Vehicle registration plates of Poland
Vehicle registration plates of Poland indicate the region of registration of the vehicle encoded in the number plate. According to Polish law, the registration plate is tied to the vehicle, not the owner. There is no possibility for the owner to keep the licence number for use on a different car if it's a custom number; the licence plates are issued by the powiat of the vehicle owner's registered address of residence, in the case of a natural person. If it is owned by a legal person, the place of registration is determined by the address of its seat. Vehicles leased under operating leases and many de facto finance leases will be registered at the seat of the lessor; when a vehicle changes hands, the new owner must apply for new vehicle registration document bearing his or her name and registered address. The new owner may obtain a new licence plate although it is not necessary when new owner's residence address lies in the same area as the previous owner's. In such a situation the licence plates are carried over to the new owner, because the change carries an additional cost.
Upon purchasing a vehicle from another person, if the vehicle has an EU plate, the new owner must replace it with a license for their address and area, give the EU plate to their powiat plate mint to free up numbers in the future. If the car has a pre- May 1, 2006 plate, the owner is free to do whatever they wish with it, as long as it's legal with the Polish law; the plaque can not be replaced. The change of the whole set is required; the change in system shown below in 2001 is related to the reduction in the previous year of the number of voivodeships in Poland from 49 to 16, based on the country's historic regions. The pre-2001 licence plates can be used indefinitely, but since they are obsolete they have to be replaced in case of change of vehicle's ownership. In the pre-2001 model, there were not sufficient letters in the Polish alphabet for each of the old voivodeships to have a single letter. Only the standard latin alphabet were used, the specific Polish characters with diacritics were excluded in order to make the plates internationally readable.
Therefore, two letters had to be used to indicate the vehicle's origin. Since the change, the first letter denotes the new voivodeship. One additional letter is used in cities with rights of powiat. Two additional letters are used in any other powiat, it is not necessary for EU citizens to re-register the vehicles they have brought with them, which are duly registered and taxed elsewhere in the EU, when living in Poland. This emerges from European law, although local regulations have to date not been changed to reflect the law, leading to officials locally sometimes giving incorrect advice on this point. If in doubt, refer to your Embassy; the licence plates are invalid without the two adhesive stickers with a hologram placed on the license plates, an adhesive plaque bearing the same number as the plates on the inside of windshield. If the vehicle uses only one licence plate the excessive sticker must be attached to the registration papers; each powiat uses a unique two or three letter code, with the first letter denoting the powiat's voivodeship.
The number pools listed below are not used in any particular order, although one pool is depleted before the next one is used. A visible gap exists between the area code and series, but there is no possibility of confusion if the number is written down without it, unlike in the German system; the following characters are used in licence plate examples: X - voivodeship code XY, XYZ - powiat code J, K, L - any allowed letter digitsThe letters used in licence plates include all standard Latin alphabet letters outside of Q. The letters B, D, I, O, Z cannot be used in series area, because they can be confused with digits. Only custom plates can include these letters; the leading 0 in numbers is never omitted. Format: XY 12345 XY 1234J XY 123JK XY 1J345 XY 1JK45 XYZ J234 XYZ 12JK XYZ 1J34 XYZ 12J4 XYZ 1JK4 XYZ JK34 XYZ 12345 XYZ 1234J XYZ 123JKThe number of available unique numbers with these mentioned formats is 1,100,000 for each two-letter powiat code, 872,400 for each three-letter powiat code.
Note that the combinations "XYZ 1234" and "XYZ 123J" are not used, because they would lead to creation of numbers identical to these in the old system. The two-letter powiat codes must be followed by a leading digit, "XY 1...", to avoid confusion with the "XYZ..." scheme, as the gap is not significant. Format: XY 1234 XY 123J XYZ J234 XYZ 12JK XYZ 1J34 XYZ 12J4 XYZ 1JK4 XYZ JK34Cars - reduced size Format: X 123 X 12J X 1J2 X J12 X 1JK X JK1 X J1KThe plates are designed for cars from USA. Reduced size plates are the same width as US plates. Format: XY 12J XYZ 1JThese plates use black text on a yellow background with an additional picture of a vintage car on the right side. Only cars older than 25 years, out of production for 15 years and containing at least 75% of original parts are eligible to be registered as classic cars, with an exception of prototypes that were never produced, cars of considerable historical value or "being an example of original or important technological solutions"; these plates are issued on a case by case rules.
