In many countries, Kilometre Zero or similar terms in other languages is a particular location from which distances are traditionally measured. They were markers where drivers could set their odometers to follow the directions in early guide books. One such marker is the Milliarium Aureum of the Roman Empire, believed to be the literal origin for the maxim that "all roads lead to Rome". Argentina marks Kilometre Zero with a monolith in Plaza Congreso in Buenos Aires; the work of the brothers Máximo and José Fioravanti, the structure was placed on the north side of Plaza Lorea on October 2, 1935. An image of Our Lady of Luján appears on the monolith's north face, a relief map of Argentina is on the south face, plaques in honor of José de San Martín are west, on its eastern side, the date of the decree and the name of the relevant authorities. Highways in Australia are built and maintained by the states and territories. In the state of New South Wales, highway distances were traditionally measured from a sandstone obelisk in Macquarie Place in Sydney, designed by Francis Greenway in 1818.
The obelisk lists the distances to various locations in New South Wales at the time. For the railway, it is located at platform 1 of Sydney Central Station; the General Post Office building in Melbourne traditionally serves this purpose in Victoria. In Western Australia, road distances are measured from Point Zero, by the old Treasury Building on the corner of Cathedral Avenue and St George's Terrace in Perth; the Byzantine Empire had an arched building, the Milion of Constantinople, as the starting-place for the measurement of distances for all the roads leading to the other cities. In the 1960s, some fragments were discovered and erected in its original location, now in the district of Eminönü, Turkey; the kilometre zero marker of the eastern origin of the Trans-Canada Highway is located in St. John's, Newfoundland. Coordinates: 47°33′39.78″N 52°42′44.33″W Altitude: 14.02 m The western origin of the Trans-Canada Highway in Victoria, British Columbia, is located on the southern end of Vancouver Island.
Mile zero of the Trans Canada Trail is located adjacent to the Railway Coastal Museum in St. John's, Newfoundland. Coordinates: 47°33′14.0″N 52°42′50.5″W Altitude: 4.5 m Mile zero for the Alaska Highway is located in Dawson Creek, British Columbia. All national distances from Santiago originate at the Km. 0 plaque, located at the Plaza de Armas main square in downtown Santiago. Chile's Autopista Central – Eje Norte-Sur has its Kilometre Zero at the intersection with the Alameda del Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins, the capital's main avenue. China Railway's 0 km is located at the entrance to the Fengtai Yard on the Jingguang Line just outside Beijing; this point was the start of the line. There is no ceremonial plaque; the kilometre zero point for highways is located at Tiananmen Square, just outside the Zhengyangmen Gate. It is marked with a plaque in the ground, with the four cardinal points, four animals, "Zero Point of Highways, China" in English and Chinese. Cuba's Kilometre Zero is located in its capital Havana in El Capitolio.
Embedded in the floor in the centre of the main hall is a replica 25 carat diamond, which marks Kilometre Zero for Cuba. The original diamond, said to have belonged to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and have been sold to the Cuban state by a Turkish merchant, was stolen on 25 March 1946 and mysteriously returned to the President, Ramón Grau San Martín, on 2 June 1946, it was replaced in El Capitolio by a replica in 1973. Copenhagen Town hall square is the zero point. DR-1, DR-2, DR-3 all depart from Kilometre Zero from Santo Domingo's Parque de Independencia. Kilometre Zero in Egypt is located at the Attaba Square Post Office in 1st of Abdel Khaliq Sarwat Pasha Street, Cairo. Kilometre Zero in Ethiopia is in Addis Ababa, in front of St. George's Cathedral; the point was designated by Emperor Haile Selassie in 1930. Kilometre Zero of Finland is located at the Erottaja square in central Helsinki. Kilometre Zero of French national highways located in Paris on the square facing the main entrance of Notre-Dame is considered the official centre of Paris.
