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Bhutanese ngultrum

The ngultrum is the currency of the Kingdom of Bhutan. It is subdivided into 100 chhertum; the Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan is the minting authority of the ngultrum coins. The ngultrum is pegged to the Indian rupee at parity; until 1789, the coins of the Cooch Behar mint circulated in Bhutan. Following this, Bhutan began issuing its own coins known as chetrum silver ​1⁄2 rupees. Hammered silver and copper coins were the only types issued until 1929, when modern style silver ​1⁄2 rupee coins were introduced, followed by bronze 1 paisa in 1931. Nickel ​1⁄2 rupee coins were introduced in 1950. While the Cooch Behar mint coins circulated alongside Bhutan's own coins, decimalization was introduced in 1957, when Bhutan's first issue of coins denominated in naya paisa; the 1966 issues were 50 naya paisa and 1 rupee coins, struck in cupro-nickel. While the Bhutanese government developed its economy in the early 1960s, monetization in 1968 led to the establishment of the Bank of Bhutan; as monetary reforms took place in 1974, the Ngultrum was introduced as 100 Chhetrum equal to 1 Ngultrum.

The Ngultrum retained the peg to the Indian rupee at par. The term derives from the Dzongkha ngul, "silver" and trum, a Hindi loanword meaning "money."The Ministry of Finance issued the first banknotes in 1974 denominated Nu.1, Nu.5, Nu.10 and Nu.100. This followed by the establishment of the Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan as the central bank of Bhutan in 1982, which took over the authority to issue banknotes in 1983, replacing the authority of the Ministry of Finance. In 1974, aluminium Ch.5 and Ch.10, aluminium-bronze Ch.20 and cupro-nickel Ch.25 and Nu.1 were introduced. The Ch.5 was square and the Ch.10 was scallop-shaped. A new coinage was introduced in 1979, consisting of bronze Ch.5 and Ch.10, cupro-nickel Ch.25 and Ch.50 and Nu.1 and Nu.3. Aluminium-bronze Ch.25 were issued dated 1979. The Ch.5 and Ch.10 have ceased circulating. Coins are available in denominations of Ch.20, Ch.25, Ch.50 and Nu.1. On June 2, 1974, Nu.1, Nu.5 and Nu.10 notes were introduced by the Royal Government of Bhutan, followed by Nu.2, Nu.20, Nu.50, Nu.100 in 1978.

On August 4, 1982, the Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan Act was enacted, although the RMA did not begin operations until November 1, 1983, did not issue its own family of notes until 1986. In 2006, the Monetary Authority introduced its latest series of notes, with denominations of Nu.1, Nu.5, Nu.10, Nu.20, Nu.50, Nu.100, Nu.500, Nu.1000. These notes use a hybrid substrate. Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan Economy of Bhutan Analysis of Pegged Exchange Rate Between Bhutan and India Historical and current banknotes of Bhutan http://himalaya.socanth.cam.ac.uk/collections/journals/jbs/pdf/JBS_01_01_04.pdf http://himalaya.socanth.cam.ac.uk/collections/journals/jbs/pdf/JBS_02_02_03.pdf https://web.archive.org/web/20120806142959/http://picasaweb.google.com/Vercrusse/Bhutan_Coins02

Ponnur (Assembly constituency)

Ponnur Assembly constituency is a constituency in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, representing the state legislative assembly in India. It is one of the seven assembly segments of Guntur Lok Sabha constituency, along with Tadikonda, Mangalagiri Ponnuru, Prathipadu, Guntur West, Guntur East. Kilari Venkata Rosaiah – YSR Congress Party is the present MLA of the constituency, who won the 2019 Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly election from YSR Congress Party; as of 25 May 2019, there a total of 227,727 electors in the constituency. 1955 – Govada Paramdhamaiah – Krishikar Lok Party 1962 – Nannapaneni Venkatrao – Indian National Congress 1967 – Pamulapati Butchinaidu Chowdary– Indian National Congress 1972 – Doppalapudi Rangarao – IND 1978 – Nageswara Rao Gogineni – INC 1983 – Veeraiah Chowdary Dhulipalla – Telugu Desam Party 1985 – Veeraiah Chowdary Dhulipalla – Telugu Desam Party 1989 – Veeraiah Chowdary Dhulipalla – Telugu Desam Party 1994 – Narendrakumar Dhulipalla – Telugu Desam Party 1999 – Narendrakumar Dhulipalla – Telugu Desam Party 2004 – Narendrakumar Dhulipalla – Telugu Desam Party 2009 – Narendrakumar Dhulipalla – Telugu Desam Party 2014 – Narendrakumar Dhulipalla – Telugu Desam Party 2019 – Narendrakumar Dhulipalla – Telugu Desam Party List of constituencies of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly

Children (short story)

"Children" is an 1886 short story by Anton Chekhov. The children, Anya and Sonya, as well as Andrey, the son of a cook, stay up late, taking advantage of the adults' being absent, play lotto. Quite different things motivate them. Grisha, a nine-year-old, is the most ardent of the contestants, his younger sister Anya is an avid and smart player, but the kopecks hold no interest for her, it is the excitement of the game that she is after. Sonya, aged six, is passionate too, but selfless: "whoever wins, she laughs and applauds." The youngest one, Alyosha is quite thankful for the fact that the others do not order him away. Phlegmatic, he is indifferent for the game as such, but deep inside is quite a sport, gets thrilled with every bit of the smallest scandal. Andrey, a detached and sickly boy, is indifferent to the financial side of the event, it is the game's "arithmetic and simple philosophy". The game, marred with all sorts of incidents, but full of excitement, attracts the oldest brother, Vasya, a teenage gymnasium student if a suspicious servant refuses to break his ruble into kopecks.

Sonya agrees to lend him one, but Grisha accidentally drops his coin. After an eventful and, in the long run, successful search, the children return to the table where they find Sonya fast asleep. All together, they carry her to their mother's bed... There and they all fall victim to the fatigue. In five minutes' time, all five are upon it, bundled up in a heap, sound asleep, their coins scattered around, "having lost their value, up until the next game." The idea for the story has originated during Anton Chekhov's stay with the family of Colonel B. I. Mayevsky, an artillery battery commander, garrisoned in Voskresensk. According to Mikhail Chekhov, " had charming children, Anya and Alyosha, with whom my brother Anton Pavlovich became friends and portrayed them in the'Children' short story." The story was published for the first time on 20 January 1886 by Peterburgskaya Gazeta, subtitled "The Scene" and signed A. Chekhonte, it featured in the 1886 Motley Stories collection and in the Children collection, published by Aleksey Suvorin in 1889, re-issued twice in early 1890s.

Chekhov included the story into the Volume 3 of his Collected Works, published by Adolf Marks in 1899-1901. During its author's lifetime, the story was translated into Bulgarian, Danish, Polish, Serbo-Croatian and Czech languages; the story received a positive feedback from a number of critics. In Russkoye Bogatstvo, Leonid Obolensky wrote: "Children and a child's soul pictured by Chekhov, are amazing." Viktor Goltsev, in his 1894 Russkaya Mysl-published essay, noted that in the "Children", "features of children's characters are neatly traced." Mentioning "Children" alongside "Agafya", "The Witch" and "The Requiem", Konstantin Arsenyev in Vestnik Evropy wrote, "With the children's characters... Chekvov is quite at home."Leo Tolstoy included "Children" into the list of his favourite stories by Chekhov. "Детвора", the original Russian text "Children", English translation