Format: X1 2345 X1 234JThese plates use red text on a white background. The plates wear a seal with year of validation. Th
Poznań is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region and is the fifth-largest city in Poland. It is best known for its renaissance Old Ostrów Tumski Cathedral. Today, Poznań is an important cultural and business centre and one of Poland's most populous regions with many regional customs such as Saint John's Fair, traditional Saint Martin's croissants and a local dialect. Poznań is among the largest cities in Poland; the city's population is 538,633, while the continuous conurbation with Poznań County and several other communities is inhabited by 1.1 million people. The Larger Poznań Metropolitan Area is inhabited by 1.3–1.4 million people and extends to such satellite towns as Nowy Tomyśl, Gniezno and Września, making it the fourth largest metropolitan area in Poland. It is the historical capital of the Greater Poland region and is the administrative capital of the province called Greater Poland Voivodeship. Poznań is a centre of trade, education and tourism.
It is an important academic site, with about 130,000 students and the Adam Mickiewicz University - the third largest Polish university. Poznań is the seat of the oldest Polish diocese, now being one of the most populous archdioceses in the country; the city hosts the Poznań International Fair – the biggest industrial fair in Poland and one of the largest fairs in Europe. The city's most renowned landmarks include Poznań Town Hall, the National Museum, Grand Theatre, Poznań Cathedral and the Imperial Castle. Poznań is classified as a Gamma - global city by World Cities Research Network, it has topped rankings as a city with high quality of education and a high standard of living. It ranks in safety and healthcare quality; the city of Poznań has many times, won the prize awarded by "Superbrands" for a high quality city brand. In 2012, the Poznań's Art and Business Center "Stary Browar" won a competition organised by National Geographic Traveller and was given the first prize as one of the seven "New Polish Wonders".
The official patron saints of Poznań are Saint Peter and Paul of Tarsus, the patrons of the cathedral. Martin of Tours – the patron of the main street Święty Marcin is regarded as one of the patron saints of the city; the name Poznań comes from a personal name and would mean "Poznan's town". It is possible that the name comes directly from the verb poznać, which means "to get to know" or "to recognize," so it may mean "known town"; the earliest surviving references to the city are found in the chronicles of Thietmar of Merseburg, written between 1012 and 1018: episcopus Posnaniensis and ab urbe Posnani. The city's name appears in documents in the Latin nominative case as Posnania in 1236 and Poznania in 1247; the phrase in Poznan appears in 1146 and 1244. The city's full official name is Stołeczne Miasto Poznań, in reference to its role as a centre of political power in the early Polish state. Poznań is known as Posen in German, was called Haupt- und Residenzstadt Posen between 20 August 1910 and 28 November 1918.
The Latin names of the city are Civitas Posnaniensis. Its Yiddish name is Poyzn. In Polish, the city name has masculine grammatical gender. For centuries before the Christianization of Poland, Poznań was an important cultural and political centre of the Polan tribe. Mieszko I, the first recorded ruler of the Polans, of the early Polish state which they dominated, built one of his main stable headquarters in Poznań. Mieszko's baptism of 966, seen as a defining moment in the Christianization of the Polish state, may have taken place in Poznań. Following the baptism, construction began of the first in Poland. Poznań was the main seat of the first missionary bishop sent to Poland, Bishop Jordan; the Congress of Gniezno in 1000 led to the country's first permanent archbishopric being established in Gniezno, although Poznań continued to have independent bishops of its own. Poznań's cathedral was the place of burial of the early Piast monarchs, of Przemysł I and King Przemysł II; the pagan reaction that followed Mieszko II's death in 1034 left the region weak, in 1038, Duke Bretislaus I of Bohemia sacked and destroyed both Poznań and Gniezno.