48.8534°N 2.3488°E / 48.8534. 52.510788°N 13.398964°E / 52.510788. Distances from London to most parts of the country are measured in miles from the original site of Charing Cross, on the southern side of Trafalgar Square. In Scotland, distances from Edinburgh are measured from the GPO building in Princes Street. See also: London Stone, Hicks Hall, St Mary-le-Bow, a church from which the distance of the original London to Lewes road is measured. In ancient Greece, distances were measured from the altar of twelve gods, located in the ancient agora of Athens. So, that altar can be considered the first kilometre zero in human history. Nowadays, the kilometre zero for Greek high
Fox News is an American pay television news channel. It is owned by the Fox News Group, which itself was owned by News Corporation from 1996–2013, 21st Century Fox from 2013–2019, Fox Corporation since 2019; the channel broadcasts from studios at 1211 Avenue of the Americas in New York City. Fox News is provided in 86 countries or overseas territories worldwide, with international broadcasts featuring Fox Extra segments during ad breaks; the channel was created by Australian-American media mogul Rupert Murdoch to appeal to a conservative audience, hiring former Republican Party media consultant and CNBC executive Roger Ailes as its founding CEO. It launched on October 1996, to 17 million cable subscribers. Fox News grew during the late 1990s and 2000s to become the dominant subscription news network in the US; as of February 2015 94,700,000 US households receive Fox News. Murdoch is the current executive chairman and Suzanne Scott is the CEO. Fox News has been described as practicing biased reporting in favor of the Republican Party, the George W. Bush and Donald Trump administrations and conservative causes while slandering the Democratic Party and spreading harmful propaganda intended to negatively affect its members' electoral performances.
Critics have cited the channel as detrimental to the integrity of news overall. Fox News employees have said that news reporting operates independently of its opinion and commentary programming, have denied bias in news reporting, while former employees have said that Fox ordered them to "slant the news in favor of conservatives." In May 1985, Australian publisher Rupert Murdoch announced he and American industrialist and philanthropist Marvin Davis intended to develop "a network of independent stations as a fourth marketing force" to compete directly with CBS, NBC, ABC through the purchase of six television stations owned by Metromedia. In July 1985, 20th Century Fox announced Murdoch had completed his purchase of 50% of Fox Filmed Entertainment, the parent company of 20th Century Fox Film Corporation. A year 20th Century Fox earned $5.6 million in its fiscal third period ended May 31, 1986, in contrast to a loss of $55.8 million in the third period of the previous year. Subsequently, prior to founding FNC, Murdoch had gained experience in the 24-hour news business when News Corporation's BSkyB subsidiary began Europe's first 24-hour news channel in the United Kingdom in 1989.
With the success of his fourth network efforts in the United States, experience gained from Sky News and the turnaround of 20th Century Fox, Murdoch announced on January 31, 1996, that News Corp. would launch a 24-hour news channel on cable and satellite systems in the United States as part of a News Corp. "worldwide platform" for Fox programming: "The appetite for news – news that explains to people how it affects them – is expanding enormously". In February 1996, after former U. S. Republican Party political strategist and NBC executive Roger Ailes left cable television channel America's Talking, Murdoch asked him to start Fox News Channel. Ailes demanded five months of 14-hour workdays and several weeks of rehearsal shows before its launch on October 7, 1996. At its debut 17 million households were able to watch FNC. Rolling news coverage during the day consisted of 20-minute single-topic shows such as Fox on Crime or Fox on Politics, surrounded by news headlines. Interviews featured facts at the bottom of the screen about the guest.
The flagship newscast at the time was The Schneider Report, with Mike Schneider's fast-paced delivery of the news. During the evening, Fox featured opinion shows: The O'Reilly Report, The Crier Report and Hannity & Colmes. From the beginning, FNC has placed heavy emphasis on visual presentation. Graphics were designed to gain attention. Fox News created the "Fox News Alert", which interrupted its regular programming when a breaking news story occurred. To accelerate its adoption by cable providers, Fox News paid systems up to $11 per subscriber to distribute the channel; this contrasted with the normal practice, in which cable operators paid stations carriage fees for programming. When Time Warner bought Ted Turner's Turner Broadcasting System, a federal antitrust consent decree required Time Warner to carry a second all-news channel in addition to its own CNN on its cable systems. Time Warner selected MSNBC as the secondary news channel, not Fox News. Fox News claimed. Citing its agreement to keep its U.
