to what can damage to stomatal tissue. Evidently, in both conifers and Lepidodendroids, the parichnoi, as the primary lenticular structure, appear as paired structures on either side of leaf scars.
The development and increase in the number of these primitive lenticels were key to providing a system, open for aeration and gas exchange in these plants. In plant bodies that produce secondary growth, lenticels promote gas exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor. Lenticel formation begins beneath stomatal complexes during primary growth preceding the development of the first periderm; the formation of lenticels seem to be directly related to the growth and strength of the shoot and on the hydrose of the tissue, which refers to the internal moisture. As stems and roots mature lenticel development continues in the new periderm. Lenticels are found as raised circular, elongated areas on stems and roots. In woody plants, lenticels appear as rough, cork-like structures on young branches. Underneath them, porous tissue creates a number of large intercellular spaces between cells; this tissue fills the lenticel and arises from cell division in the phellogen or substomatal ground tissue. Discoloration of lenticels may occur, such as in mangoes, that may be due to the amount of lignin in cell walls.
In oxygen deprived conditions, making respiration a daily challenge, different species may possess specialized structures where lenticels can be found. For example, in a common mangrove species, lenticels appear on pneumatophores, where the parenchyma cells that connect to the aerenchyma structure increase in size and go through cell division. In contrast, lenticels in grapes are located on act as a function of temperature. If they are blocked and successive ethanol accumulation may result and lead to cell death. Lenticels are present on many fruits, quite noticeably on many apples and pears. On European pears, they can serve as an indicator of when to pick the fruit, as light lenticels on the immature fruit darken and become brown and shallow from the formation of cork cells Certain bacterial and fungal infections can penetrate fruits through their lenticels, with susceptibility sometimes increasing with its age; as mentioned the term lenticel is associated with the breakage of periderm tissue, associated with gas exchange.
"Lenticel" seems to be the most appropriate term to describe both structures mentioned in light of their similar function in gas exchange. Pome lenticels can be derived from no longer functioning stomata, epidermal breaks from the removal of trichomes, other epidermal breaks that occur in the early development of young pome fruits; the closing of pome lenticels can arise when the cuticle over the stomata opening or the substomatal layer seals. Closing can begin if the substomatal cells become suberized, like cork; the number of lenticels varies between the species of apples, where the range may be from 450 to 800 or from 1500 to 2500 in Winesap and Spitzenburg apples, respectively. This wide range may be due to the water availability during the early stages of development of each apple type.“Lenticel breakdown” is a global skin disorder of apples in which lenticels develop dark 1–8 mm diameter pits shortly after processing and packing. It is most common on the ‘Gala’ variety the ‘Royal Gala’, occurs in ‘Fuji’, ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Delicious’ varieties.
It is more common in arid regions, is thought to be related to relative humidity and temperature. The effect can be mitigated by spraying the fruit with lipo
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Litterfall, plant litter, leaf litter, tree litter, soil litter, or duff, is dead plant material that have fallen to the ground. This detritus or dead organic material and its constituent nutrients are added to the top layer of soil known as the litter layer or O horizon. Litter has occupied the attention of ecologists at length for the reasons that it is an instrumental factor in ecosystem dynamics, it is indicative of ecological productivity, may be useful in predicting regional nutrient cycling and soil fertility. Litterfall is characterized as fresh and recognizable plant debris; this can be anything from leaves, needles, bark, seeds/nuts, logs, or reproductive organs. Items larger than 2 cm diameter are referred to as coarse litter, while anything smaller is referred to as fine litter or litter; the type of litterfall is most directly affected by ecosystem type. For example, leaf tissues account for about 70 percent of litterfall in forests, but woody litter tends to increase with forest age.
In grasslands, there is little aboveground perennial tissue so the annual litterfall is low and quite nearly equal to the net primary production. In soil science, soil litter is classified in three layers, which form on the surface of the O Horizon; these are the L, F, H layers: The litter layer is quite variable in its thickness, decomposition rate and nutrient content and is affected in part by seasonality, plant species, soil fertility and latitude. The most extreme variability of litterfall is seen as a function of seasonality. In tropical environments, the largest amount of debris falls in the latter part of dry seasons and early during wet season; as a result of this variability due to seasons, the decomposition rate for any given area will be variable. Latitude has a strong effect on litterfall rates and thickness. Litterfall declines with increasing latitude. In tropical rainforests, there is a thin litter layer due to the rapid decomposition, while in boreal forests, the rate of decomposition is slower and leads to the accumulation of a thick litter layer known as a mor.
Net primary production works inversely to this trend, suggesting that the accumulation of organic matter is a result of decomposition rate. Surface detritus facilitates the infiltration of rainwater into lower soil layers. Soil litter protects soil aggregates from raindrop impact, preventing the release of clay and silt particles from plugging soil pores. Releasing clay and silt particles reduces the capacity for soil to absorb water and increases cross surface flow, accelerating soil erosion. In addition soil litter reduces wind erosion by preventing soil from losing moisture and providing cover preventing soil transportation. Organic matter accumulation helps protect soils from wildfire damage. Soil litter can be removed depending on intensity and severity of wildfires and season. Regions with high frequency wildfires have reduced vegetation density and reduced soil litter accumulation. Climate influences the depth of plant litter. Humid tropical and sub-tropical climates have reduced organic matter layers and horizons due to year round decomposition and high vegetation density and growth.
In temperate and cold climates, litter tends to accuculate and decompose slower due to a shorter growing season. Net primary production and litterfall are intimately connected. In every terrestrial ecosystem, the largest fraction of all net primary production is lost to herbivores and litterfall. Due to their interconnectedness, global patterns of litterfall are similar to global patterns of net primary productivity. Litter provides habitat for a variety of organisms. Certain plants are specially adapted for thriving in the litter layers. For example, bluebell shoots puncture the layer to emerge in spring; some plants with rhizomes, such as common wood sorrel do well in this habitat. Many organisms that live on the forest floor are decomposers, such as fungi. Organisms whose diet consists of plant detritus, such as earthworms, are termed detritivores; the community of decomposers in the litter layer includes bacteria, nematodes, tardigrades, cryptostigmata, insect larvae, oribatid mites and millipedes.
Their consumption of the litterfall results in the breakdown of simple carbon compounds into carbon dioxide and water, releases inorganic ions into the soil where the surrounding plants can reabsorb the nutrients that were shed as litterfall. In this way, litterfall becomes an important part of the nutrient cycle that sustains forest environments; as litter decomposes, nutrients are released into the environment. The portion of the litter, not decomposable is known as humus. Litter aids in soil moisture retention by cooling the ground surface and holding moisture in decaying organic matter; the flora and fauna working to decompose soil litter aid in soil respiration. A litter layer of decomposing biomass provides a continuous energy source for macro- and micro-organisms. Numerous reptiles, amphibians and some mammals rely on litter for shelter and forage. Amphibians such as salamanders and caecilians inhabit the damp microclimate underneath fallen leaves for part or all of their life cycle. Thi