Poland was reunited under Casimir I the Restorer in 1039, but the capital was moved to Kraków, unaffected by the troubles. In 1138, by the testament of Bolesław III, Poland was divided into separate duchies under the late king's sons, Poznań and its surroundings became the domain of Mieszko III the Old, the first of the Dukes of Greater Poland; this period of fragmentation lasted until 1320. Duchies changed hands. In about 1249, Duke Przemysł I began constructing what would become the Royal Castle on a hill on the left bank of the Warta. In 1253 Przemysł issued a charter to Thomas of Guben for the founding of a town under Magdeburg law, between the castle and the river. Thomas brought a large number of German settlers to aid in
Parsęta is a river in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship of north-western Poland, a tributary of the Baltic Sea, with a length of 143 km and a basin area of 3,084 km2. Towns: Białogard Kołobrzeg KarlinoTributaries: Bukowa Radew Mogilica Rivers of Poland List of rivers of Europe
Tallaght is the largest town, county town, of South Dublin, the largest suburb of the city of Dublin, Ireland. The village area, dating from at least the 1st century, held one of the earliest settlements known in the southern part of the island, one of medieval Ireland's more important monastic centres. Up to the 1960s Tallaght was a small village in County Dublin, linked to several nearby rural areas which were part of the large civil parish of the same name - the local council estimates the population at 2,500. Suburban development began in the 1970s and a town centre area has been developing since the late 1980s. There is no legal definition of the boundaries of Tallaght, but the electoral divisions known as "Tallaght" followed by the name of a locality have, according to the 2016 census, a population of 76,119, up from 69,454 over five years. There have been calls in recent years for Tallaght to be declared a city; the village core of the district is located north of, near to, the River Dodder, parts of the broader area within South Dublin are close to the borders of Dublin City, Kildare, Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown and County Wicklow.
Several streams flow in the area, notably the Jobstown or Tallaght Stream, the Fettercairn Stream, while the Tymon River, the main component of the River Poddle, rises in Cookstown, near Fettercairn. The place name Tallaght is said to derive from támh-leacht, meaning "plague pit" in Irish, consisting of "támh", meaning plague, "leacht", meaning grave or memorial stone; the earliest mention of a Tallaght is in Lebor Gabála Érenn, is there linked to Parthalón, said to be the leader of an early invasion of Ireland. He and many of his followers were said to have died of the plague; the burials that have been found in the Tallaght area, are all normal pre-historic interments from the Bronze Age, nothing suggesting a mass grave has so far been recorded here. The Annals of the Four Masters record the legendary event as follows: Naoi mile do ecc fri h-aoin-sechtmain do muinter Parthaloin for Shenmhaigh Ealta Eadoir.i. Cúig míle d'feroibh, & ceithre míle do mnáibh. Conadh de sin ata Taimhleacht Muintere Parthalain.
Trí ced bliadhain ro caithsiot i n-Erinn."In translation: "Nine thousand of Parthalón's people died in one week on Sean Mhagh Ealta Edair, five thousand men, four thousand women. Whence is named Taimhleacht Muintire Parthalóin, they had passed three hundred years in Ireland."The name in Irish, Tamhlacht, is found at other places, such as Tamlaght in Magherafelt District, Northern Ireland, though the mention of Eadoir Binn Éadair in the passage below, suggests that Tallaght is the more location for this tale. Upon Mount Seskin can be seen numerous stone structures; the one that lies a top this mountain is referred to as "The Hell Fire Club" and was built by a man called Speaker Conolly. It was built upon a passage tomb, thus was created the perfect location for many myths and legends, as the destruction of these structures, for any reason, is said to bring bad luck. Today all across the countryside of Ireland can be found random mounds of earth; such "fairy rings" are avoided by farmers, as they would rather leave them than risk the wrath of the "good people", the "Sí".
Places near Tallaght featured in the ancient legends of the Fianna, a band of warriors that roamed the country and fought for the High King at Tara. In Lady Gregory's'Gods and Fighting Men', mention is made of, in particular, Gleann na Smól: in Chapter 12 "The Red Woman", on a misty morning, Fionn says to his Fians, "Make yourselves ready, we will go hunting to Gleann-na-Smol." There they meet Niamh of the Golden Hair, who chose Oisín from among all the Fianna to be her husband, told him to come with her on her fairy horse, after which they rode over the land to the sea and across the waves to the land of Tír na nÓg. The documented history of Tallaght dates back to early Christendom in Ireland but the many archaeological sites in the area suggest the presence of Bronze Age and even earlier settlers in the area. With the foundation of the monastery of Tallaght by St. Maelruain in 769 A. D. there is a more reliable record of the area's early history. The monastery was a centre of learning and piety associated with the Céli Dé spiritual reform movement.