S. headquarters and a large studio in New York City, News Corporation enlisted the help of Mayor Rudolph Giuliani's administration to pressure Time Warner Cable to transmit Fox News on a city-owned channel. City officials threatened to take action affecting Time Warner's cable franchises in the city. During the September 11, 2001 attacks, Fox News was the first news organization to run a news ticker on the bottom of the screen to keep up with the flow of information that day; the ticker has remained, informing viewers about additional news which reporters may not mention on-screen and repeating news mentioned during a broadcast. FNC maintains an archive of most of its programs; this archive includes Fox Movietone newsreels. Licensing for the Fox N
Rehavam "Gandhi" Ze'evi was an Israeli general and politician who founded the right-wing nationalist Moledet party advocating population transfer. He was assassinated by Hamdi Quran of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine in retaliation for Israel's assassination of Abu Ali Mustafa, the Secretary General of the PFLP. Ze'evi was born on 20 June 1926 in Jerusalem to a religious Jewish family from the Yemin Moshe neighborhood that had lived in Jerusalem for six generations, raised on a collective farm, he joined the Palmach in 1942, served in the Israel Defense Forces after the creation of the State of Israel. During his youth, Ze'evi went to school in Givat HaShlosha. One night he wrapped a towel round his waist and entered the food hall; the shaved head and towel around his waist was similar to Mohandas Gandhi earned him Gandhi as his nickname, which stuck with him for the rest of his life. The nickname is attributed to a long Arab dress he wore during his underground days in Palmach.
Ze'evi had five children, Sayar, Tze'ela and Arava. Palmach is a member of Moledet and competed with Binyamin Elon for the party's leadership. In 1948, Rehavam Ze'evi was a platoon commander in the IDF. In 1964–1968, he served as Chief of the Department of Staff in the Israeli General Staff. In the late 1960s, Ze'evi formed the elite Sayeret Kharuv, an anti-terror battalion, at the time when IDF Chief of Staff Haim Bar-Lev had begun to focus manpower and budget on armoured tank units, resulting in huge cutbacks in infantry forces. Over the next five years he served as the Commander of the Central Military District, he retired in September 1973, but rejoined the army when the Yom Kippur War broke out on 6 October 1973. A close friend of IDF Chief of Staff David Elazar, he was appointed Special Assistant to the Chief of Staff, he retired with the rank of major-general in 1974. Ze'evi, known for his concern for Israel's captured or missing soldiers, wore a military identity disc with their names on his neck.
It was revealed in 2004 that Ze'evi had been chosen to be responsible for the building of the armed forces of Singapore at a time when he was deputy head of the Operations Branch in IDF. After a secret visit in 1965, he appointed Colonel Yaakov Elazari to be head of the team of secret military delegation, along with Lieutenant Colonel Yehuda Golan and other IDF officers to train and build up Singapore Armed Forces, they were nicknamed "Mexicans" during their stay in Singapore. In 1974, Ze'evi became Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin's consultant on combating terrorism; the following year he became the prime minister's adviser on matters of intelligence. Ze'evi resigned from this position in 1977. In 1988, Ze'evi established the Moledet party advocating the population transfer of Arabs from the West Bank and the Gaza Strip to the neighboring Arab countries. After the Madrid Conference of 1991, Ze'evi withdrew from the Likud government of Yitzhak Shamir, remaining in the opposition for a decade, he disagreed with the Labour governments of 1992–1996 and 1999–2001, however, he looked favourably on the Netanyahu government of 1996–1999 and supported it from the outside.
In 1999, Moledet united with Herut – The National Movement and Tkuma into a single faction – the National Union. Following the election of Ariel Sharon in February 2001, Ze'evi joined the coalition and was appointed Tourism Minister of Israel. Just two days before his killing he tendered his resignation from the post of tourism minister. In 1981, Ze'evi was appointed director of what was the Israel Museum in Tel Aviv and got its name changed to the Eretz Israel Museum – the change having political connotations, given the associations with Eretz Israel. In 1987, he co-edited a series of books describing various aspects of the Land of Israel, based on artifacts from the museum. Ze'evi was famous for having one of the largest collection of books about its history. Ze'evi was shot in the Dan Jerusalem Hotel called at the time, the Jerusalem Hyatt Hotel, in Mount Scopus on 17 October 2001 by four Palestinian gunmen, he was taken to the Hadassah Medical Center hospital. He was buried in the military cemetery in Mount Herzl in Jerusalem.
The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine took credit for the killing and stated that it was in revenge for the assassination of their secretary-general Abu Ali Mustafa, killed by Israel in August that year. Israel alleges. Thousands took part in his funeral; the four gunmen, Hamdi Quran, Basel al-Asmar, Majdi Rahima Rimawi, Ahad Olma, fled to the Palestinian National Authority. Israel placed Yasser Arafat under siege in the Ramallah compound to force the handing over of the suspects. In April 2002 the US brokered a plan; the four killers were arrested together with the head of Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Ahmad Sa'adat. They were guarded by American and British forces. On 14 March 2006, the American and British guards left the jail, charging that the Palestinian Authority was not adhering to the agreement reached with Israel. Israel launched Operation Bringing Home the Goods, in which it raided the Jericho prison and seized the five. In December 2007, Hamdi Quran confessed in an Israeli court to assassinating Ze'evi together with Basel al-Asmar after being instructed by PFLP member Majdi Rahima Rimawi.
He was sentenced to life imprisonment. In August 2007, Basel al-Asmar was con
The Anti-Defamation League is an international Jewish non-governmental organization based in the United States. The ADL states that its mission is to " anti-Semitism and all forms of bigotry, democratic ideals, civil rights for all", doing so through "information, education and advocacy". Founded in late September 1913 by the Independent Order of B'nai B'rith, a Jewish service organization in the United States, its original mission statement was "to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people." The ADL has stated that its primary purpose is "to secure justice and fair treatment to all citizens alike, to put an end forever to unjust and unfair discrimination against and ridicule of any sect or body of citizens." The ADL has 29 offices in the United States and three offices in other countries, with its headquarters located in New York City. Abraham Foxman was the national director from 1987 for more than a quarter century.
In November 2014, it was announced that Jonathan Greenblatt would succeed Foxman as national director in July 2015. The national chair is Barry Curtiss-Lusher; the ADL has faced criticism for its support for Israel, charges of defamation, spying allegations, its former stance on the Armenian Genocide, possible conflation of opposition to Israel with antisemitism. Founded in late September 1913 by B'nai B'rith, with Sigmund Livingston as its first leader, the ADL's charter states, The immediate object of the League is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people, its ultimate purpose is to secure justice and fair treatment to all citizens alike and to put an end forever to unjust and unfair discrimination against and ridicule of any sect or body of citizens. The Anti-Defamation League was founded by B'nai B'rith as a response to attacks on Jews; the stated purpose of the ADL is to fight: anti-Semitism and all forms of bigotry and abroad, combat international terrorism, probe the roots of hatred, advocate before the United States Congress, come to the aid of victims of bigotry, develop educational programs, serve as a public resource for government, law enforcement, the public, all towards the goal of countering and reducing hatred.
The ADL has opposed groups and individuals it considered to be anti-Semitic and/or racist, including: Nazis, the Ku Klux Klan, Henry Ford, Father Charles Coughlin, the Christian Identity movement, the German-American Bund, neo-Nazis, the American militia movement and white power skinheads. The ADL publishes reports on a variety of countries, regarding alleged incidents of anti-Jewish attacks and propaganda; the ADL maintains that some forms of anti-Zionism and criticism of Israel cross the line into anti-Semitism. The Anti-Defamation League states: Criticism of particular Israeli actions or policies in and of itself does not constitute anti-Semitism; the sovereign State of Israel can be legitimately criticized just like any other country in the world. However, it is undeniable that there are those whose criticism of Israel or of "Zionism" is used to mask anti-Semitism. Since 2010, the ADL has published a list of the "ten leading organizations responsible for maligning Israel in the US", which has included ANSWER, the International Solidarity Movement, Jewish Voice for Peace for its call for BDS.
One of the ADL's major focuses is religious freedom for people of all faiths. In the context of public schools, the ADL has taken the position that because creationism and intelligent design are religious beliefs, the government is prohibited from endorsing the beliefs of any particular religion, they should not be taught in science classrooms: "The U. S. Constitution guarantees the rights of Americans to believe the religious theories of creation, but it does not permit them to be taught in public school science classes." The ADL supports the legal precedent that it is unconstitutional for the government to post the Ten Commandments in courthouses and other public places: "True religious liberty means freedom from having the government impose the religion of the majority on all citizens." The ADL has condemned the public school Bible curriculum published by the National Council on Bible Curriculum in Public Schools, saying that it raises "serious constitutional problems" and "advocates the acceptance of one faith tradition's interpretation of the Bible over another".