It was such an important institution that it and the monastery at Finglas were known as the "two eyes of Ireland". St. Aengus, an Ulsterman, was one of the most illustrious of the Céli Dé and devoted himself to the religious life. Wherever he went he was accompanied by a band of followers who distracted him from his devotions, he secretly travelled to the monastery at Tallaght where he was not known and enrolled as a lay brother. He remained unknown for many years, they may have written the Martyrology of Tallaght together, St Aengus wrote a calendar of saints known as the Féilire of Aengus. St. Maelruain was buried in Tallaght; the influence of the monastery continued after his death, as can be judged by the fact that, in 806, the monks of Tallaght were able to prevent the holding of the Tailteann Games, because of some infringement of their rights. In 811 the monastery was devastated by the Vikings but the destruction was not permanent and the annals of the monastery continued to be recorded for several following centuries.
After the Anglo-Norman invasion in 1179, Tallaght and its appurtenances were confirmed to the Diocese of Dublin and became the property of the A
Piła is a town in northwestern Poland situated in the Greater Poland Voivodeship capital of Piła Voivodeship. It had 73,791 inhabitants as of 2017 making it the fourth-largest city in the voivodeship after Poznań, Kalisz and Konin and is the largest city in the northern part of Greater Poland, it is the capital of Piła County. The town is located on the Gwda river and is famous for its green areas and dense forests nearby, it is an important road and railway hub, located at the intersection of two main lines - Poznań - Szczecin and Bydgoszcz - Krzyż Wielkopolski. Piła is a Polish word meaning "saw"; this was a typical name denoting a village of woodcutters belonging to a local noble. The German name Schneidemühl means "sawmill". Piła traces its origins to an old fishing village, according to the website of the city Following the German colonist movement of the 13th century, after the end of the 1241 Mongolian invasions, many German colonizers came to this densely wooded area of the Kingdom of Poland.
General immigration of German settlers diminished, when Poland, under King Casimir IV Jagiellon defeated the Teutonic Order in 1466. A Slavic settlement of woodcutters in the fishing village Piła may have existed before any of the villages and surrounding towns of the area were established. Thus, in the 14th century Piła grew to some extent because of its position on the Gwda a mere 11 kilometres from where it joins the river Notec. Yet, the settlement developed less than others that were on such major water routes as the rivers Warta or Vistula. Piła's simple layout of unpaved streets and primitive clay and timber houses gave little protection to its inhabitants and was still far from becoming a commercially interesting locale. If one were to credit a Privilegium of the early 1380s as evidence, a document associated with the building of a church in Piła and ascribed to the young Polish Queen Jadwiga of Poland — a copied document that still existed in the archives of the town before 1834 — that period could well be regarded as the time when the village of Piła/Snydemole was elevated to the status of town.
The recurring double naming Piła-Snydemole may be because two separate localities took their name from the water-powered sawmill, part of the town's raison d’être from the beginning. Documented references to Snydemole and Piła are found in parish church sources of 1449, where there is mention of a sawmill and of the name of the current wojewoda Paul. Evidence exists of a letter from 1456 by the Brandenburg Friedrich II Hohenzollern who had bought the Neumark region from the Templars in 1455; the letter is addressed to bishop Andrzej of Poznań and to Łukasz Górka, the local Starosta, the royal constable of Wielkopolska. The elector complained that in prevailing peace times some burghers of Snydemole and Piła were making raids on his lands; this accusation may tend to give additional credence to the earlier claim that Queen Jadwiga in the 1380s was indeed the founder of the town of Piła. Until 1480 Piła was a town owned by the nobility, belonging to Maciej Opaliński who presented his holdings to King Casimir IV, at which time Piła became a royal town.
It is known that ten years the burghers of the town were accused and penalized for tax evasion, occurring over a period of five years. However, King Sigismund I the Old — during whose reign immigration of numerous Jews from the Iberian peninsula and Germany was encouraged — bestowed municipal rights upon the town of Piła on 4 March 1513, a landmark decision; this was an important achievement for Piła since it gave the burghers not only status, but the rights to self-administration and its own judiciary. The administration of the town's affairs was now in the hands of three legislative bodies, elected from among the burghers, they were the council with jury court and the elders of the guilds. Only the position of the Wójt remained in its deputy, the Starosta; the sovereign, remained the ultimate judge and owner of the land. Being free from the arbitrariness of a Castellan or of Wojewoda — Piła's town folk took advantage of the town's privileges by owning property, carrying on any trade and enjoying the right to hold much needed market fairs.