The ADL supported the Matthew Shepard Act. The ADL keeps track of the activities of various extremist movements. According to ADL Director Abe Foxman, "Our mission is to monitor and expose those who are anti-Jewish, anti-democratic, violence-prone, we monitor them by reading publications and attending public meetings …; because extremist organizations are secretive, sometimes ADL can learn of their activities only by using undercover sources … function in a manner directly analogous to investigative journalists. Some have performed great service to the American people—for example, by uncovering the existence of right-wing extremist paramilitary training camps—with no recognition and at considerable personal risk." A person apprehended in connection to the 2002 white supremacist terror plot had drawn a cartoon of himself blowing up the Boston offices of the ADL. The ADL releases reports on anti-Semitism and extremist act
Transilien is the SNCF Mobilités suburban rail network serving Ile-de-France train stations. "Transilien" is a derivative of the demonym for people living in Île-de-France. The area covered does not correspond with the administrative boundaries of the region: the trains serve several stations located in Normandy, in the Hauts-de-France and in the Centre-Val de Loire regions. On the other hand, some stations located at the margins of the region are not served by the network, but only by regional express trains from neighboring regions. Transilien is the heir to suburban trains. Transilien operates jointly with RATP the first two lines of the regional express network of Île-de-France: line A and line B. Transilien operates the other three lines of this network: line C, the line D and line E; the regional express network of Île-de-France crosses right through the Paris basement. This network includes ten other "Transilien" non-RER lines, which leave and end in the major Parisian stations, at the exception of line U linking the Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines urban area to the La Défense business district, tramway line 4 linking the Aulnay-sous-Bois and Bondy railway stations, tramway line 11 Express which connects, for now, the Épinay-sur-Seine and Bourget train stations.
"Transilien", like "TER" or "TGV", is a trademark owned by SNCF Mobilités. Created on September 20, 1999, it is directed since 2014 by Alain Krakovitch, it applies to passenger trains and stations managed by SNCF Mobilités' "Île-de-France" department. As a result, railway lines operated by RATP are not part of Transilien; the rail network, owned by SNCF Réseau, is used by mainline passenger trains, including TGV and Intercités, by other transport operators and freight trains. The first line of the suburbs of Paris is open August 1837 between Paris and Saint-Germain; this line was handed over to the RATP on 1 October 1972. Its immediate success led to the creation of numerous lines intended to link the main cities of France. Suburban service has long been marginal for large companies, with the exception of the West, where several short lines crossing residential areas are seeing their local traffic increase sharply; the creation of workers subscriptions marked a sharp increase in traffic, the beginnings of massive urbanization of the Paris periphery, with the phenomenon of migrant workers.
The housing cost's increase as a result of major Haussmann works and the hygienic conditions inside Paris prompted workers and employees working in the capital to live in the rural suburbs. The suburban trains allowed them and still allow them to rally their jobs inside the Île-de-France; the successive topographic maps of the French IGN show the urbanization of the Parisian suburbs over the decades near the stations of the suburban lines. In the region south of the capital, these lines follow the bottom of the valleys because the steam traction did not support the steep gradients: the urbanization of the trays takes place with the advent of the automobile for the general public during the second half of the 20th century; the automobiles allows either to go directly to work, or to live at a distance from the station, where the land prices and rents are lower than in the immediate vicinity of the stations. Geographers sometimes use pictured expressions to describe these two periods: the urbanization is done in "fingers of glove" along the lines of suburban trains in "spot of oil" with the car that allows to live a little further from the station.
In 1938, the new SNCF exploited the disparate lines and materials bequeathed by the big companies. If the West seems to be favored, with its electrified lines and powerful self-propelled equipment, the remaining of the network was still far from these standards. During the Second World War, the traffic is disorganized and drastically limited. Bombings destroyed parts of the rolling stock; the transport conditions are tedious, remains so for several years after the end of the conflict, a period when many works had to be rebuilt. The bad memory of these difficult years, the individual transports' multiplication reduced the traffic, with regression from 1946 to 1958, an worse situation between 1952 and 1958. From 1959 to 1969, major electrification began the gradual modernization of the rail network, with the final disappearance of steam traction in the suburbs in 1970; the proliferation of automobile congestion combined with the modernization of the network led to the return of traffic. From 1969 to 1988, the creation of the RER caused a radical change in the image of rail transport.
RER Line A experienced a spectacular increase in traffic, which leads to a saturation point in less than ten years. On 1 September 1999, the first class is removed on all trains in the commuter network, as well as on the RER. At the time, it represented only 1% of travelers. First class had been removed on the Paris metro in 1991. However, despite the numerous investments made over the past three decades, the suburban network suffered from a poor public image, but from decision-makers and local authorities. While the RATP benefited from the image of the RER, associated with it, an aura of modernity and innovation with a visible logo, the SNCF network reminded people of the subu
The Associated Press is a U. S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a unincorporated association, its members are U. S. newspapers and broadcasters. Its Statement of News Values and Principles spells out its practices; the AP has earned 52 Pulitzer Prizes, including 31 for photography, since the award was established in 1917. The AP has counted the vote in U. S. elections since 1848, including national and local races down to the legislative level in all 50 states, along with key ballot measures. AP collects and verifies returns in every county, parish and town across the U. S. and declares winners in over 5,000 contests. The AP news report, distributed to its members and customers, is produced in English and Arabic. AP content is available on the agency's app, AP News. A 2017 study by NewsWhip revealed that AP content was more engaged with on Facebook than content from any individual English-language publisher; as of 2016, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,300 newspapers and broadcasters.
The AP operates 263 news bureaus in 106 countries. It operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, paying a fee to use AP material without being contributing members of the cooperative; as part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports. The AP employs the "inverted pyramid" formula for writing which enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the story's essentials. Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States' primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, Reuters and the English-language service of Agence France-Presse, are based outside the United States.
The Associated Press was formed in May 1846 by five daily newspapers in New York City to share the cost of transmitting news of the Mexican–American War. The venture was organized by Moses Yale Beach, second publisher of The Sun, joined by the New York Herald, the New York Courier and Enquirer, The Journal of Commerce, the New York Evening Express; some historians believe. The New York Times became a member shortly after its founding in September 1851. Known as the New York Associated Press, the organization faced competition from the Western Associated Press, which criticized its monopolistic news gathering and price setting practices. An investigation completed in 1892 by Victor Lawson and publisher of the Chicago Daily News, revealed that several principals of the NYAP had entered into a secret agreement with United Press, a rival organization, to share NYAP news and the profits of reselling it; the revelations led to the demise of the NYAP and in December 1892, the Western Associated Press was incorporated in Illinois as The Associated Press.
A 1900 Illinois Supreme Court decision —that the AP was a public utility and operating in restraint of trade—resulted in AP's move from Chicago to New York City, where corporation laws were more favorable to cooperatives. When the AP was founded, news became a salable commodity; the invention of the rotary press allowed the New York Tribune in the 1870s to print 18,000 papers per hour. During the Civil War and Spanish–American War, there was a new incentive to print vivid, on-the-spot reporting. Melville Stone, who had founded the Chicago Daily News in 1875, served as AP General Manager from 1893 to 1921, he embraced the standards of accuracy and integrity. The cooperative grew under the leadership of Kent Cooper, who built up bureau staff in South America, Europe and, the Middle East, he introduced the "telegraph typewriter" or teletypewriter into newsrooms in 1914. In 1935, AP launched the Wirephoto network, which allowed transmission of news photographs over leased private telephone lines on the day they were taken.
This gave AP a major advantage over other news media outlets. While the first network was only between New York and San Francisco AP had its network across the whole United States. In 1945, the Supreme Court of the United States held in Associated Press v. United States that the AP had been violating the Sherman Antitrust Act by prohibiting member newspapers from selling or providing news to nonmember organizations as well as making it difficult for nonmember newspapers to join the AP; the decision facilitated the growth of its main rival United Press International, headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955. AP entered the broadcast field in 1941. In 1994, it established a global video newsgathering agency. APTV merged with WorldWide Television News in 1998 to form APTN, which provides video to international broadcasters and websites. In 2004, AP moved its world headquarters from its longtime home at 50 Rockefeller Plaza to a huge building at 450 West 33rd Street in Manhattan—which houses the New York Daily News and the studios of New York's public television station, WNET.
In 2009, AP had more than 240 bureaus globally. Its mission—"to gather with economy and efficiency an accurate and impartial report of the news"—has not changed since its founding, but digital technology has made the distribution of the AP news report an interact
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine is a secular Palestinian Marxist–Leninist and revolutionary socialist organization founded in 1967 by George Habash. It has been the second-largest of the groups forming the Palestine Liberation Organization, the largest being Fatah; as of 2015 the PFLP boycotts participation in the PLO Executive Committee and the Palestinian National Council. Ahmad Sa'adat has served as Secretary-General of the PFLP since 2001, he was sentenced in December 2006 to 30 years in an Israeli prison. The PFLP considers both the Fatah-led government in the West Bank and the Hamas government in the Gaza Strip illegal because elections to the Palestinian National Authority have not been held since 2006; the United States, Canada and the European Union have designated the PFLP as a terrorist organization. From its foundation the PFLP sought both superpower and regional patrons and early developed ties with the People's Republic of China, the Soviet Union and, at various times, with regional powers such as Syria, South Yemen and Iraq, as well as with left-wing groups around the world, including the PKK, FARC and the Japanese Red Army.