Economic circumstances or personal feuds may have been responsible for the frequent changes of ownership of the town, as Piła was ‘purchased’ in 1518 by Hieronymus von Bnin. Following the demise of Bnin, the town became the property of the dynasty of the mighty Gorka family; this family, secretly leaning toward Protestantism and in power until the 17th century, included some of the wealthiest landowners and most influential nobles of Poland and was known to be benevolent to their town's folk. In 1548 Piła obtained a privilege that banned any foreign potter from the town's markets, in 1561 a fishing privilege was obtained. Piła was part of the Województwo Poznań, the region divided into the four Starosty of Poznań, Kościan, Wschowa and Wałcz, the latter encompassing the Starosty Ujscie-Piła, the area between the rivers Gwda and Drage. Stara Piła, the old Piła, a town that never had walls, was slow to grow. By the middle of the 16th century, many German Protestant craftsmen and traders, driven out of Bohemia by religious persecution during the Reformation, settled in numerous towns in the region.
Some may have settled in Piła too. They are known to have lived in 153 houses, primitively built, p
Duchy of Pomerania
The Duchy of Pomerania was a duchy in Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, ruled by dukes of the House of Pomerania. The duchy originated from the realm of Wartislaw I, a Slavic Pomeranian duke, was extended by the Lands of Schlawe and Stolp in 1317, the Principality of Rügen in 1325, the Lauenburg and Bütow Land in 1455. During the High Middle Ages, it comprised the northern Neumark and Uckermark areas as well as Circipania and Mecklenburg-Strelitz; the Dukes of Pomerania were vassals of Poland from 1122 to 1138. Most of the time, the duchy was ruled by several "Griffin" dukes in common, resulting in various internal partitions. After the last Griffin duke had died during the Thirty Years' War in 1637, the duchy was partitioned between Brandenburg-Prussia and Sweden; the Kings of Sweden and the Margraves of Brandenburg Kings of Prussia, became members as Dukes of Pomerania in the List of Reichstag participants. The name Pomerania comes from Slavic po more. In the 12th century, the Holy Roman Empire's Duchy of Saxony and Denmark variously conquered Pomerania, ending the tribal era.
The Stolp and Schlawe areas were ruled by Ratibor I and his descendants until the Danish occupation and extinction of the Ratiboride branch in 1227. The areas stretching from Kolberg to Stettin were ruled by Ratibor's brother Wartislaw I and his descendants until the 1630s; the terms of surrender after the Polish conquest were that Wartislaw had to accept Polish sovereignty, convert his people to Christianity, pay an annual tribute to the Polish duke. In several expeditions mounted between 1102 and 1121, most of Pomerania had been invaded by the Polish duke Bolesław III Wrymouth. From 1102 to 1109, Boleslaw campaigned in the Persante area; the Pomeranian residence in Belgard was taken in 1102. From 1112 to 1116, Boleslaw subdued all of Pomerelia. From 1119 to 1122, the area towards the Oder were subdued. Stettin was taken in the winter of 1121–1122; the conquest resulted in a high death toll and devastation of vast areas of Pomerania, the Pomeranian dukes were forced to become vassals of Boleslaw III, King of Poland.
Poland's influence vanished in the next decade. In 1135, Boleslaw had accepted overlordship of Holy Roman Emperor Lothair III and in turn received his Pomeranian gains as well as the still undefeated Principality of Rügen as a fief. Wartislaw I accepted the Emperor as his overlord. With Boleslaw's death in 1138, Polish overlordship ended, triggering competition of the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark for the area. In the meantime, Wartislaw managed to conquer vast territories west of the Oder river, an area inhabited by Lutici tribes weakened by past warfare, included these territories into his Duchy of Pomerania. In 1120, he had expanded west into the areas near the Oder Lagoon and Peene river. Most notably Demmin, the Principality of Gützkow and Wolgast were conquered in the following years; the major stage of the westward expansion into Lutici territory occurred between Otto of Bamberg's two missions, 1124 and 1128. In 1128, the County of Gützkow and Wolgast were incorporated into Wartislaw I's realm, yet warfare was still going on.