When that support diminished or stopped, in the late 1980s and 1990s, the PFLP sought new allies and developed contacts with Islamist groups linked to Iran, despite the PFLP's strong adherence to secularism and anti-clericalism. The relationship between the PFLP and the Islamic Republic of Iran has fluctuated – it strengthened as a result of Hamas moving away from Iran due to differing positions on the Syrian Civil War. Iran rewarded the PFLP for its pro-Assad stance with an increase in financial and military assistance; the PFLP has taken a hard line on Palestinian national aspirations, opposing the more moderate stance of Fatah. It does not recognise the State of Israel, it opposes negotiations with the Israeli government, favours a one-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict; the military wing of the PFLP is called the Abu Ali Mustapha Brigades. The PFLP is well known for pioneering armed aircraft-hijackings in early 1970s. According to PFLP Politburo member and former aircraft-hijacker Leila Khaled, the PFLP does not see suicide bombing as a form of resistance to occupation or as a strategic action or policy and no longer carries out such attacks.
The PFLP grew out of the Harakat al-Qawmiyyin al-Arab, or Arab Nationalist Movement, founded in 1953 by George Habash, a Palestinian Christian, from Lydda. In 1948, 19-year-old Habash, a medical student, went to his home town of Lydda during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War to help his family. While he was there, the Israel Defense Forces attacked the city and as a result most of its civilian population was forced to leave, they marched for three days without water until they reached the Arab armies' front lines." Habash finished his medical education in Lebanon at the American University in Beirut, graduating in 1951. In an interview with US journalist John K. Cooley, Habash identified the Arab defeat by the Zionists as "the scientific society of Israel as against our own backwardness in the Arab world; this called for the total rebuilding of Arab society into a twentieth-century society."The ANM was founded in this nationalist spirit. " held the'Guevara view' of the'revolutionary human being'," Habash told Cooley.
"A new breed of man had to emerge, among the Arabs as everywhere else. This meant applying everything in human power to the realization of a cause."The ANM formed underground branches in several Arab countries, including Libya, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait still under British rule. It adopted secularism and socialist economic ideas, pushed for armed struggle. In collaboration with the Palestinian Liberation Army, the ANM established Abtal al-Audah as a commando group in 1966. After the Six-Day War of June 1967, ANM merged in August with two other groups, Youth for Revenge and Ahmed Jibril's Syrian-backed Palestine Liberation Front, to form the PFLP, with Habash as leader. By early 1968, the PFLP had trained between three thousand guerrillas, it had the financial backing of Syria, was headquartered there, one of its training camps was based in as-Salt, Jordan. In 1969, the PFLP declared itself a Marxist–Leninist organization, but it has remained faithful to Pan Arabism, seeing the Palestinian struggle as part of a wider uprising against Western imperialism, which aims to unite the Arab world by overthrowing "reactionary" regimes.
It published a newspaper, al-Hadaf, edited by Ghassan Kanafani. The PFLP gained notoriety in the late 1960s and early 1970s for a series of armed attacks and aircraft hijackings, including on non-Israeli targets, their Abu Ali Mustapha Brigades claimed responsibility for several suicide attacks during the Al-Aqsa Intifada. See #Armed attacks of the PFLP below. In 1967, Palestinian Popular Struggle Front broke away from the PFLP. In 1968, Ahmed Jibril broke away from the PFLP to form the Syrian-backed Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – General Command. In 1969, the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine formed as a separate, ostensibly Maoist, organization under Nayef Hawatmeh and Yasser Abd Rabbo as the PDFLP. In 1972, the Popular Revolutionary Front for the Liberation of Palestine was formed following a split in PFLP; the PFLP had a troubled relationship with George Habash's one-time deputy, Wadie Haddad, expelled because he refused orders to stop attacks and kidnapping operations abroad.
Haddad has been identified in released Soviet archival documents as