Captured Lutici and other war loot, including livestock and clothes were apportioned among the victorious. After Wartislaw's Lutician conquests, his duchy lay between the Bay of Greifswald to the north, including Güstrow, to the west, Kolobrzeg in the east, as far as the Havel and Spree rivers in the south; these gains were not subject to Polish over lordship, but were placed under over lordship of Nordmark margrave Albrecht the Bear a dedicated enemy of Slavs, by Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor. Thus, the western territories contributed to making Wartislaw independent from the Polish dukes. Wartislaw was not the only one campaigning in these areas; the Polish Duke Boleslaw III, during his Pomeranian campaign launched an expedition into the Müritz area in 1120–21, before he turned back to subdue Wartislaw. The Holy Roman Emperor Lothair III in 1114 initiated massive campaigns against the local Lutici tribes resulting in their final defeat in 1228; the territories were invaded by Danish forces multiple times, coming from the Baltic Sea, used the rivers Peene and Uecker to advance to a line Demmin–Pasewalk.
At different times, Pomeranians and Danes were either allies or opponents. The Pomeranian dukes consolidated their power in the course of the 12th century, yet the preceding warfare had left these territories devastated. A first attempt to convert the Pomeranians was made following the subjugation of Pomerania by Boleslaw III of Poland. In 1122, Spanish monk Bernard travelled to Jumne, accompanied only by his chaplain and an interpreter; the Pomeranians however were not impressed by his missionary efforts and threw him out of town. Bernard was made bishop of Lebus. After Bernard's misfortune, Boleslaw III asked Otto of Bamberg to convert Pomerania to Christianity, which he accomplished in his first visit in 1124–25. Otto's strategy differed from the one Bernard used: While Bernard trav
A powiat is the second-level unit of local government and administration in Poland, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture in other countries. The term "powiat" is most translated into English as "county" or "district". A powiat is part of the voivodeship or province. A powiat is subdivided into gminas. Major towns and cities, function as separate counties in their own right, without subdivision into gminas, they are termed "city counties" and have the same status as former county boroughs in the UK. The other type of powiats are termed "land counties"; as of 2018, there were 380 powiat-level entities: 314 land counties, 66 city counties. For a complete alphabetical listing, see "List of Polish counties". For tables of counties by voivodeship, see the articles on the individual voivodeships; the history of Polish powiats goes back to the second half of the 14th century. They remained the basic unit of territorial organization in Poland in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, until the latter's partitioning in 1795.
In the 19th century, the powiats continued to function in the part of Poland, incorporated into the Russian Empire —the equivalent of the Russian "uyezd" and the Ukrainian "povit"—and, in the German-governed Grand Duchy of Poznań, as the Polish equivalent of the German "Kreis". After Poland regained independence in 1918, the powiats were again the second-level territorial units. Powiats were abolished in 1975 in favor of a larger number of voivodeships, but were reintroduced on 1 January 1999; this reform created 16 larger voivodeships. Legislative power within a powiat is vested in an elected council, while local executive power is vested in an executive board headed by the starosta, elected by the council; the administrative offices headed by the starosta are called the starostwo. However, in city counties these institutions do not exist separately – their powers and functions are exercised by the city council, the directly elected mayor, the city offices. In some cases a powiat has its seat outside its own territory.
For example, Poznań County has its offices in Poznań, although Poznań is itself a city county, is therefore not part of Poznań County. Powiats have limited powers, since many local and regional matters are dealt with either at gmina or voivodeship level; some of the main areas in which the powiat authorities have decision-making powers and competences include: education at high-school level healthcare public transport maintenance of certain designated roads land surveying issuing of work permits to foreigners vehicle registration. The Polish the name of a county, in the administrative sense, consists of the word powiat followed by a masculine-gender adjective. In most cases, this is the adjective formed from the name of the town or city where the county has its seat, thus the county with its seat at the town of Kutno is named powiat kutnowski. If the name of the seat comprises a noun followed by an adjective, as in Maków Mazowiecki, the adjective will be formed from the noun only. There are a few counties whose names are derived from the names of two towns, from the name of a city and a geographical adjective, or a mountain range.
There is more than one way to render such names into English. A common method is to translate the names as "", as in the examples above, thus in most cases the English name for a powiat consists of the name of the city or town, its seat, followed by the word County. Note that different counties sometimes have the same name in Polish, since the names of different towns may have the same derived adjective. For example, the counties with their seats at Grodzisk Wielkopolski and Grodzisk Mazowiecki are both called powiat grodziski, those with seats at Brzeg and Brzesko are both called powiat brzeski. In English this ambiguity either does not occur or can be avoided by using the complete name of the seat. Bankauskaite, V. et al. Patterns of decentralization across European health systems, in R. B. Saltman, V. Bankauskaite and K. Vrangbæk, "Decentralization in health care", London: Open University Press/McGraw-Hill. County. Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Uyezd